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n r a o o K s

Pro Techniques of

CREATIVE
photography
METHODS OF THE THINKING PHOTOGRAPHER

IAN BRADSHAW
Pro Techniques of

CREATIVE
photography
METHODS OF
THE THINKING
PHOTOGRAPHER

IAN BRADSHAW

HPBooks
C o n c e i v e d , e d i t e d a n d d e s i g n e d by
M a r s h a l l Editions Limited,
170 Piccadilly, L o n d o n W 1 V 9 D D

Art Director J o h n Bigg


Text Editor J u d y Garlick
A s s i s t a n t Editors Carole D e v a n e y
G w e n Rigby
Assistant Designer Pauline Faulks
Ruth Binney {l - '
M a n a g i n g Editor
Production Barry Baker ~ V
Janice Storr
maIfof

P h o t o g r a p h s by t h e a u t h o r ; A d d i t i o n a l
p h o t o g r a p h y by J e n n i f e r Allsopp
v: 1986 M a r s h a l l Editions Limited,
London
m
Published by HPBooks,
m
A division of H P B o o k s , Inc.
P.O. Box 5367, Tucson, AZ 8 5 7 0 3
2 n d Printing

Library of C o n g r e s s
Cataloging-in-Publication D a t a

B r a d s h a w , Ian.
Pro t e c h n i q u e s of creative
photography.

Includes index.
1. P h o t o g r a p h y — H a n d b o o k s ,
m a n u a l s , etc. I. Title.
II. Title: C r e a t i v e p h o t o g r a p h y .
TR146.B792 1986 770.28
85-81329
ISBN 0 - 8 9 5 8 6 - 3 8 0 - 4

For H P B o o k s
Publisher Rick Bailey
Executive Editor Randy Summerlin
S e n i o r Editor Vernon Gorter

Filmset by F i l m t y p e S e r v i c e s Limited.
S c a r b o r o u g h . North Yorkshire. UK
Origination by Gilchrist B r o t h e r s
Limited. Leeds. UK
Printed a n d b o u n d in
Spain by Graficas Estella SA
Contents

6 Introduction 126 Reflections


8 T h e key q u e s t i o n s 134 Focus o n buildings
20 Best sellers 138 L o c a t i o n shots
24 B e f o r e y o u begin 144 A q u e s t i o n of scale
28 T a k e six creative p h o t o g r a p h e r s 150 T h e silhouette
44 Portraiture 156 G l a m o u r p h o t o g r a p h y
56 P h o t o g r a p h i n g c h i l d r e n 164 N u d e s
66 W e d d i n g s 168 P h o t o g r a p h i n g a n i m a l s
72 T h e p h o t o e s s a y 172 Pictures that d o n ' t exist
8 0 A story in c l o s e - u p 174 T h e h u m o r o u s v i e w
86 Cars on camera 176 Black a n d white
8 8 Sport a n d action 182 T e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n
102 T h e m o v i n g subject 189 G l o s s a r y
108 L a n d s c a p e s a n d l a n d m a r k s 190 Index
118 T i m e of d a y 192 A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s

All rights r e s e r v e d No part of this work m a y b e r e p r o d u c e d or t r a n s m i t t e d in a n y form


by a n y m e a n s , electronic or m e c h a n i c a l , i n c l u d i n g p h o t o c o p y i n g a n d recording, or by
a n y i n f o r m a t i o n - s t o r a g e or retrieval s y s t e m , without written p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e
P u b l i s h e r a n d C o p y r i g h t holder, except m the c a s e of brief q u o t a t i o n s e m b o d i e d in
critical articles or r e v i e w s

N o t i c e : T h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d in this book is true a n d c o m p l e t e to the best of our


k n o w l e d g e . All r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s are m a d e without a n y g u a r a n t e e s o n the part of
H P B o o k s . T h e author a n d publisher d i s c l a i m all liability in c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the u s e of
this information.
INTRODUCTION

P h o t o g r a p h y is b e c o m i n g e a s i e r : m o d e r n technology n o w f r o m bad t o good, o r e v e n g r e a t . T h e s e t h o u g h t s flash t h r o u g h


m a k e s it possible f o r anyone with a c a m e r a to t a k e perfectly t h e m i n d of an e x p e r i e n c e d p h o t o g r a p h e r almost intuitively, in
e x p o s e d , s h a r p pictures. S o m e c a m e r a s e v e n s p e a k , r e m i n d - seconds.
ing you to load the film. But w h e t h e r you o w n a simple c a m e r a I a p p r o a c h all m y a s s i g n m e n t s in t h e s a m e w a y . Plan a s
o r a c a s e full of e x p e n s i v e e q u i p m e n t , w h e t h e r you are a m u c h a s possible. R e s e a r c h a n d anticipate, b u t always e x p e c t
b e g i n n e r o r an e x p e r i e n c e d professional, you can i m p r o v e t h e u n e x p e c t e d . I t r y t o view a situation a s if I w e r e an infinitely
y o u r p i c t u r e s b y thinking clearly and creatively. variable z o o m lens — f r o m e x t r e m e w i d e angle t o s u p e r
W H O ? W H A T ? W H E R E ? W H E N ? WHY? and H O W ? w e r e t e l e p h o t o ; standing b a c k t o view the overall p i c t u r e o r closing
once t h e k e y w o r d s of the g r e a t d e t e c t i v e s . Applied to in o n a small detail; looking up, d o w n and f r o m t h e side.
p h o t o g r a p h y , t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s can turn an ab- T h e r e is o n e golden rule that e v e r y p h o t o g r a p h e r should
solute b e g i n n e r into a thinking p h o t o g r a p h e r . T h i s book d o e s follow: K e e p it simple. T h e b e s t i d e a s a r e the simple o n e s .
not tell you which c a m e r a t o b u y or e v e n w h a t e q u i p m e n t you T h e m o r e complicated t h e c o n c e p t , t h e m o r e confusing t h e
n e e d . B u t it d o e s tell you h o w to i m p r o v e y o u r p h o t o g r a p h s b y image. All t h e g r e a t p h o t o g r a p h s t a k e n o v e r t h e y e a r s h a v e
thinking clearly and asking t h e right q u e s t i o n s . b e e n simple and u n c l u t t e r e d .
W h e t h e r the s u b j e c t is p o r t r a i t u r e , children, still-life, w e d - T h a t basic simplicity h a s b e e n applied t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of
dings, photojournalism, s p o r t , glamour, landscapes, travel, this book. T h e r e a r e n o long, theoretical e s s a y s — j u s t t h e
animals o r a r c h i t e c t u r e ; w h e t h e r you a r e taking y o u r first pic- p h o t o g r a p h s , t o g e t h e r with concise advice k e y e d t o t h e pic-
t u r e o r y o u r t h o u s a n d t h , t h e s a m e r u l e s apply. T h i s book tells t u r e s . Although I h a v e tried to k e e p t h e text uncomplicated,
you h o w to anticipate, i n t e r p r e t a n d e x e c u t e y o u r p h o t o g r a p h s t h e r e a r e inevitably a f e w technical t e r m s unfamiliar to t h e
creatively. M a n y of t h e situations d e s c r i b e d have b e e n b e g i n n e r . T h e r e is a g l o s s a r y at t h e back of the book that
p h o t o g r a p h e d t o illustrate the thinking p r o c e s s in particular explains t h e m .
r a t h e r than photographic t e c h n i q u e s in general. O f t e n t h e y In o n e section, six p h o t o g r a p h e r s with widely differing
s h o w t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r at work, as well a s the final r e s u l t s . s t y l e s a r e given a model in a b a r e r o o m , a c a m e r a with a
s t a n d a r d lens, a flash, a tripod and a choice of film. T h e r e s u l t s
Developing t h e knack s h o w h o w d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s e e t h e s a m e subject. By t h e s a m e
T h e thought p r o c e s s e s outlined in a section of this book m a y t o k e n , t h e r e a r e n o absolute guidelines for good o r bad in
b e up t o eight p a g e s long, s h o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of an idea p h o t o g r a p h y . P e o p l e s e e things differently and their appreci-
ation is largely a m a t t e r of p e r s o n a l opinion. As r e a d e r and thought out, s o m e t i m e s with c a r e f u l advance planning, o t h e r
p h o t o g r a p h e r , you m a y or m a y not a g r e e with t h e v i e w s e x - t i m e s by fast-thinking o p p o r t u n i s m . T h e y a r e n e a r l y ail basic-
p r e s s e d h e r e . But t o f o r m any opinions at all you m u s t think, ally simple and uncomplicated by technical know-how.
and that is exactly what this book is all about. M o s t p h o t o g r a p h s a r e t a k e n in color t h e s e days, but s o m e
w o r k much b e t t e r in black and white — indeed t h e y positively
W h a t m a k e s a good picture? c r y out f o r this t e c h n i q u e . T h e thinking p r o c e s s t h u s e x t e n d s
A n s w e r the q u e s t i o n s W H O ? W H A T ? W H E R E ? W H E N ? t o film as m u c h a s t o c a m e r a angles and s u b j e c t m a t t e r .
WHY? a n d H O W ? and a good p i c t u r e is not far away. B u t t h e r e Thinking is also essential in choosing e q u i p m e n t . It m a k e s
a r e n o a b s o l u t e s in p h o t o g r a p h y . P e r s o n a l opinions differ, and little economic s e n s e t o buy an e x p e n s i v e lens if you will u s e
w h a t one p e r s o n loves a n o t h e r may loathe. E v e n a m o n g it only o n c e o r twice a year. T h e fisheye lens for t h e s h o t of
professionals t h e r e is a w i d e variety of t a s t e a n d p r e f e r e n c e . S t Paul's C a t h e d r a l ( s e e p. 18) w a s r e n t e d f o r t h e occasion.
T h e r e a r e many p h o t o g r a p h s , h o w e v e r , that a large c r o s s - You d o not n e e d a soft-focus filter w h e n you c a n b r e a t h e o n the
section of p e o p l e a g r e e a r e good or e v e n great. S u c h p i c t u r e s lens o r s h o o t through c r u m p l e d cellophane and g e t the s a m e
h a v e a visual impact that c a t c h e s t h e e y e of e v e n the m o s t effect.
casual o b s e r v e r . P h o t o g r a p h s such a s the S t r e a k e r at C o n t r a r y t o popular belief, e q u i p m e n t is not the m o s t impor-
T w i c k e n h a m ( s e e p. 20) do not happen o f t e n but t h e y b e c o m e tant factor in taking a good picture. While many a m a t e u r s
k n o w n worldwide. b e d e c k t h e m s e l v e s with t h e " j e w e l r y " of t h e t r a d e , m o s t
p r o f e s s i o n a l s strive t o lighten their load. E v e n if you have
T h e t h i n k i n g process e v e r y lens and filter o n t h e m a r k e t , if you can't think, you can't
S o j u s t w h a t m a k e s a good p h o t o g r a p h and h o w do you t a k e shoot.
o n e ? N e a r l y all g r e a t p h o t o g r a p h s a r e essentially simple with T h e following p a g e s illustrate the thinking approach t o the
a s t r o n g focal point. D e s i g n is also important, and t h e e y e m u s t six k e y q u e s t i o n s .
b e led to that point.
M o s t of t h e p h o t o g r a p h s in this book o w e their s u c c e s s to
thought and creativity, not to unusual l e n s e s a n d a d v a n c e d
t e c h n i q u e s . M a n y w e r e t a k e n using l e n s e s within t h e s t a n d a r d
focal length r a n g e . T h e p i c t u r e s w o r k b e c a u s e they have b e e n IAN BRADSHAW
THE KEY QUESTIONS/1

WHO?
In p o r t r a i t u r e W H O ? is always a key question, but it is not
n e c e s s a r i l y t h e only o n e t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r h a s to a n s w e r suc-
cessfully. In this instance, it w a s t h e r e s p o n s e s to W H E R E ?
and H O W ? that supplied t h e p h o t o g r a p h with its finishing
touches.
Jill Kennington, a t o p international model in the 1960s,
r e t u r n e d to modeling at the a g e of 40. M y a s s i g n m e n t w a s to
p h o t o g r a p h a fashion s p r e a d f o r a magazine, and b e c a u s e Jill
w a s being f e a t u r e d as a " n a m e " and n o t j u s t a n o t h e r model, a
good, s t r o n g portrait w a s n e e d e d for the c o v e r . Running
quickly t h r o u g h the checklist: WHY? w a s obvious — t h e j o b
w a s a direct a s s i g n m e n t . W H E N ? w a s dictated by t h e p r e -
b o o k e d s e s s i o n t i m e . Although W H O ? w a s the starting point,
t w o f a c t o r s , W H E R E ? and H O W ? t u r n e d t h e basic idea into
t h e s t r o n g image c h o s e n b y t h e publishers that eventually
dominated the magazine's cover.
I originally imagined t h e p i c t u r e a s being shot against a plain
r e d background to k e e p it simple. T h e a d v a n t a g e of this f r o m
t h e graphic d e s i g n e r ' s point of view w a s that t h e r e would be
plenty of s p a c e f o r logos and copy. S e e n through the lens,
h o w e v e r , the image lacked the impact I had anticipated. With
little r o o m to m a n e u v e r , I t u r n e d to possible alternatives.
T h r e e small t r e e s standing back-lit in t h e c o r n e r of t h e studio
parking lot provided t h e inspirational s p a r k .
T h e s e s s i o n w a s hastily m o v e d o u t d o o r s . I u s e d a simple
white reflector, in this instance a p i e c e of white card, t o reflect
light on t o Jill's f a c e u n d e r the brim of h e r hat. A 5 0 0 m m m i r r o r
lens m a d e t h e back-lit l e a v e s a p p e a r a s out-of-focus d o u g h n u t
s h a p e s and gave a s t r o n g s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n subject and
background.

T h e o r i g i n a l idea was for a A simple move outdoors


plain red background, so Jill's meant I could take advantage of
straw hat would stand out, and the bright sunlight and the
soft light to lessen any skin trees. A reflector increased the
blemishes. But the picture light on the face. A mirror lens
lacked impact and the red "created" the background while
background was too dull. adding impact to Jill's gaze.
WHAT?
L a r g e , popular e v e n t s a r e o f t e n s o b u s y that it is difficult to
isolate t h e b e s t pictures. W H A T ? h e r e is C r u f t ' s D o g S h o w in
London, w h e r e t o p d o g s c o m e to b e judged. On s u c h an
occasion many p h o t o g r a p h e r s c o n c e n t r a t e o n the d o g s and
their o w n e r s . P i c t u r e s of p e o p l e r e s e m b l i n g their p e t s h a v e
b e c o m e familiar f e a t u r e s in n e w s p a p e r and magazine
c o v e r a g e . It is p e r h a p s logical t o think in this direction, but t h e
b e s t p i c t u r e at a dog s h o w is not n e c e s s a r i l y of a dog.
W H E R E ? a n d HOW? t a k e a back s e a t in this e x a m p l e .
WHY? is simply that this is o n e of the f u n n i e s t p i c t u r e s to c o m e
out of the s h o w for s o m e time. It s u c c e e d s b e c a u s e t h e r e is
not a single dog in t h e picture, y e t it s a y s Dog Show s o clearly
you do not n e e d to r e a d t h e caption.
T h e W H E N ? w a s the o b e d i e n c e class, in which d o g s a r e
walked a r o u n d obstacles, in this instance t h r e e s e a t e d officials.
T h e p o s e and e x p r e s s i o n s of t h e t h r e e say, quite simply, Sit.
T h e timing w a s s u c h that all t h r e e e x p r e s s i o n s w e r e c a p t u r e d
perfectly.
T h e p h o t o g r a p h w a s t a k e n for a n e w p a p e r and w a s ,
t h e r e f o r e , black and white, but it probably would not have
w o r k e d half as well in color. T h e s t a r k quality of black and
w h i t e f o c u s e s t h e h u m o r of the situation. M a n y really
h u m o r o u s p h o t o g r a p h s are t a k e n in black and white and a p p e a r
in n e w s p a p e r s r a t h e r than magazines. Sadly, h o w e v e r , t h e
n u m b e r of black and white p i c t u r e s t a k e n by a m a t e u r s is
d e c r e a s i n g all the t i m e .

A p r e d i c t a b l e v i e w of the S h a r p o b s e r v a t i o n and a little


main judging ring at Cruft's thought produced a study of the
shows what you expect to see human element of the show,
at such an event — dogs. with not a dog in sight.
Technically, nothing more was
required to make this picture
than a camera with a standard
lens.
dog, food
e r a etc
TWiWEMOStfOOeM I T* WQWiV.
WHERE?
M a n y g r e a t p i c t u r e s a r e the result of s o m e o n e being in t h e
right place at t h e right time. O p p o r t u n i s m is t h e k e y n o t e h e r e :
I could not h a v e anticipated this picture.
W H A T ? W H E R E ? and W H E N ? w e r e accidental. I w a s driv-
ing h o m e f r o m shopping and s p o t t e d a potential picture a s early
e v e n i n g mist rolled o v e r a valley at s u n s e t . WHY? w a s t h e
c h a n c e of a beautiful d u s k landscape; HOW? p r e s e r v e d t h e
moment.
I had a 3 5 m m c a m e r a with a 5 0 m m lens in t h e c a r and just
t w o f r a m e s of E k t a c h r o m e 64 left on the roll. T h e r e w a s no
s p a r e film and n o tripod. It would h a v e b e e n e a s y to admire t h e
view f r o m the w a r m t h of t h e c a r and drive on h o m e . B u t t h e
c h a n c e of a good picture w a s not t o be m i s s e d .
I " a b a n d o n e d " r a t h e r than p a r k e d the car, s p e e d being a
n e c e s s i t y in t h e rapidly changing light. With slow color film in
t h e c a m e r a , a relatively long e x p o s u r e w a s n e c e s s a r y . I had,
t h e r e f o r e , to find a firm b a s e o n which t o r e s t t h e c a m e r a .
F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e w a s a low, fiat t r e e trunk b y the roadside,
and I held the c a m e r a down firmly o n this natural tripod. I t o o k
t w o e x p o s u r e s , b o t h g u e s s e s , but the g a m b l e paid off.
I h a v e p a s s e d that spot h u n d r e d s of t i m e s since, but t h e light
h a s n e v e r b e e n the s a m e . S o t h e r e is an e x t r a l e s s o n t o b e
l e a r n e d h e r e : B e r e a d y at all t i m e s to t a k e g r e a t p i c t u r e s .

With i n s t a n t improvisation A long, 4 - s e c o n d e x p o s u r e


a tree trunk became a at tills lime of day alters the
sturdy "tripod" for a long color balancc of the film, a
exposure. phenomenon known as
reciprocity failure. Here, it has
enhanced the rich colors of the
sky, and the misty valley floor
contrasts well with the sunset.
WHEN?
T i m e of day h a s a vital effect on p h o t o g r a p h s . T a k e , f o r in-
s t a n c e , this s c e n e — a sailboard on a flat blue sea. T h e
p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s p r o b l e m is h o w to m a k e it look different f r o m
any o t h e r s n a p s h o t of the s a m e s c e n e . W H E N ? is t h e k e y
question and is closely linked with H O W ?
W a t e r c a n b e blue, g r e e n , clear or m u d d y . It c h a n g e s color
according to the sky — and t h u s t h e time of day — and the
angle f r o m w f hich it is v i e w e d . W a t e r can also act as a mirror,
and it w a s this thought thai inspired me. T h e w e a t h e r w a s too
calm for an action shot, but the tranquil s c e n e could still c r e a t e
impact with the right lighting.
W H E R E ? and WHY? w e r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d h e r e . H O W ?
really b e c a m e W H E N ? In t h e late afternoon, w h e n the s u n w a s
low in t h e sky, t h e angle of its light w a s r e f l e c t e d off t h e s u r f a c e
of t h e s e a as f r o m a m i r r o r . B e c a u s e I e x p o s e d f o r the
highlights (reflections), the s k y d a r k e n e d and the sailboard w a s
s h o w n in silhouette. T h e flat s e a suddenly c a m e to life, provid-
ing a s t r o n g visual impact and a t i m e l e s s travel p h o t o g r a p h .
HOW? m e a n t waiting a long time for the light t o b e right. S o
this e x e r c i s e e m p h a s i z e s a n o t h e r a t t r i b u t e a c r e a t i v e
p h o t o g r a p h e r m u s t have — p a t i e n c e . You cannot carry it in a
c a m e r a bag, but it is just as important as your e q u i p m e n t .

In t h e m i d d a y s u n , this The near-monochrome


photograph is no more than a e f f e c t achieved by waiting for
conventional snapshot. It has the light to change helps to
neither action nor atmosphere. create a picture with immediate
All the details of sail and sea impact. The lack of color
are visible, but the picture has actually contributes to a feeling
little excitement. of warmth and exhilaration.
WHY?
L o n d o n ' s Kings Road p r o v i d e d a light-hearted s h o t out of an
ordinary s c e n e , achieved by anticipation and quick thinking at
s h o r t notice. T h i s is a n o t h e r e x a m p l e of o p p o r t u n i s m . T h e
408 THE
WHY? e l e m e n t w a s s e e i n g an a m u s i n g (and also eminently
saleable) p i c t u r e in s o m e t h i n g that w a s a b o u t to happen.
W H E R E ? and W H E N ? w e r e accidental. I w a s lucky enough to
b e in t h e right place at the right time. W H O ? and W H A T ? ,
which n o w s e e m obvious, relied at t h e time upon s h a r p ob-
s e r v a t i o n of a developing s t r e e t s c e n e .
T w o n u n s w e r e going f r o m s h o p to shop collecting for char-
ity, w o r k i n g their way down o n e side of the road. When I first
s p o t t e d t h e m t h e y w e r e a f e w d o o r s a w a y f r o m a shop n a m e d
The Liberated Lady. I had to think quickly and positively. I had
no control o v e r t h e situation, s o I had to w o r k out HOW? in a
m o m e n t . T h e shop sign w a s important, s o a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d
viewpoint s e e m e d a good idea, not only to give t h e p h o t o g r a p h
a built-in caption, but also to u s e the s h o p f r o n t as a f r a m e for
t h e picture. Once I had decided on the angle, W H E N ? m e a n t
waiting f o r t h e n u n s t o arrive, e n t e r t h e shop and e m e r g e . I
had time f o r one e x p o s u r e .
T h e p h o t o g r a p h has since sold well in English-speaking
c o u n t r i e s . It h a s the qualifications of a b e s t seller in its sim-
plicity and g e n t l e h u m o r that will, I t r u s t , offend no one.

S8MSP

At first s i g h t this was not a T w o n u n s in a h u m o r o u s


promising location for a good s e t t i n g and a simply framed
photograph — just an ordinary- viewpoint turned the picture
row of shops on a bend in a into a timeless photographic
road that could be almost cartoon and a best seller.
anywhere.
HOW?
Clear thinking m a y not b e e n o u g h w h e n you a r e faced with a
difficult subject; you n e e d a little technical a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s
p i c t u r e p r e s e n t e d s u c h a challenge. A large architectural
interior is o n e of the m o s t difficult s u b j e c t s to p h o t o g r a p h and
t h e h a r d e s t to visualize. Imagination w a s also n e c e s s a r y h e r e .
T h e h u m a n e y e ' s normal held of s h a r p vision h a s a r a n g e of
about 60°. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a visitor t o St Paul's C a t h e d r a l in
London finds it impossible to t a k e in t h e magnificent splendor
of t h e interior of t h e d o m e a s a whole. Similarly, with a stan-
d a r d c a m e r a lens, only a small p a r t of the v a s t d o m e is visible.
T h e problem of H O W ? t o c a p t u r e the e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e o n film
w a s intriguing e v e n if, eventually, the a n s w e r w a s logical.
M y s t a r t i n g point w a s the fact that t h e main part of the
building is circular. Why not t a k e a circular p h o t o g r a p h ? T h e
H O W ? w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a Nikon 6 m m fisheye lens. T h i s h a s an
e x t r e m e w i d e angle of view and t h e r e f o r e s e e s beyond the
normal horizontal plane of the " s t a n d a r d " 8 m m f i s h e y e lens.
W H E N ? had t o b e early morning, w h e n the cathedral w a s
e m p t y , o t h e r w i s e t h e wide angle would include a n y b o d y within
r a n g e , and t o u r i s t s quickly a c c u m u l a t e f r o m 10 a . m . o n w a r d .
W H E R E ? w a s e a s y — t h e r e is a m a r k on the floor exactly
u n d e r the c e n t e r of t h e d o m e . I placed the c a m e r a on this spot
looking s t r a i g h t up in o r d e r to t a k e a d v a n t a g e of the s y m m e t r y
of t h e design. I c h o s e a 6 m m fisheye instead of t h e " s t a n d a r d "
8 m m fisheye (that is, t h e 220° angle of view of a 6 m m lens a s
o p p o s e d to the 180° angle of view of an 8 m m lens) s o that the
black and w h i t e c h e c k e r e d floor of the cathedral would give t h e
picture a natural b o r d e r .
You d o n ' t have t o b u y a fisheye lens. T h e t i m e s you will u s e
it a r e f e w . I r e n t e d o n e f o r this e x e r c i s e . Also, if you d o u s e
one, m a k e s u r e it is b e c a u s e the lens is the right tool for the
j o b r a t h e r than, as in m a n y photographs, m e r e l y a gimmick.

A s t a n d a r d 5 0 m m l e n s gives me a chance to hide behind a


a limited view of the inside of nearby pew. Even the most
the mighty dome of St Paul's. accurate exposure meter would
have produced difficulties here,
A s e n s a t i o n a l v i e w is so I took a wide range of
produced with a 6mm fisheye exposures. Since I had rented the
lens. I used the self-timer lens, it was worth using plenty of
mechanism on the camera to give film to get the picture right.
BEST SELLERS
You do not h a v e to b e a professional p h o t o g r a p h e r t o t a k e a
best-selling picture. By being in t h e right place at t h e right
time, and b y k e e p i n g alert to what is happening, an a m a t e u r
p h o t o g r a p h e r c a n c a p t u r e an historic m o m e n t on film. S u c h
m o m e n t s a r e r a r e , but they h a v e h a p p e n e d .
I w a s f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h to t a k e such a p i c t u r e in 1974. It not
only h a d a t r e m e n d o u s impact in t h e publishing world but cap-
t u r e d the imagination of all w h o saw it. It has r e m a i n e d a b e s t
seller m o r e than t e n y e a r s later.
I w a s o n an a s s i g n m e n t for a national n e w s p a p e r , covering
the England vs. F r a n c e rugby m a t c h at T w i c k e n h a m in Lon-
don. " S t r e a k i n g " had b e c o m e a c r a z e that year, and the first
half of the m a t c h had just e n d e d w h e n , in f r o n t of a h u g e c r o w d
that included royalty, Michael O ' B r i e n s e t off o n his n o w -
f a m o u s s t r e a k . T h e Australian, w h o m a d e his d a s h for a b e t
(for t h e exact a m o u n t h e w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y fined), leaped
naked f r o m t h e c r o w d and ran a c r o s s t h e field.
T h e r e w e r e many p h o t o g r a p h e r s at t h e match, but play in
t h e first half had e n d e d at one e n d of t h e field. M o s t of t h e m
w e r e t o o far a w a y t o catch the latest action. I had b e e n
p h o t o g r a p h i n g t h e g a m e f r o m o n e spot and w a s reloading one
of m y c a m e r a s w h e n t h e incident h a p p e n e d . I w a s using a
c a m e r a with a 2 0 0 m m lens a n d b e g a n taking p i c t u r e s as the
d r a m a unfolded.
Police r u s h e d the s t r e a k e r w h o , f o r a change, w a s a good-
looking m a n with a fine physique. While two policemen took an
a r m e a c h , a third w h i p p e d off his h e l m e t and tried t o shield the
m a n ' s p r i v a t e p a r t s f r o m the c r o w d ' s g a z e . T h e h e l m e t w a s far
f r o m stationary, h o w e v e r , and I r e m e m b e r thinking that if I did
not g e t m y timing right a n d c a p t u r e it on c e n t e r , the
p h o t o g r a p h would n e e d a lot of r e t o u c h i n g b e f o r e it a p p e a r e d
in the n e x t d a y ' s p a p e r . S o I c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e h e l m e t and
s l o w e d dowTi m y r a t e of picture-taking, waiting f o r the right
moment.
It s e e m e d to h a p p e n all at o n c e . O n e of the g o o d - h u m o r e d
policemen said s o m e t h i n g to O'Brien, w h o flung his a m i out,
and the h e l m e t w e n t d e a d c e n t e r . I k n e w I had the picture, but
at that m o m e n t I did not notice its o t h e r main ingredient. An
o u t r a g e d official w a s dashing u p with an o v e r c o a t to shield the
s t r e a k e r f r o m royal view. A s I r e l e a s e d t h e s h u t t e r h e
a p p e a r e d in t h e f r a m e . A f a m o u s p h o t o g r a p h w a s m a d e .
BEST SELLERS

PERENNIAL FAVORITES
T h e t i m e l e s s l a n d s c a p e is a
best-selling theme. This dead
elm tree on a country road
could be anywhere. Such a
general landscape photograph
has many uses as a background
picture in brochures. Scenes
that remain the same over the
years and do not need updating
because of changing fashions or
skylines are always in demand.
Pictures with areas of blank
spaces for logos or captions are
also useful to advertisers, for
example.

W i n t e r l a n d s c a p e s can be
good sellers too. perhaps
because photographers'
reluctance to venture out in
harsh conditions means that
fewer scenes such as this arc
taken. The seasonal uses of
such photographs range from
the relatively exotic, in
calendars and greetings cards,
to the more mundane, as in
advertisements for insulation or
heating systems.

The classic sunset picture


is also popular, such as this
example from Key West,
Florida. It appears time and
again in holiday brochures, in
yachting magazines, and in
literature on leisure activities
and retirement. Such a picture
is an even more familiar feature
on calendars, postcards and as
a background shot in catalogs.
BEFORE YOU BEGIN
F a c i n g up t o t h e s h o o t b e g i n s b e f o r e you leave h o m e , not at E x c u s e s for unadventurous, unsuccessful photography are
t h e point of picture-taking. Clear thinking and advance plan- legion. M o s t c o m m o n a m o n g t h e m a r e : " M y c a m e r a can't t a k e
ning, plus anticipation of potential problems, m a k e it e a s i e r to p i c t u r e s like t h a t . " What the would-be p h o t o g r a p h e r m e a n s is
t a k e good p i c t u r e s later. So, b e f o r e you s t a r t taking "I can't t a k e p i c t u r e s like t h a t , " but n e i t h e r s t a t e m e n t is
p h o t o g r a p h s , S T O P ! and T H I N K ! n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e . E v e n the simplest of c a m e r a s is m o r e v e r -
W H O o r W H A T am I going t o p h o t o g r a p h ? W H E R E am I satile than m a n y p e o p l e think, and all p h o t o g r a p h e r s are cap-
going t o do it? W H E N will I b e taking pictures? HOW am I able of using their brains to w o r k out the solution to a problem.
going to a p p r o a c h t h e shot? WHY is it w o r t h taking? T h e n , M a n y e x c u s e s a r e m a d e f o r not taking pictures, and s o m e
what will t h e light b e like; will I n e e d a flash; what film shall I sound r e a s o n a b l e : " I t ' s t o o dark. It's t o o bright. I can't t a k e
u s e ; what p r o b l e m s might occur? You should a n s w e r all of p h o t o g r a p h s into t h e sun. I t ' s raining." H e r e are s o m e
t h e s e q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e s e t t i n g out t o avoid last-minute panic p h o t o g r a p h s that m a n y p e o p l e would say a r e impossible, not
and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t at t h e s c e n e . b e c a u s e t h e subject m a t t e r d o e s not exist ( s e e p. 172), but
All good professional p h o t o g r a p h e r s think long and hard b e c a u s e t h e naked e y e d o e s not n e c e s s a r i l y s e e a s c e n e in the
about an a s s i g n m e n t , s o m e t i m e s f o r d a y s b e f o r e a shoot. s a m e w a y as a c a m e r a lens.
T h e y o f t e n plan a " s a f e t y s h o t " — a p r e c o n c e i v e d idea t o fall
back on if all e l s e fails. Such s a f e t y m e a s u r e s are m o r e o f t e n
than not discarded, but they occasionally help you avoid a
disastrous session.
If you o w n a g r e a t deal of e q u i p m e n t , advance planning m u s t
include decisions about l e n s e s , filters, c a m e r a bodies and s o
on. But e v e n with a basic c a m e r a and lens t h e r e a r e still impor-
tant m a t t e r s f o r consideration.
First is choice of film. U n l e s s you w a n t special e f f e c t s , t h e
basic rule is t o u s e the s l o w e s t available film for t h e job. It is
a l w a y s t e m p t i n g to c h o o s e a f a s t film s o you can handhold t h e
c a m e r a , but don't b e reluctant to u s e s l o w e r film and a tripod
o r o t h e r firm b a s e . T h e difference in t h e quality of t h e e n d
result is considerable.
Second, d o you u s e t r a n s p a r e n c y , color negative film (print
film) o r black and white? T h i s is largely a m a t t e r of personal
p r e f e r e n c e . C o n s i d e r the result you want. F o r prints, negative
film is b e t t e r , w r hether color o r black and white. N e g a t i v e film
h a s a much wider e x p o s u r e t o l e r a n c e and latitude than r e v e r -
sal film, which p r o d u c e s t r a n s p a r e n c i e s . If you h a v e any plans
f o r publishing y o u r pictures, h o w e v e r , t r a n s p a r e n c i e s a r e a
m u s t . (All the color p i c t u r e s in this book a r e f r o m t r a n s -
p a r e n c i e s . ) E x p o s u r e h a s to b e m o r e a c c u r a t e than with
n e g a t i v e film, since t h e r e is no w a y of c o m p e n s a t i n g for it in
t h e d a r k r o o m . A t r a n s p a r e n c y should b e slightly o n t h e d a r k
side ( u n d e r e x p o s e d ) t o give good, rich r e p r o d u c t i o n . T h e only
e x c e p t i o n to this is with a high-key subject, such a s b e a u t y
p o r t r a i t u r e , w h e r e a slightly o v e r e x p o s e d t r a n s p a r e n c y (light-
e r than normal) h e l p s k e e p t h e skin t o n e s s m o o t h and clean.

What o t h e r i t e m s should b e on y o u r checklist w h e n facing


up to t h e s h o o t ? Apart f r o m c a m e r a angles and lighting, think
about t h e various " i m p a c t " tricks at y o u r disposal: h o w a b o u t
a reflection o r a silhouette, o r e v e n a double e x p o s u r e ? Do you
n e e d to r e n t any special e q u i p m e n t such as a fisheye lens? W h y
not p h o t o g r a p h at night instead of during t h e day? T h e r e a r e
m a n y options t o b e c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e the shoot begins. So,
r e m e m b e r to S T O P : and T H I N K !
KEEPING AN OPEN MIND/1
T h e R o c k of G i b r a l t a r was outline of Gibraltar, topped with
almost invisible to the naked colored lights. With no real idea
eye when I took this picture. of what would happen. I decided
When asked what exposure I to set up the camera with a
used. I can only reply, "A dry 500mm lens on a sturdy tripod,
martini at /-8!" I was sitting on focused on infinity and opened
the balcony of an apartment in the shutter. The camera was
Spain and could vaguely see the loaded with Kodachrome 64
film. I then enjoyed a leisurely
drink before closing the
shutter. Do not worry about
exact exposure times when
they are as long as this.

M a n h a t t a n at n i g h t docs not right. In this instance, I held


look like this to the naked eye, the camera firmly on a low wall
which is swamped by the bright and made an exposure of about
lights. The eye cannot discern 20 seconds. The river's flow
color in the sky, or in the turned the reflections into
shadows. A long exposure of colored blurs. Still water would
color film at night can enrich have given a clear mirror
the hues both of sky and image, which could have been
reflections due to reciprocity overpowering.
failure. The exposure for tliis
kind of subject is difficult, even
with a meter, so 1 advise that
you try several combinations of
shutter speed and aperture
setting to make sure you get it
BEFORE YOU BEGIN

KEEPING AN OPEN MIND/2

•A \
4™

You can t a k e p i c t u r e s i n t o
t h e s u n . This photograph of a
Cretan windmill even has the
sun in the picture. It was a
broken-down old mill that was
unimpressive when viewed
from the other side with the
sun shining on it. But, because
I exposed for the sun, the
windmill is silhouetted against
the sun itself, and an ordinary
subject becomes picturesque,
conveying a feeling of
Mediterranean warmth.

Power towers are


p h o t o g e n i c . A rich, orange
sunset silhouettes the line of
towers and gives the picture a
strong graphic quality. A
normally mundane subject was
thus transformed. This
photograph has sold well as a
background for advertisements
and for annual reports in the
business world.
D o not p u t y o u r c a m e r a
a w a y in w i n t e r with the
excuse that there is not enough
light. Cold, gray days can
provide pictures, too, especially
if there is snow on the ground.
This photograph was taken
without ever leaving the
warmth of home from a
window overlooking Central
Park in New York. A figure in a
landscape gives an idea of scale
and adds depth to an otherwise
ordinary' scene.
TAKE SIX CREATIVE PHOTOGRAPHERS
E v e n - b o d y s e e s p i c t u r e s differently, and individual photo-
g r a p h e r s a p p r o a c h t h e s a m e a s s i g n m e n t in a variety of w a y s .
T h e following 16 p a g e s s h o w t h e vastly different w o r k of six
professional p h o t o g r a p h e r s faced with the s a m e basic situation.
T h e six p h o t o g r a p h e r s , e a c h a specialist in his or h e r o w n
field — photojournalism, l a n d s c a p e s , fashion and still-life —
w e r e a s k e d t o p h o t o g r a p h a m o d e l in a b a r e r o o m . T h e y w e r e
given the s a m e e q u i p m e n t , the s a m e model (in the s a m e
clothes), t h e s a m e r o o m . ?.: id t h e y all w o r k e d on the s a m e day.
E a c h w a s given o n e h o u r to p r o d u c e a p h o t o g r a p h o r a s e r i e s
of p h o t o g r a p h s . T h e choice of film w a s left to the individual,
but. a p a r t f r o m that and the s u n moving a r o u n d the building
during t h e day, the conditions w e r e t h e s a m e for all six.
T h e model, Vicki Michelle, is an a c t r e s s who h a s had
modeling e x p e r i e n c e . S h e w o r e j e a n s , j a c k e t , T-shirt and
high-heeled s h o e s to the s e s s i o n . T h e p h o t o g r a p h e r s w e r e
allowed t o v a r y h e r clothes, m a k e - u p and hair. T h e r o o m w a s
on the t o p floor of a w a r e h o u s e , b a r e e x c e p t for a s t e p - l a d d e r
and s o m e old c u r t a i n s at t h e windows. T h e r e w e r e w i n d o w s
d o w n each side of the r o o m , giving soft cross-lighting, and a
b a r e brick wall t o t h e r e a r . T h e floor w a s laid with pine b o a r d s .
E a c h p h o t o g r a p h e r w a s given a 3 5 m m SLR, a 5 5 m m lens,
a tripod, a flash w i t h a long s y n c cord, and a filter to place o v e r
t h e flash t o simulate a t u n g s t e n light s o u r c e .
T h e i r r e a c t i o n s to t h e situation varied. S o m e c h o s e to ignore
t h e r o o m and c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e model, while o t h e r s m a d e full
u s e of the space. T h e j o b d e m a n d e d quick, clear thinking
without the aid of fancy p r o p s . It called for good communi-
cation b e t w e e n t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r and model, a s n e c e s s a r y a
r e q u i r e m e n t as the e q u i p m e n t .
F r o m the m o d e l ' s point of view, it w a s an unusual e x e r c i s e :
to b e p h o t o g r a p h e d by six d i f f e r e n t people, o n e a f t e r the o t h e r
without a b r e a k . It w a s a totally n e w e x p e r i e n c e f o r Vicki, and
h e r r e a c t i o n s , a s well a s e a c h p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s t h o u g h t s on his
o r h e r work, a r e e x p r e s s e d on t h e following p a g e s .

T h e b a s i c e q u i p m e n t was a sync cord enabled the flash


Nikon FM2 camera with a to be placed well away from
55mm /-2.8 lens. The camera the camera if necessary-. The
has a built-in exposure meter four-extension tripod was a
and double-exposure capability. sturdy Gizzo with a pan and tilt
T h e electronic flash was a Metz head. The step-ladder was
CT-4, which automatically gives available for use by
correct exposure. The long photographer or model.
THE AUTHOR
Ian B r a d s h a w , author of !}ro "I like to w o r k fast. T h i s probably s t e m s f r o m y e a r s as a n e w s
Techniques of Creative p h o t o g r a p h e r , but I find that if I k e e p moving it helps t o relax
Photography, thought up the m y s u b j e c t s and gives t h e m n o time to feel seif-conscious. T h e
idea of this assignment and first tiling that s t r u c k m e w h e n I s a w t h e r o o m w a s t h e size
specified the conditions. Ian of the windows. I am conscious of light and design in
was the first of the six p h o t o g r a p h s . I like clean, simple and direct pictures. It
photographers to do the s e e m e d t o m e that t h e m o s t natural thing to do w a s to u s e the
assignment. This is just one of s t r o n g f r a m e of the window r e c e s s , just as in an old painting.
the many thoughtful and
I put Vicki into t h e f r a m e , w h e r e s h e w a s perfectly balanced.
inspirational notions lan has
T h e p i c t u r e w a s s t r o n g l y graphic, with the black window-
brought to photography through
this book. Ian's experience is f r a m e s within t h e main picture helping t o c r e a t e a symmetrical
wide, but liis speciality is p a t t e r n behind t h e model. I w a n t e d a slightly a g g r e s s i v e p o s e
editorial photography. a n d I angled the a r m s and legs to fill the f r a m e . I u s e d
1 0 0 0 A S A 3 M film."

L a r g e a r e a s of black, o f f s e t
by the window, create a strong
design that focuses the
viewer's attention on the
subject.

T h e m o d e l t u r n e d so that the
strong, warm afternoon
sunlight liit the front of her
body. Her direct gaze is
emphasized by the face being
turned just enough to catch the
light.

T h e r e i s a good u s e of
s p a c e , which adds to the
atmosphere. The grainy quality
of the film adds a feeling of
mystery, and the side-lighting
gives the picture a lonely
quality.
F r a m i n g w i t h i n a f r a m e was
made possible by the window
recess with the black window-
frame inside it. This graphic
effect draws the eye in to the
main subject — the model.

A w a r m p a t c h of s u n l i g h t on
the model's left cheek was used
for an exposure reading. The
grainy quality of the super-fast
film was used to add impact.

An a g g r e s s i v e s t a n c e not
only helped balance the picture,
but gave it a strong graphic
quality, with a clear separation
between the arms and body.
The model's direct gaze into
the lens creates the feeling of
challenge.

T h e a n g l e of v i e w was just
below waist level to give height
to the model, but it was not low
enough to distort the vertical
frame of the picture. This angle
also makes the legs look
longer.

V i c k i ' s v i e w : "Ian
communicates clearly. He went
straight to the window and
explained what he wanted. I
had to stretch my legs and arm
to fill the space, but the picture
is relaxed. We shot this
photograph in the first five
minutes of the session."
THE LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHER
P a t r i c k T h u r s t o n specializes
in landscapes and travel
photography. He works mainly
outdoors and seldom uses
artificial light, natural light being
most important in his work. He
often spends days in a camper
waiting for the perfect dawn or
sunset. His pictures have
appeared in books and major
travel journals around the
world.

"I had not b e e n in a studio for y e a r s and found this e x e r c i s e a


g r e a t challenge. I aimed for simplicity and a s t r o n g image. T h e
s h o e s w e r e a happy accident. In a casual situation with casual
clothes, t h e high h e e l s s e e m e d t o o formal to m e . Vicki t o o k off
h e r s h o e s and w a s o n t h e point of discarding t h e m a l t o g e t h e r
w h e n I had t h e idea of using t h e m as a f r a m e . I a s k e d Vicki to
put h e r hair u p t o r e v e a l m o r e of h e r face and t o give a
s m o o t h e r line. I like t o b e mobile, s o I did not u s e the tripod,
p r e f e r r i n g t h e floor as a solid b a s e f o r m y c a m e r a . T h e film w a s
Fuji 4 0 0 to give m e t h e d e p t h of field I n e e d e d . I w a s also a w a r e
of a lot of blue in the p i c t u r e and positioned t h e model n e a r the
wall to t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e w a r m t h of the b r i c k s . "

T h e l i n e s of t h e window- hair shows off the cheekbones.


help lead the eye to the model's A creative use of space
face. The camera was positioned the model well to the
positioned near the glass, and left in the frame. Light falling
the strong but soft light through on the wall throws the head
frosted glass emphasizes her into strong relief.
facial features. The swept-'

The shoes make an unusual The brick wall as a


f r a m e and were positioned to b a c k g r o u n d adds warmth to
focus the viewer's eye inward what would otherwise be an
and toward the model. Using extremely cold, blue
the shoes in this way also adds photograph. T h e warm shades
depth. of the bricks reduce the
dominance of the blue shoes.
A good u s e of p e r s p e c t i v e Model a n d l e n s are at the Vicki's v i e w : "Patrick adapted in an unusual way. They
leads the eye immediately to same level, emphasizing her quickly to what was obviously became the principal ingredient
the model's face via shoes direct eye contact with the an unusual environment for of the picture even though I
and floor. camera. Her pose is relaxed him. He found the combination was not wearing them. Patrick
with head on hands. The of jeans and high heels was a good communicator and it
hairstyle draws attention to incompatible, but he seized the was easy for me to know what
her cheekbones. opportunity of using the shoes he wanted in the shot."
THE STILL-LIFE PHOTOGRAPHER
J u l i a n N i e m a n is a
commercial and advertising
photographer who specializes in
interiors and still-life. Most of
his work is carefully thought
out in advance and just as
carefully lit before he starts.
Although much of his work is
done on 35mm, he often uses
large-format cameras backed up
with big lighting setups.

" W h e n I w a s a s k e d t o do this a s s i g n m e n t 1 tried t o k e e p an


open mind and not have any p r e c o n c e i v e d ideas. I w a n t e d the
r o o m to inspire m e . At t h e back of m y mind I w a s conscious
of w i n d o w s and s i l h o u e t t e s , and w h e n I s a w t h e p a t t e r n s of
light in the w a r e h o u s e I t u r n e d to black and white r a t h e r than
to color. O n e of t h e things I w a s acutely a w a r e of w a s the line
of t h e curtains and t h e w a y the light fell, wrhich is w h y I did not
want the h u m a n figure to dominate. I felt it u n n e c e s s a r y t o
s h o w Vicki's face. I w a n t e d e v e r y v i e w e r to imagine their o w n
p e r s o n in that s p a c e . I u s e d Ilford X P 1 film."

D e s i g n is t h e k e y h e r e . The
angles of the roof girders
mirror the lines of the curtains
on the floor. The picture makes
good use of light-fall from the
windows and is well balanced,
with a strong focal point. This
time w e s e e the model's face.

T e x t u r e is an i m p o r t a n t T h e u s e of s p a c e here
e l e m e n t in this picture, with creates the mood. The picture
the floor and the wall taking up is simple, yet strongly
a large part of the frame. The designed, to keep the viewer's
smooth floor leads to the attention. There is a haunting
rough-textured wall, providing a quality about it.
strong space full of patterns.
The model's shape Soft light flaring in from the Vicki's v i e w : "Julian works
complements the line of the windows gives a bright, lively much more slowly than the
curtains, forming a still-life with feel to the picture, accentuating others and is obviously a great
a strong design. The pose is the dark symmetrical drapes. thinker. He communicates well,
relaxed. The deliberate cutting- and 1 was able to relax into the
off of the head provokes the interior landscape he was
viewer into speculating who she creating."
may be and adds an air of mystery.
TAKE SIX CREATIVE PHOTOGRAPHERS

THE PORTRAIT PHOTOGRAPHER


J e n n i f e r B e e s t o n is an "I did not w a n t a p o s e d photograph, s o I a s k e d Vicki to t a k e
editorial photographer working off h e r m a k e - u p , m e s s up h e r hair and w e a r t h e T - s h i r t and
mainly for magazines. She lias j e a n s with n o s h o e s . I w a n t e d a casual approach to g e t the
developed a simple, p i c t u r e t o look natural and intimate, as if I had h a p p e n e d t o find
straightforward style in Vicki in reflective m o o d and u n a w a r e of t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r . I
portraiture and likes to observe tried to imagine that w e w e r e in Vicki's a p a r t m e n t , not a large,
people rather than to pose i m p e r s o n a l w a r e h o u s e . We d e v e l o p e d that a t m o s p h e r e b y
them. She works mainly with moving a r o u n d until I found a place that s e e m e d suitable.
35mm cameras and available
M a y b e I should h a v e m a d e m o r e of t h e r o o m , but it did not
light wherever possible.
s e e m r e l e v a n t at t h e time. 1 u s e d Fuji 100 film."

A p e n s i v e mood is caught in
this beautiful, relaxed study.
There is a good modeling on
the face from the soft side-
light, and the floor is thrown
out of focus so that it does not
detract from the subject.

No m a k e - u p a n d t o u s l e d
h a i r both add to the general
effect of observed informality.

With the out-of-focus wall


as a backdrop, the stark
warehouse does not intrude on
the picture. The color of the
wall adds warmth. The "at
home" feeling has been
enhanced by reducing the
background to a minimum.

The model's character


emerges best with a simple
approach. She is not
overshadowed by her
surroundings. The mood is
reflective, the natural light from
the windows soft and warm.

V i c k i ' s v i e w : "I found this


T h e r e l a x e d , n a t u r a l p o s e is Vicki's c r o s s e d a r m s , session the most difficult of all.
the key to the mood of the hugging herself, add a The result is beautiful and
picture. By both photographer comfortable warmth and relaxed, but at first Jennifer's
and model thinking of the room counteract the barren approach threw me off balance.
as a home, rather than a atmosphere of the warehouse. 1 had to be natural and ignore
warehouse, the mood was the lens, which does not come
enhanced. easy to someone trained to be
acutely aware of a camera. I
had to force myself not to pose
and I had to concentrate hard to
relax."
THE EDITORIAL PHOTOGRAPHER

C l o s e c r o p p i n g prevents the Soft c r o s s - l i g h t creates lovely- Soft f r a m i n g f o r t h e f a c e of softness in this atmospheric


room intruding. This intimate modeling on the face and adds was created by Vicki holding up photograph. T h e model's direct
moment could have been to the tranquillity, while at the her denim jacket. A soft-focus gaze into the camera creates
captured anywhere, at any- same time giving just a hint of effect was produced by impact.
time. mystery. breathing on the lens and
shooting as the mist cleared.
The slightly grainy quality of
the fast film adds to the feeling
M a r t y n G o d d a r d is a fast-
working editorial photographer
whose illustrative work is in
constant demand by magazines.
He also does much work for the
record industry and specializes
in automotive photography. His
pictures cover the whole
spectrum of photojournalism.

" T h i s w a s a limiting situation, and b e c a u s e of that I felt that the


picture should b e quick and direct. It w a s immediately obvious
that Vicki w a s an a c t r e s s , and I felt that 1 should take advan-
t a g e of that. So, with acting the k e y w o r d for m e h e r e , 1 w e n t
for a p i c t u r e with a s t r o n g f r a m e . Initially I ignored the r o o m ,
using the m o d e l ' s a r m s t o c r e a t e a f r a m e for h e r face. T h e r e
w a s a beautiful, soft cross-light, and I a s k e d h e r t o hold up the
blue denim jacket t o m a k e a f r a m e for t h e picture. I u s e d Fuji
400 film to t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e slightly grainy quality and
w o r k e d with the lens a p e r t u r e wide open to minimize the d e p t h
of field."

A b l a c k a n d w h i t e image was "froze" the face. The wall in


the original idea behind this the background creates the
shot. The model threw her "madonna" effect of this stark
head from side to side during a portrait by contrasting the
long, one-second exposure so rough texture of the bricks with
the hair had soft edges. A Hash the bleached-out skin tones.
lired during the exposure

Vicki's v i e w : "Working with my arms holding them over my


Martyn was similar to working head, but knowing what he was
with Ian Bradshaw. He was trying to achieve made it
fast, positive and decided right easier."
away what he wanted to do;
another good communicator
who explained the picture he
wanted. It was a real strain on
THE ADVERTISING PHOTOGRAPHER
Nigel M a c i n t y r e works in
advertising and is at home with
large-format cameras. Most of
his photographs are shot with
large format cameras. He does
not even own a 35mm camera
or an exposure meter. He uses
Polaroid film to work out his
exposure readings. He uses
large amounts of electronic
flash, and often has two or
three assistants.

" T h i s , for m e , w a s totally out of t h e ordinary. T h e smallest


c a m e r a that I normally w o r k with is a 4 x 5-inch view c a m e r a .
I do a lot of m u l t i - e x p o s u r e w o r k in m y advertising assign-
m e n t s , and I like to play tricks with the c a m e r a and t h e light.
I seldom just shoot. M y p i c t u r e s a r e usually built up through
a s e r i e s of Polaroid t e s t s h o t s until I g e t what I want. In this
instance I u s e d the 3 5 m m c a m e r a like a plate c a m e r a , blacking
out the r o o m a s much as possible and opening t h e s h u t t e r while
t h e m o d e l m o v e d a r o u n d . I 'painted' h e r with light, following
h e r and firing the flash on an o p e n s e t t i n g t o c r e a t e a ghostly
s e n s e of m o v e m e n t within the f r a m e . I like to build up a s t o r y
on o n e f r a m e of film, leaving the v i e w e r to i n t e r p r e t it as h e or
s h e w a n t s to. T h e film w a s E k t a c h r o m e 6 4 . "

T h e s t o r y b u i l d s as the model
walks from left to right with the
photographer trailing her, firing
the flash at her back. T h e
camera shutter was open all the
time.

M o v i n g t h e light, as well as
the model and the camera, is a
technique that helps create a
mood or effect.

As t h e m o d e l t u r n e d to the
camera at the end of her walk,
the flash was fired to illuminate
V i c k i ' s v i e w : "I found this her face. Another print-
session difficult to understand, through. this time of the pillar,
since it obviously involved a adds to the ghostly feeling.
technical trick, and I could not
visualize the finished picture.
1 lowever, Nigel directed me
clearly and 1 imagined that I The curtains were whisked
was making a film. I therefore a s i d e at the end of the
did as I was told without ever exposure to add print-through
fully knowing what mood to and create a further air of
generate. 1 found it hard to feel mystery within this ghostly
a part of this picture. " image.
THE BEST OF THE REST
M a n y i m a g e s w e r e p r o d u c e d by t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r s during the O p e n i n g a w i n d o w and
six hours. Several that w e r e not c h o s e n by t h e m as b e s t leaning out, Ian Bradshaw
e x a m p l e s n e v e r t h e l e s s illustrate t h e i m m e n s e r a n g e of pictured Vicki from the outside
possibilities for picture-taking w h e n tackled b y thinking as she peered out from an
adjoining window, proving that
p h o t o g r a p h e r s . A f u r t h e r selection is r e p r o d u c e d h e r e .
working within a room is no
W h e n a s k e d at t h e e n d of the day for h e r overriding im- great restriction on a thinking
p r e s s i o n s of t h e six, Vicki Michelle w a s quite clear on t h r e e photographer. This picture
points: T h e y all think clearly about what t h e y a r e doing. T h e used the maximum amount of
technical side s e e m s s o much s e c o n d n a t u r e t o t h e m that I w a s daylight. T h e faint reflection of
o f t e n u n a w a r e of t h e c a m e r a being p r e s e n t at all. Also, t h e y the model's face in the glass
a r e all good c o m m u n i c a t o r s . T h e y can e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s adds balance to the portrait.
clearly and positively, and t h e y a r e good at making people
relax. Finally, t h e y s e e m e d — e x c e p t f o r Nigel — t o want t o
simplify things all the time, r a t h e r than d e p e n d on technical
trickery. I think t h e s e c r e t of their art lay in this approach.

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A w a r m cozy f e e l i n g was Creativity through


added to the bare room by the m o v e m e n t was the aim here
curtains. Jennifer Beeston as Martyn Goddard asked Vicki
found a quiet corner and used to jump in front of the rough
the soft window light, together brick wall. Black and white film,
with a relaxed pose, to convey and the use of simple flash to
a feeling of a home rather than the left of the camera created a
an empty room. different "frozen" effect. The
strong shadow in the picture
adds impact.
In his w a n d e r i n g s around the lens down to get a large depth
warehouse room Julian Nieman of field, he held the flash to one
came across a piece of clear side of the camera. The overall
glass in the middle of a window effect was to convey the
of frosted panes. Using black industrial nature of the building
and white film and stopping the in a well-composed portrait.

T h e u s e of s h a d o w . Ian
w/gmty
Bradshaw "kills" all daylight in
the room and creates a night
"alley" feel with a simple,
strong side-light. T h e flash was
placed on the step-ladder to the
left of the model with an orange
filter over it to give the
impression of a light from a
light bulb. The model was
positioned against the wall, so
the giant shadow she cast
helped give the impression of
nighttime. The sharp angle of
the light gives heavy texture
and contrast to the picture.
PORTRAITURE
W h e n you t a k e p i c t u r e s of people, t e c h n i q u e is o f t e n picture. T h i s can m a k e the s u b j e c t feel u n e a s y .
s e c o n d a r y to a m o r e important a t t r i b u t e — the ability to T h e p r o b l e m s facing t h e portrait p h o t o g r a p h e r a r e varied.
c o m m u n i c a t e and g e t on well with y o u r s u b j e c t s . Good com- If you are taking p i c t u r e s of y o u r family, the location m a y be
munication and r a p p o r t s h o w in a portrait, especially in the uninspiring. If y o u r subject is a well-known personality, the
s u b j e c t ' s e y e s . W h e t h e r you a r e taking p i c t u r e s of a formal, difficulty will b e getting e n o u g h of his o r h e r time. W h a t e v e r
p o s e d situation o r an informal gathering of family and friends, t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , y o u r subject may e n d u r e r a t h e r than e n j o y
t h e s a m e guidelines apply. being p h o t o g r a p h e d . P e o p l e f r e q u e n t l y say that t h e y
T h e r e a r e different w a y s of achieving r a p p o r t . I always talk " p h o t o g r a p h b a d l y . " T h i s is o f t e n b e c a u s e p h o t o g r a p h e r s do
a lot t o m y s u b j e c t s and, m o r e important, I g e t t h e m t o talk t o not establish a good relationship with them.
m e . 1 listen t o w h a t t h e y h a v e t o say. I ask t h e m q u e s t i o n s T h e formal a p p r o a c h to p o r t r a i t u r e is d e m o n s t r a t e d first in
about t h e m s e l v e s — q u e s t i o n s that will help r e v e a l c h a r a c t e r t w o p i c t u r e s of British a r i s t o c r a t s . T h e p i c t u r e opposite — of
and personality. O t h e r p h o t o g r a p h e r s do not talk to their sub- Maria Walsh, s e c r e t a r y of t h e W e s t C a r b e r r y Hunt in Ireland
j e c t s a n d r e l y o n o b s e r v i n g t h e m o m e n t w h e n they " s e e " the — is also carefully p o s e d .

T h e D u k e of R i c h m o n d is
obviously at ease standing by a
window in his London home.
The archway strengthens the
framing of the picture and adds
to the composition. Daylight
was the only light necessary.
Sitting or leaning poses help
relax your subjects if they are
uneasy.

T h e D u k e of R u t l a n d ' s
l i f e s t y l e is apparent in this
portrait taken in his stately
home. The strong composition
adds impact to the picture.
The depth of the room
to the right is balanced by the
lamp and painting on the left.
Care was taken that the
subject's head did not overlap
the corner of the alcove or the
painting. Soft window light was
the only illumination.
K •

T h e black door f r a m e s the


f i g u r e within the main frame of
the picture. Normally, black
clothes against a black door
would not be a good idea, but
here the image is held together
by the patches of white. The
lack of separation between
body and door adds a slight
sense of mystery.

T h e s u b j e c t n e e d not
d o m i n a t e for a portrait to be
successful. Maria is, however,
the main ingredient, and
several compositional elements
lead your eye to her. These
include the dark shape of the
doorway and the slope of the
road. An additional element is
the discarded pair of boots.

F o r t u n a t e l y , a b l a c k dog sat
down in exactly the right spot
to balance all the other
components in this picture. He
is an almost incongruous figure,
but his ears, llared against the
wall as he growls at the
photographer, add an
interesting shape.
PORTRAITURE

A FRAME WITHIN A FRAME


A s with p o r t r a i t s of old, t h e f r a m i n g of a p h o t o g r a p h c a n en- T h e s t a r t i n g point was a
h a n c e o r ruin a picture. Using a natural f r a m e within the main photo of actress Fiona Fullerton
f r a m e can m a k e an ordinary' p i c t u r e much m o r e interesting. for a weekend magazine (left).
H e r e is a n o t h e r m e t h o d of f r a m i n g that t r a n s f o r m s an ordinary Fiona was soon to appear in a
new James Bond film. The
portrait into a p i c t u r e of o u t s t a n d i n g b e a u t y .
problem was how best to
illustrate the transition of her
image from "child star" to
sophisticated movie actress
within the confines of both the
studio and Fiona's hectic
A ' fe- schedule. An interesting idea of
mine produced the end result. I
used an antique mirror as a
rn frame within the frame and
clearly portrayed the actress's
new image.

T h e f i n i s h e d p i c t u r e (right),
with the desired effect, was
used on the cover of the
magazine. The mirror draws
your eye to her lovely face and
adds impact to what otherwise
might have been an ordinary
portrait.

T h e f r a m e w a s c r e a t e d by- T h e m i r r o r w a s a n g l e d so
placing the mirror where Fiona that the camera could s e e Fiona
had been sitting. Light was through the mirror with the
directed on the studio wall image centered. A white
behind the mirror. This background positioned
reflected back on to Fiona's behind her hid the studio
face in her new position facing lights and equipment
away from the camera. from view.
PORTRAITURE

THE FAMOUS FACE


P h o t o g r a p h i n g f a m o u s p e o p l e is not all fun. T h e chief p r o b l e m a day b e f o r e t h e shoot. I w e n t down t o t h e film set and ex-
f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r is to fit into t h e busy s c h e d u l e of t h e plained o v e r lunch that, although I appreciated h e r tight
personality or star. T h i s e x a m p l e , of p h o t o g r a p h i n g a well- schedule, I w a n t e d a s m u c h of h e r time as w a s possible s o that
k n o w n a c t r e s s , s h o w s h o w important thinking a h e a d can b e s h e would have a c h a n c e t o relax in front of m y c a m e r a .
and also highlights many important a s p e c t s of s u c c e s s f u l T h e trouble t a k e n paid off; t h e s h o o t ended in a t w o - h o u r
portraiture. session, and the p h o t o g r a p h s all had a r e l a x e d quality. W e
W h e n I w a s assigned t o p h o t o g r a p h Ali M c G r a w , I w e n t to a g r e e d to s h o o t without a c h a n g e of clothes f o r Ali, but the
g r e a t l e n g t h s to "buy t i m e . " I a s k e d if I could m e e t Ali at least location m a d e up for that with its variety of backgrounds.

T h e s u b j e c t is v e r y r e l a x e d ,
and is using one of the omate
columns of the conservatory as
a leaning post. T h e location was
chosen with the conservatory' in
mind as a retreat in case of
inclement weather.

F a c i a l c o n t o u r s are mirrored
by the shape of the ornamental
urn. Again, her pose is relaxed
and her gaze direct. The
photograph is nicely balanced
by the flowering shrub which
also adds color.

T h e d a r k g r e e n f o l i a g e in L o o k i n g in f r o m t h e o u t s i d e
each of these pictures sets off produced a totally different
Ali's blue denim clothing effect. The window sill gives Ali
beautifully. The upright shot something to lean on, and the
has an unusually high camera glass acts as a built-in soft-
angle, accentuated through the focus filter. The window frame
use of a wide-angle lens. The gives the picture a graphic
horizontal picture above has a quality and helps focus your
lower camera angle. A longer attention on the subject. This
lens was used to make the photograph has something of an
subject stand out against the "at home" feel about it,
green backdrop. achieved by careful location.
FOR THE FAMILY ALBUM/1
T a k i n g p i c t u r e s of family o r f r i e n d s is a s t a n d a r d a s s i g n m e n t
f o r any p h o t o g r a p h e r , a m a t e u r or professional. The
p h o t o g r a p h s m a y b e s n a p s h o t s f o r the family album o r p i c t u r e s
t o c o m m e m o r a t e a special occasion, s u c h as a birthday o r a
r e t i r e m e n t . H o w d o e s t h e c r e a t i v e p h o t o g r a p h e r g e t the b e s t
informal portrait?
Couples are a common subject. They may be your parents,
o r friends o r total s t r a n g e r s . T w o people p r e s e n t special
p r o b l e m s for a p h o t o g r a p h e r . H o w d o you place the s u b j e c t s
in a natural and c o m p l e m e n t a r y position? Location, too, m a y
p r e s e n t p r o b l e m s . H o u s e s a n d g a r d e n s can b o t h b e limiting
and a r e o f t e n far f r o m photogenic.
Posing is one of t h e m o s t difficult a s p e c t s of p o r t r a i t u r e t o
m a s t e r . G e t t i n g p e o p l e t o relax is an art. M a n y people dislike
being p h o t o g r a p h e d and " f r e e z e " w h e n c o n f r o n t e d by a The subjects are an elderly
c a m e r a . T h e r e f o r e , you m u s t t r y f r o m the o u t s e t t o put your c o u p l e . The "at home" setting
s u b j e c t s at e a s e . Standing is not relaxing for m o s t s u b j e c t s . is a small garden with little
Leaning o r sitting is much b e t t e r . K e e p talking to t h e p e o p l e obvious color, a broken-down
you a r e p h o t o g r a p h i n g — communication is most important. greenhouse and two garden
Be careful with lighting. Daylight is a good choice. H o w e v e r , chairs. A 55mm lens is on the
direct sunlight can cause high c o n t r a s t . R e m e m b e r that film camera.
c a n n o t r e c o r d a s g r e a t a r a n g e of subject b r i g h t n e s s a s the
naked e y e can s e e . Sunlight can also m a k e p e o p l e squint and
l e a d s t o h a r s h s h a d o w s in e y e s o c k e t s . Film instructions u s e d
to r e a d , "Stand with the sun o v e r your s h o u l d e r , " but t h e s e
simple w o r d s of advice h a v e ruined m a n y pictures.
T h e informal portrait m a y b e a familiar situation for a
p h o t o g r a p h e r , but t h i s should not m a k e you c a r e l e s s . T h e r e
a r e just as m a n y pitfalls a s with an a s s i g n m e n t into u n k n o w n
t e r r i t o r y . But if you S T O P ! and T H I N K ! b e f o r e you s t a r t , and
d e v e l o p t h e situation in a logical way, you can a c h i e v e a
m e m o r a b l e portrait in t h e e n d . H e r e is a good e x a m p l e .

A p l a n of t h e s i t e shows the
working area: a small lawn, a
few shrubs, some flowers in
the center bed, the chairs and
greenhouse, and the direction of
the sun. These are the
ingredients the photographer
had to work with.
N /
P o s i t i o n i n g t h e c o u p l e is the
first step. Many photographers
would pick the one clear area
where the sun is shining — the
traditional "sun over the
shoulder" approach. In this
case, it is not the best way to
tackle the subject.

STOP! THINK:
Change places

A " f i r s t t h o u g h t s " s h o t with photographer has not closed in


the approach described above on his subject and there is too
does not produce a good much clutter in the picture.
photograph. T h e couple is small This is an unthinking and
in the frame and squinting into unimaginative approach. T h e
the sun. No attempt has been photograph records the scene
made to get them to relax. T h e and little else.

W h a t h a p p e n s if y o u " b r e a k
t h e r u l e s " and photographer
and subjects change places?
With the camera now shooting
toward the sun, you must take
care to avoid flare. Shading the
lens with your hand or using a
lcnshood usually prevents this.

STOP! THINK!
Make the sun
w o r k for y o u
FOR THE FAMILY ALBUM/2

O f T^H

•> yfiW
STOP! THINK!
W P ^ i m Add s o m e p r o p s

Make t h e sun w o r k for you The creative photographer


rather than against you. The is n e v e r t o t a l l y s a t i s f i e d .
subjects can now open their The two garden chairs that
eyes fully and be pleasantly were lurking on the edge of the
back-lit by the strong sunlight. picture before might improve
T h e background, instead of the photograph even further.
being flat, has a dappled three- Be careful, however, that they
dimensional look. The do not create different
composition is still messy, problems.
however, with the chairs
intruding on the right of the
frame.

STOP! THINK!
Turn the camera

Simply t u r n i n g t h e c a m e r a
s l i g h t l y transforms the
picture. By shooting upright, all
extraneous matter disappears.
The couple have relaxed as the
session has progressed, and
they are well framed here by
flowers and shrubs. The
lighting is good, so the picture
has color and depth. But do not
be content to stop at this point.
G r e a t e r i n f o r m a l i t y is
c r e a t e d with one of the chairs
reversed and overlapping the
other. T h e advantage of tliis
arrangement is that the couple
are close to each other and that
they have to turn to look at the
camera. Both actions clearly
relax them. So far, however, STOP! THINK!
the photographer has thought T a k e a n o t h e r look
only about the subjects, not the
camera angle.

People are usually more


r e l a x e d s i t t i n g or l e a n i n g .
but here adding the two chairs
has made the subjects as
awkward and formal as they
were in the first picture of the
series. They simply placed the
chairs side by side and sat
down facing the camera.

P o s i t i o n i n g t h e s u b j e c t s at
d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s makes the
picture more informal. By
getting rid of one chair and
turning the other sideways, one
subject is sitting and the other
has something to lean on. Even
so, the picture still lacks impact.
There are few options in this
situation, but maybe more could
be done with the chairs.
FOR THE FAMILY ALBUM/3

Bv l o w e r i n g h i s c a m e r a
a n g l e , the photographer can
use the flower bed as a
foreground frame for the
picture. This way, he
maximizes the color of this
extremely limited situation and
adds depth to the photograph at
the same time. There is no
reason why pictures must be
taken from eye level.

The foreground now adds photograph but the colorful


i n t e r e s t . The composition, elements stay. So, despite an
pose, lighting and camera angle unpromising location, with clear
have all been improved. One thinking and a little imagination,
final adjustment remains: the photographer has produced
moving the chairs closer to the a good strong image he can be
flower bed and turning the proud of. Both the horizontal
camera a bit more to make the and the vertical versions are
picture more compact. The equally successful portraits for
couple now dominates the the family album.
PHOTOGRAPHING CHILDREN
T h e b e s t p i c t u r e s of children a r e o f t e n t a k e n w h e n the s u b j e c t s
a r e u n a w a r e of the c a m e r a . S o m e children like posing, but the
p r i c e l e s s m o m e n t s of a g r o w i n g child a r e usually elusive. T h e
p h o t o g r a p h e r h a s to b e b o t h o b s e r v a n t and patient. T o this end,
a m o d e r a t e t e l e p h o t o lens k e e p s you discreetly at a distance.
Anticipation is a useful attribute for a p h o t o g r a p h e r , especially
when taking pictures of children. T h e b e s t p h o t o g r a p h s a r e the
result of spotting a situation, careful positioning in r e a d i n e s s , and
quick reactions w h e n it eventually h a p p e n s .
For this example, 1 w a s driving down the main s t r e e t in an Irish
village. I had just p a s s e d a y o u n g boy walking his puppy w h e n
I noticed a yellow and g r e e n fire h y d r a n t . All the possibilities
of w h a t might h a p p e n w h e n t h e p u p p y r e a c h e d the h y d r a n t
flashed t h r o u g h m y mind. I hastily p a r k e d t h e c a r and waited.

Another potential T h e m e e t i n g of the two as the


i n g r e d i e n t was a much larger older dog went to investigate
dog lying peacefully outside his the puppy passed uneventfully.
house on the same side of the The puppy pulled against his
street as the boy and his leash, but the potential for an
puppy. Would anything develop outstanding picture didn't
from this? materialize. Eventually the
bigger dog lost interest and
returned to lus spot.
A l o n e fire h y d r a n t in the Anticipation and patience
main street offered a great paid off in the end. The puppy
photo opportunity. In a stopped to investigate the fire
situation such as this there is hydrant and the boy pulled on
no time to waste and no second the leash. All the ingredients
chance. Sometimes nothing came together in a humorous,
happens, but you must prepare well-composed picture.
yourself in case it does. In this Although the puppy is well
instance anticipation and away from the boy, the leash
patience paid off. The graphically connects them and
photographer waited guides your attention to the
unobtrusively on the opposite hydrant. The puppy's head
side of the road. turned and that was the
moment to shoot.

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W m m
MOTHER AND BABY/1
T h o u s a n d s and t h o u s a n d s of baby p i c t u r e s a r e t a k e n e v e r y
w e e k . T h e birth and g r o w t h of a cliild a r e , a f t e r all, s o m e of the
m o s t m e m o r a b l e e v e n t s of a p a r e n t ' s lifetime. M a n y of the
m o m e n t s you would like to c a p t u r e cannot b e r e - s h o t , s o it is
w o r t h s p e n d i n g time and m o n e y (on m a n y rolls of film) in an
a t t e m p t t o t a k e good pictures.
Babies can b e photogenic, but people o f t e n w o n d e r w h y the
p i c t u r e that looks s o good through t h e viewfinder t u r n s out s o
badly. Planning, thought and considerable patience are all
n e c e s s a r y to get t h e b e s t out of w h a t is usually a difficult
situation.
First, babies a r e o f t e n p h o t o g r a p h e d at the w r o n g time. It
is exciting to t a k e a p i c t u r e as soon a f t e r the birth as possible,
but a b a b y ' s e y e s cannot focus at that stage. T h e r e f o r e a
p h o t o g r a p h t a k e n t h e n should b e c o n s i d e r e d as o n e just f o r the
r e c o r d . T h e b e s t t i m e is f r o m t h r e e m o n t h s onward, w h e n the
baby can t a k e notice of what is going on and h a s a w i d e r r a n g e
of e x p r e s s i o n s .
S e c o n d , baby p i c t u r e s a r e usually t a k e n in the h o m e , and
this location can b e a n i g h t m a r e for the p h o t o g r a p h e r . H o m e s
are invariably c l u t t e r e d , and t h e r e are f a c t o r s such a s un-
flattering light and color to c o n t e n d with. Always simplify y o u r
p i c t u r e s s o u n w a n t e d e l e m e n t s d o not intrude.
H e r e and o n the following p a g e s I have illustrated the
p r o b l e m s a p h o t o g r a p h e r f a c e s in a c l u t t e r e d , dimly lit apart-
m e n t , and how\ with careful t h o u g h t , it is possible to t a k e a S t r a i g h t flash d e a d e n s t h i s
p i c t u r e . There is no
good picture of m o t h e r and baby. You m a y p r e f e r a different
atmosphere, and mother and
shot f r o m t h e one I got in t h e end, but with a s t e p - b y - s t e p baby are awkward and
m e t h o d you can e x p l o r e a h u g e variety of possibilities. apprehensive. No attempt was
made to frame the picture, and
it seems as if the mother has a
lamp "growing" out of her head.

A v i e w of t h e a p a r t m e n t photographer is taking a "first A p l a n of t h e r o o m shows


shows a room full of furniture thoughts" picture. He uses that all the windows are on one
with little clear wall space. To available light only and a tripod There are some movable
make matters worse, builders to keep the camera steady. props, such as a basket of dried
had erected scaffolding at the A standard lens is on the flowers, which will play an
windows. Here the camera. important part in the final picture.
N a t u r a l w i n d o w light
softens the image. Mother and
baby are still on the sofa, but
the lamp has been moved away
from the mother's head. But
neither subject appears
relaxed, and the large areas of
white dress detract from
everything else in the picture.

STOP! THINK!
G o in c l o s e r

M o t h e r s t a n d i n g by t h e
f i r e p l a c e improves the
situation only slightly (left). The
heavy black painting in the
background is now the
distracting feature. Also, the
mantelpiece has a lot of small
objects on it. making your eyes
wander away from the focal
point of the picture. The side
light has. however, improved
the lighting.

Bringing the subjects


t o g e t h e r (babies tend to pull
away) meant that the picture
acquired a cohesion (right) that
it lacked before. But, held to
the right, the baby blocks the
light to her mother's face, and
the problems of the background
remain. It is time to STOP! and
THINK!
MOTHER AND BABY/2
Going in close with a
m o b i l e f o r e g r o u n d is the key
to the next stage. A busy
background distracts the eye
from the subjects, so close in
on the faces. There is little
room to maneuver in the
apartment, but there are
movable props. Pot plants and a
basket of dried flowers add
color and texture and are easy
to position.

S o f t e n t h e i m a g e by seating
the mother closer to the
window. The light is brighter
and gives good modeling on the
faces. The added contrast
reduces the background to a
deep, unobtrusive shadow. The
plant in the foreground softens
the picture and breaks up the
white expanse of the mother's
dress. This would be less of a
problem in a bright, white-
walled room, but with so much
contrast here a large patch of
white is not a good idea. As it
is, the whole room is conducive
to a low-key photograph, with
large areas of shadow and little
bright light.
C r o p p i n g t i g h t l y by going in
close with the standard lens
solves the problem of the
dress. The heads now dominate
the picture. T h e background is
minimized and there is good,
strong side-lighting on the
baby's face. T h e mother has
turned away slightly from the
window, however, putting half
her face in shadow. But the
baby is now interested in the
photographer. Although the
light is not good on the mother,
this might be the time to go in
even closer.

STOP! THINK!
Back a w a y
and wait

Coming in closer m e a n s
c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e baby.
The viewer is still aware of the
mother since part of her face is
visible. I Unfortunately, by going
in close, a large patch of white
dress to the left of the picture
is distracting the eye. The
photograph on the opposite
page may, therefore, be
preferred at this stage. So,
back off and STOP! and
THINK! again.
MOTHER AND BABY/3

T h e m o t h e r is r e p o s i t i o n e d
by standing her against the
window as she holds the baby
to her. With the baby on her
left again, light falls perfectly on
both of them. By turning away
from the window slightly, the
mother has rcduccd the area of
dress visible. Backing off
means that the photographer
balances the white area with
large areas of deep shadow.
Also, as the photographer
retreats, the baby becomes
interested in something outside
the window. This, together
with the beautiful, soft light,
produces a relaxed study of
mother and babv.

y*-
- J *
You m u s t h a v e t h e p a t i e n c e
to wait for the right moment,
having set the scene. Hv now
the baby was tired and irritable,
but there was one trick left —
the rattle. Waved above the
camera, it produced a spark of
interest, and. with both mother
and child looking up, the light
falling 011 their faces was
perfect.

r Was another picture


possible? The picture opposite
is more than satisfactory, but
what would be the effect of
using fast film in this dimly lit
room? In fact, 1000 ASA 3M
slide film gave a whole new
dimension to the situation. A
faster shutter speed was
possible, which helped with a
wriggling subject, and meant
that the photographer could
work away from the window.
The grainy quality gave an
almost "antique" look to the
picture. The mobile props now
came into play. The
photographer built a small set
next to the only piece of clear
wall, with the dried flowers
providing color at the bottom
and the plant framing the
picture at the top. The walls
had an off-white finish, which
absorbs light and gives a
parchment effect, emphasized
by fast film.

As t h e m o t h e r p l a y e d w i t h
h e r d a u g h t e r at the end of the
session and made a fuss of her,
lifting her in the air, the ever-
alert, thinking photographer got
one more shot.
FUN AND GAMES

T h e l e a p i n g f o u n t a i n s at
Walt Disney's EPCOT Center
are a source of delight for
tourists and photographers
alike. In the Florida heat many
visitors take advantage of a
quick cooling shower, and this
young boy is no exception.
What is the best way to capture
his enjoyment?

T h e a n g l e h e r e is t o o d i r e c t .
The sun is directly behind
the photographer so the picture
is flat, and the boy's arms cover
his face. T h e water is totally
"frozen" into droplets.

By m o v i n g t o t h e s i d e and
using the same fast shutter
speed, the thinking
photographer gets it just right.
The water seems to move
across the frame. The face is
clear and in profile, well lit by
the high sun. Cropping tight
and waiting for the boy to draw
in his arms and throw back his
head has produced a lively
photograph. Deep shadow in
the background emphasizes the
main subject well.
WEDDINGS
W e d d i n g p i c t u r e s n e e d not consist only of the predictable ding? Plan as much a s possible, but b e p r e p a r e d f o r e v e r y t h i n g
p o s e s — t h e formal g r o u p outside t h e church o r the ritual t o g o w r o n g and e x p e c t to improvise. T h e b e s t p i c t u r e s are not
cutting of t h e cake. O f t e n t h e s e p i c t u r e s lack spontaneity, t a k e n at the church, s o b e r e a d y f o r t h a t . T a k e the r e q u i r e d
which is not always t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s fault. By biding your g r o u p s h o t s b u t look e l s e w h e r e for the g r e a t p h o t o g r a p h s .
time, h o w e v e r , and using a little imagination, you can c a p t u r e Work quickly and s h o o t a lot of film. P e o p l e will g e t in t h e way,
s o m e truly m e m o r a b l e m o m e n t s creatively. a n d the special m o m e n t s will b e all t o o fleeting. R e m e m b e r ,
A p h o t o g r a p h e r can b e f a c e d with m a n y p r o b l e m s at a w e d - t h e occasion cannot b e r e p e a t e d and the p r o c e e d i n g s cannot
ding. H e h a s a limited a m o u n t of time, which p u t s him u n d e r wait f o r you.
p r e s s u r e . H e o f t e n has to c o m p e t e for s p a c e w i t h family and It is a good idea t o b r i n g a flashgun, f o r although m o s t of the
f r i e n d s w h o also w a n t to t a k e pictures. action h a p p e n s outside, t h e r e are always t i m e s in t h e church,
M a n y p h o t o g r a p h e r s specialize in w e d d i n g s but, e v e n if you if allowed, a n d in t h e c a r w h e n reflections can b e eliminated
a r e not o n e of t h e m , you m a y still find yourself a s k e d t o d o t h e w i t h a flash. .Always position t h e flash at an angle t o the glass,
job. T h e d e m a n d s o n you will b e g r e a t to g e t traditional, p o s e d n e v e r h e a d - o n . Also, a combination of daylight and flash
s h o t s a s well a s t h e informal, intimate m o m e n t s . s o f t e n s h a r s h s h a d o w s and p r o v i d e s definition in the
So what should you do if y o u ' r e a s k e d t o p h o t o g r a p h a w e d - f o r e g r o u n d , revealing the s h a p e and t o n e of objects.

T h e first o p p o r t u n i t y to
photograph bride and
g r o o m is often as they walk
down the aisle. It is of
necessity a straightforward
flash shot. The usual angle
gives a predictable picture.

T a k e the couple by
s u r p r i s e , in this instance while
the official photographer fiddles
with his equipment. Following
them outside, and using flash to
fill in the shadows, produces a
relaxed picture, with bride and
groom nicely framed by the
church door.
U n f l a t t e r i n g light i s o f t e n a
p r o b l e m outside the church,
especially since many weddings
take place around midday. You
can use till flash to soften the
shadows, but such formal group
shots although an adequate
record of the occasion may still
be disappointing. Here the light
is harsh and emphasizes some
unfortunate details, namely the
ill-fitting clothes rented for the
occasion.

STOP! THINK!
W a i t f o r a b e t t e r location

U n w a n t e d r e f l e c t i o n s in car
windows can often be
eliminated only by using a flash.
As the couple leaves the
church, there is time for a quick
shot, improved by opening the
car door and, still with a flash,
capturing the happy bride from
a low angle. The best
opportunities for good wedding
pictures, however, are still to
come.
RELAXED TECHNIQUES

— >
T h e r e c e p t i o n is a r e l a x e d
a f f a i r and therefore the best
place for informal pictures.
Once tiie speeches and official
presentations are over, take
time to look for and capture
more intimate moments.

The standard "kiss the bride and groom alone for a few
b r i d e " p h o t o g r a p h often minutes, unaware of the
appears contrived as the guests camera. The couple is nicely
look on, but the quiet moment framed by foliage, and the
shown here seems much more happiness of the occasion is
intimate. With the aid of a captured perfectly.
telephoto lens to avoid intruding
upon a private moment, the
photographer captures the
Soft l i g h t i n g flatters t h e
b r i d e in this portrait and was
achieved by positioning her
under a tree. (Her bouquet was
made of silk flowers and
therefore remained "fresh"
throughout the day.)

STOP! THINK!
Look f o r t h e
unexpected

U s i n g p r o p s — wine glasses The bride's parents with


in this instance — serves two t h e i r d a u g h t e r is another
purposes. It relaxes the hands standard wedding picture, and
(subjects often do not know the reception again provided a
what to do with them, relaxed setting for this photo. It
especially if they feel self- is not necessary' to show the
conscious), and by placing the group full-length.
groom's arm across his suit,
any untidiness is hidden.
INFORMAL AND CANDID
Capture intimate moments
by keeping back from the
action. While the bride was
circulating among her guests,
she stopped to chat with her
mother and other relatives,
unaware of the photographer.

O n e for the family album,


this proves that photographers
can sometimes make good
subjects themselves. A good,
STOP! THINK! steady camera position is
Keep back from shown here as a guest tries her
the action hand at a snapshot.

Be p r e p a r e d for h u m o r o u s
i n c i d e n t s , such as a young
guest making off with mother's
hat. The tail of the tuxedo in
the background unmistakably
says "wedding." A fast shutter
speed froze the action here,
and rapid focusing was essential
to capture the scene in time.
Planning ahead should get
you b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s on
the wedding day. Ask the
bride's permission to take
pictures before the ceremony.
This way you can get the full
story of the day's events on
film.
First we s e e the finishing
touches at the hairdresser's in
the early morning. Shooting
into the light at the salon
produces an unusual and candid
shot of the hairdresser in
action. A standard view in the
mirror is enhanced by the
bride's concentration.
Finally, in the last few
minutes as she waits for the car
to take her to the church, the
bride is photographed through
the open doorway of her
parents' kitchen. Pictures such
as these can be taken only with
the family's consent, but they
make possible a detailed "day in
the life of " s t o r y to fill
page after page of the family-
album.
THE PHOTO ESSAY
Telling a s t o r y in p i c t u r e s is fun, as well as an interesting .Setting t h e s c e n e is the first
challenge for the p h o t o g r a p h e r . T h e p h o t o e s s a y is o f t e n u s e d step in the photo essay. It was
in m a g a z i n e s and b o o k s . 6 a.m. at the racecourse and a
T h e s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s m u s t b e varied enough to s h o w all heavy mist hung over the
scene. Stall holders and gypsies
a s p e c t s of the s u b j e c t , s o you will n e e d to give it a lot of
had already arrived to stake
thought b e f o r e h a n d . B u t this d o e s not m e a n you should ignore their claims to areas in the
s t r o n g , single i m a g e s : o n e picture can b e t h e c e n t r a l point for center of activity. Despite the
all t h e o t h e r s . Also, b e o n the lookout f o r t h e unusual. mist, the scene-setting picture
T o s h o w you h o w to compile a p h o t o e s s a y , I chose a big had to be taken in the hope that
e v e n t in Britain's h o r s e - r a c i n g c a l e n d a r — D e r b y Day. T h i s the weather might clear later.
g r e a t occasion is not only for racing e n t h u s i a s t s but for t h e (It didn't!) This picture gives a
public in general, w h o m a k e a d a y of it, enjoying the m a n y stalls great feeling of anticipation and
establishes scale. Had the
and s i d e - s h o w s .
photographer been any farther
You m u s t have a plan of campaign b e f o r e you begin. In this back, the grandstand would
instance, I k n e w it would b e physically impossible to c o v e r t h e have vanished into the mist.
whole of E p s o m D o w n s and an e n t i r e "day at t h e r a c e s . " I
t h e r e f o r e decided t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e big r a c e in t h e middle
of the a f t e r n o o n , and m a k e this t h e central t h e m e of t h e p h o t o
e s s a y . T h e r e w a s no point trying to t a k e p i c t u r e s b y t h e win-
ning p o s t : p a s s e s w e r e n e e d e d b y accredited p r e s s
p h o t o g r a p h e r s and t h e r e would b e t o o many people at the rails
t o g e t a clear view. A favorite v a n t a g e point along t h e c o u r s e
is w h e r e the h o r s e s s w e e p d o w n into t h e final straight. I
decided t o t a k e m y main picture f r o m h e r e , s o I planned the
r e s t of t h e day with a view to being in that spot in time f o r the
race.
T o avoid h e a v y traffic and to catch early-morning activity at
t h e c o u r s e , I arrived b e f o r e 6 a.m. and looked for a s c e n e -
s e t t i n g picture to open t h e e s s a y . Unfortunately, t h e r e w a s a
h e a v y mist, which lasted all day. s o an overall view w a s not
possible. I had t o s e t t l e for a closer, g e n e r a l view of the
c a m p e r s and stalls, with the g r a n d s t a n d looming eerily t h r o u g h
the mist in t h e background.
W h e n c o v e r i n g an occasion such a s this, you m u s t b e
p r e p a r e d to improvise and c o m p r o m i s e . E v e n t s g o ahead d e s -
pite the v a g u a r i e s of the w e a t h e r . So, making the m o s t of it,
I s t a r t e d to r e c o r d t h e early arrivals, t h e c r o w d s a s they built
up, the fairground and all its c h a r a c t e r s . I did not f o r g e t the
bookmakers. T h e e a r l y a r r i v a l of s o m e
You can m a k e p h o t o e s s a y s of many varied e v e n t s : a special r a c e - g o e r s creates a great
occasion of a n y kind, a day trip, o r a visit to weird and w o n d e r - sense of expectancy. For many
ful places. T h e s a m e rules apply w h a t e v e r you a r e shooting: people, Derby Day begins with
a picnic breakfast at the course.
plan well, g e t t h e r e early, s t a y late, b e p r e p a r e d t o improvise,
Visitors bring all the equipment
k e e p your e y e s open f o r t h e unusual — and h o p e f o r a little bit they need to cater for their
of luck. wants throughout the day —
umbrellas, barbecue, ice box,
chairs and thermos flasks. If
these people had been
photographed head-on, the
background would have been
empty. As it is, the tents
looming out of the mist add to
the feeling of occasion.
A DAY AT THE RACES/1
A DAY AT THE RACES/2

As c r o w d s s t a r t t o g a t h e r ,
open-topped, double-decker
buses are much in evidence.
Here straw-hatted visitors find
a parking space near the rails.
The sense of occasion is
emphasized by jaunty headgear.
The rolling downland has
conveniently provided the
photographer with an elevated
position for this picture. It
improves the angle of view-
considerably.

T h i s is a l s o a d a y o u t f o r
" t h e b o y s , " in contrast to the
organized party above. Parking
spaces are jealously guarded,
and these young men are using
the roof of their van as a
vantage point. Again, because it
is taken from higher ground,
the picture has an interesting
background.
SuperBob

T h e f u n of t h e f a i r adds
tremendous atmosphere to a
big event such as Derby Day.
Research before the event
revealed that the fair did not
start until midday; I planned the
coverage accordingly because
an empty fairground is a
dreary place.
When the sun appeared
briefly, a fleeting opportunity
for creative photography was
not to be missed. With an
exposure for the bright sky in
the background, the ferris
wheel provided a strong
silhouette to break up a set of
misty pictures.

All k i n d s of c o l o r f u l
c h a r a c t e r s turn up at events
such as this. A telephoto lens
keeps the photographer at a
distance and is the ideal tool for
recording spontaneous
happenings. Here, two
musicians entertain the crowd.
A DAY AT THE RACES/3
Always be on t h e lookout T h e focal p o i n t of t h e d a y is
for personalities. As he the Derby itself. This is the
cantered down to the start, professional's angle, and all the
champion jockey Lester Piggott pre-planning on the part of the
gave the alert photographer a photographer paid off.
chance of a close-up. Derby Exceptionally large crowds at
runners take a cross-country the race meeting meant that it
route to the start of the main was essential to take up the
event, so it is impossible to chosen position well before the
photograph the jockeys prior to big race so as to be right on the
the start and during the race rails. It is important not to have
itself. Not even the most to leave your spot for any
nimble of photographers can be reason once you are installed,
in both places at once! since you are unlikely to
recover it.
This particular Derby was
very much a one-horse race,
with Steve Cauthen leading by
nine lengths when this photo
was taken. A telephoto lens
(300mm) compresses the
chasing pack and the crowd. It
was important, especially with
the bad weather, to get this
key picture, even at the
expense of other possible
tea
angles, which might or might
not have come off. When in
doubt, go for the big one.

If you c a n n o t g e t to t h e T a k e t i m e t o t u r n a r o u n d at
r a i l s , use the crowd as a frame the start of the race. For
for your picture of the race. bookies and race-goers alike,
This was made possible by this is a time of eager
standing on a slight slope. It is anticipation: for the
an unusual angle, but it conveys photographer, it is an
the involvement of the crowd opportunity to capture the
extremely well. An 80-200mm excitement in the faces riveted
zoom lens, at the 200mm on the action. This picture took
setting, compresses the scene, no more than a few seconds,
which helps to link crowd and but it tells part of the story of a
horses. day at the races vividly.
THE PHOTO ESSAY

A DAY AT THE RACES/4

T h e s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s of
b e t t i n g is best illustrated by
the faces of the men to whom it
matters — the bookmakers.
They make excellent subjects
for photography when oblivious
of the camera.

P e o p l e - w a t c h i n g is almost as
good a sport as the racing,
especially for the photographer
on the lookout. These senior
citizens, relaxing on the grass,
were absorbed in the action on
the course and quite unaware of
the photographer.

7K
S h o o t i n g a d a y at t h e r a c e s
i s t h i r s t y w o r k . Whether
celebrating a win or watching
the action, the race-goer needs
"watering." In the VIP parking
lot. champagne is the order of
the day as ticket-holders and
their guests get in the mood
before lunch. Morning dress is
de rigeur at the Derby and. if it
gets uncomfortably hot, more
refreshment is called for.
In front of the grandstand, a
bottle of beer is all that is
needed to quench the thirst.
Caught unawares by the
telephoto lens, this example of
how the other half drinks was
shot between races.

T h e p a r t y ' s o v e r and, in the


VIP parking lot, the more
formally attired disrobe. This is
a time to pause and reflect on
what was and what might have
been. The day's events are all
over for the race-goers, but for
the photographer, there is an
opportunity to get just one
more shot.
A STORY IN CLOSE-UP
Still-life p h o t o g r a p h y , e v e n a m o n g professionals, is a highly
specialized b u s i n e s s . J u s t o n e p h o t o can t a k e h o u r s or e v e n
d a y s of painstaking care. B u t the a m a t e u r p h o t o g r a p h e r , too,
c a n u s e still-life techniques, plus a little thought, to tell a good
story* in close-up. E v e r y d a y things o r special occasions — a
flower o r a birthday cake, an a w a r d or e n g a g e m e n t , e v e n a
birth — c a n inspire you t o r e c o r d the s c e n e o n film. A close-
up can o f t e n tell the s t o r y m u c h b e t t e r than t h e overall view.
T h e s e p a g e s do not tell you h o w to m a s t e r m i n d a com-
plicated studio s e t u p , but t h e y will s h o w you h o w , b y thinking
c o r r e c t l y , y o u can t a k e a m e m o r a b l e shot. T h e first e x a m p l e
is a popular s u b j e c t for t h e family album. H o w many m o t h e r s
g o t o a lot of t r o u b l e m a k i n g a beautiful birthday cake f o r a
child, only to find t h e p i c t u r e t h e y t a k e d o e s n ' t do j u s t i c e to all
t h e h a r d w o r k ? With a little c a r e , a simple s c e n e can b e c o m e
a good p h o t o g r a p h .

A s t r a i g h t flash throws hard The composition has been


shadows across the table. g i v e n n o t h o u g h t . The
Photographing a white cake in picture is not framed, and the
this way is a sure recipe for chairs against the wall are
disaster. messy and distracting. The
plant in the bowl looks like a
creature from outer space.

The lighting is m u c h the T h e a d d i t i o n of s o m e


s a m e , but the flash was fired r e l e v a n t p r o p s improves the
through layers of tissue paper composition. The napkins to
to produce a soft, window-light right and left hold the picture
effect. White paper was held up together and, with the forks,
at the sides of the scene to give a feeling of anticipation. A
reflect light back into the china bird fills the empty space
shadows, softening the picture in the foreground and the plant
further. A longer exposure has looks decorative.
picked up the warmth of the
candle flames. T h e c a k e h a s been turned
so you can see the ribbon along
the side. The plates are only
partly visible, so they do not
dominate but rather improve
the composition. The feeling is
now one of luxury-
THE PRIZE WINNER
Winning a school prize o r t r o p h y is always a time f o r celebra-
tion. O u t c o m e s the c a m e r a t o r e c o r d t h e s c e n e f o r p o s t e r i t y
and the family album. You m a y g e t lots of p i c t u r e s of t h e s p o r t s
d a y and e v e n of the prize-giving, but w h e n it c o m e s to
p h o t o g r a p h i n g t h e individual in his o r h e r glory, w i n n e r s and
p h o t o g r a p h e r s alike can b e disappointed.
P i c t u r e s such as t h e o n e at right a r e t o o f r e q u e n t l y all that
r e m a i n of s o m e b o d y ' s big day w h e n , with a little t h o u g h t , a
"winning" p h o t o g r a p h w a s possible. H e r e w e have a t e e n a g e
a t h l e t e w h o has just w o n his first trophy. Any proud p a r e n t
would wish t o p r e s e r v e the m o m e n t . T h i s is not the way to do
it, although t h e a w k w a r d l y p o s e d w i n n e r holding a silver cup
is an all-too-common result.
So, h o w can it b e i m p r o v e d ? A s s u m i n g t h e r e a r e already
p i c t u r e s of t h e a t h l e t e himself, the m o s t i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e
h e r e is t h e cup. All t h e ingredients are in t h e picture at right,
but it t a k e s a thinking p h o t o g r a p h e r to t r a n s f o r m an ordinary'
picture into s o m e t h i n g special.

T h e a t h l e t e is c l e a r l y The cup h a s a prominent to the picture. This device


r e p r e s e n t e d here, crouched in p o s i t i o n , cleverly framed by demonstrates how well you can
the starting position. His face is the athlete's hand and legs. tell the complete story by
not visible, but this is not The lines of the running track getting in close.
necessary'. are reflected in the trophy,
which adds interest and depth
A straightforward snapshot
of the winning trophy standing
proudly on the window ledge at
home is boring. Silver is difficult
to photograph and here,
reflecting the black shadows of
the room, it looks dirty and
uninteresting.

W h y not p u t t h e c u p in
c o n t e x t ? Placed in the center
of the track, it clearly reflects
the lines of the running track.
This ingenious still-life is a
much more fitting tribute to the
athlete's sporting achievement.

P l e n t y of s p a c e left a r o u n d
t h e s u b j e c t creates the feeling
of being there. The lines of the
track add depth and perspective
to the picture. A slightly longer
lens than usual (135mm) was
used to minimize the reflection
of the photographer in the cup.
This meant the picture could be
shot from farther away.

T h e s h o e s a l s o identify- t h e
s p o r t . Arranged symmetrically
on either side of the trophy,
they too are reflected in it.
HANDS
H a n d s can c o n v e y a r a n g e of e m o t i o n s — joy o r grief, com- H a n d s have t e x t u r e , w h e t h e r the s u b j e c t is y o u n g o r old,
passion or d e t e r m i n a t i o n . As the s u b j e c t s of still-life and lighting should b e s o f t . Daylight, highly diffused flash
p h o t o g r a p h y , and as e l e m e n t s in t h e art of telling a s t o r y in o r t u n g s t e n lighting a r e b e s t t o give good, e v e n - m o d e l i n g t o
pictures, a s h o t of h a n d s alone can s p e a k powerfully. t h e skin.
H a n d s a r e a difficult, t h o u g h r e w a r d i n g , s u b j e c t to T h e angle of the p h o t o g r a p h is also i m p o r t a n t . It is all t o o
p h o t o g r a p h . T h e y a r e not always still, s o focusing has t o b e e a s y to m a k e a hand look like a b u n c h of bananas. Like the
a c c u r a t e . Working in close-up, w h e t h e r with a s t a n d a r d lens h u m a n figure, h a n d s look f a t t e r in p h o t o g r a p h s than they are
o r not, gives little d e p t h of field, s o t h e focal point is critical. in real life. As always, s t o p and think b e f o r e you shoot.

R e a s s u r a n c e is t h e t h e m e
here. A child is having a
hospital visit and it is obviously
a painful experience. The
mother offered a comforting
hand to see her child through
the ordeal. "Actions speak
louder than words" is perhaps
the best caption to this shot.

A b a b y g r a s p i n g its
m o t h e r ' s finger is one of the
first forms of physical
communication between parent
and child. This extreme close-
up conveys an extraordinary
strength and determination as
the baby clings to its "life-
support system." There is little
depth of field here but more is
not necessary, since your eye
focuses immediately on the
baby's fingers.

T h e t r a n q u i l l i t y of old a g e is
strongly conveyed here. An old
man was relaxing after a
lunchtime walk. The restful
nature of the scene is admirably
portrayed in close-up. The
wrinkled texture of the skin
shows up well against the
handle of the old man's stick as
he r e s t s his hands on it.
In c o n t r a s t , this was a
carefully controlled situation.
The photograph was part of a
series taken of a couple
celebrating their engagement.
It included a picture of the ring.
In keeping with the occasion,
the hand was posed on lace
over a translucent white plastic
sheet which was lit from below.
White reflectors bounced the
light back on to the skin, thus
softening the picture. A piece
of cellophane was placed over
the lens as a soft-focus filter,
and the photograph was slightly
overexposed to keep the skin
tones clean.
CARS ON CAMERA
C a r s figure largely in our lives and m o s t people w a n t t o If y o u w a n t to be in t h e
p h o t o g r a p h t h e m at one t i m e or a n o t h e r . But e v e n with " o n e picture yourself,
for t h e r e c o r d " s h o t s , t h e r e s u l t s can o f t e n b e disappointing. set the camera up on a tripod
S o m e p h o t o g r a p h e r s t a k e p i c t u r e s of nothing e l s e but cars, and focus it carefully. Most
cameras have a 15-20-second
and this h a s b e c o m e a highly specialized b u s i n e s s . It is p o s -
delay on a self-timer
sible, h o w e v e r , with an ordinary c a m e r a and s o m e careful mechanism, allowing the
t h o u g h t , to t a k e a good p i c t u r e of your car. Running t h r o u g h photographer plenty of time to
our checklist of q u e s t i o n s will help you a lot. position himself in the picture.
T h e first rule with car p h o t o g r a p h y is to clean t h e c a r b e f o r e Think carefully about where
you s t a r t — and not just t h e b o d y w o r k . T h e r e is nothing w o r s e you, or anybody else for that
than a sparkling vehicle with m u d d y tires. W H E R E ? is e x - matter, should be standing in
t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . It is not n e c e s s a r i l y a d e q u a t e to p a r k the relation to the car.
car, h o w e v e r clean, o u t s i d e y o u r h o u s e and e x p e c t to t a k e a
spectacular p h o t o g r a p h . Think about the location. W h e r e will
the c a r b e s h o w n off to its b e s t a d v a n t a g e ? Should it c o n t r a s t
with the color of its s u r r o u n d i n g s o r be c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o
t h e m ? W H O M ? do you want in t h e picture, a s well as t h e car?
Would you like to b e in it yourself? WHY? are you taking the
picture? Is it j u s t f o r the r e c o r d o r do you, p e r h a p s , w a n t t o
c r e a t e an i m p r e s s i o n of luxury?
T h e angle f r o m which you view t h e c a r is important, too.
Would it look m o r e i m p r e s s i v e head-on, f r o m t h e side, o r
t h r e e - q u a r t e r f r o n t ; f r o m a b o v e o r below? Finally, W H E N ? is
i m p o r t a n t . T o g e t h e r with W H E R E ? it largely d e t e r m i n e s
HOW? you t a k e t h e picture. T a k i n g p i c t u r e s of c a r s is a bit like
p h o t o g r a p h i n g l a n d s c a p e s : t h e b e s t r e s u l t s a r e o f t e n obtained
early or late in the day.

L o c a t i o n a n d t i m e of d a y
are all-important.
There is nothing special about
the location: it is a public place
but, since the picture was taken
in the early evening, there
were no traffic problems. The
setting contributes to the
luxurious look of the car, and
the dappled, evening light adds
color and warmth to the
picture. T h e headlights were
turned on to complement the
lighting. The photographer has
positioned himself to the rear of
the driver's door to avoid
concealing interesting details of
the car. This picture is far
superior to the first one, but it
T h e s t a n d a r d p h o t o , with the needed only a little thought to
vehicle parked outside a house, achieve it.
is boring and untidy. The
lighting is bad, and the car does
not stand out from the hedge
behind it. This is not an easy
car to photograph because of its
dark gray color. T h e color
element will have to be
enhanced by the lighting and
background.
SPORT AND ACTION
It is an u n f o r t u n a t e fact of life that m a j o r s p o r t i n g e v e n t s o f f e r
f e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s for good action photography. T h e good
action shot is a prized p o s s e s s i o n in many a p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s
collection, but c o v e r a g e of the big e v e n t s is increasingly
r e s t r i c t e d to the professionals.
All t o o o f t e n the a m a t e u r can be s e e n firing a tiny .flash on
a simple c a m e r a f r o m the back r o w s of t h e s t a n d s . T h i s
unthinking a p p r o a c h is o f t e n b o r n of d e s p e r a t i o n . With the
m o s t popular s p o r t s , the a n s w e r is to t a k e p i c t u r e s on practice
d a y s o r at a minor e v e n t w h e r e t h e r e a r e no big n a m e s playing.
You m u s t f a c e the fact that you have little chance of g e t t i n g
good p i c t u r e s of t o p a t h l e t e s c o m p e t i n g .
There are n u m e r o u s s p o r t s w h e r e t h e amateur
p h o t o g r a p h e r is not only w e l c o m e d but w h e r e excellent p e r -
f o r m a n c e s will provide you with t h e opportunity to t a k e good
p i c t u r e s . T h e s e a r e s p o r t s in which big-money s p o n s o r s h i p is
not yet involved, the c o m p e t i t o r s a r e still truly a m a t e u r , and
c o m p e t i t o r s ' n a m e s do not r e a c h the headlines. Any s e r i o u s
a t h l e t e a p p r e c i a t e s good p h o t o g r a p h s , and will usually
c o o p e r a t e with a creative, thinking p h o t o g r a p h e r .
C o n c e n t r a t e on s p o r t s such as judo, trampolining, shooting,
s w i m m i n g o r canoeing. All t h e s e , and many o t h e r s , provide an
o p p o r t u n i t y for making s t u n n i n g p h o t o g r a p h s .
Finally, you do not n e e d to p h o t o g r a p h s p o r t s m e n and
w o m e n while t h e y a r e actually competing. Given a little time
and c o o p e r a t i o n during practice s e s s i o n s , the thinking
p h o t o g r a p h e r h a s m o r e control o v e r the situation. T h i s is
much the b e s t w a y of getting s p o r t s pictures.

K a r e n B r i g g s is a w o r l d - strong image. The two girls


c l a s s j u d o c h a m p i o n . She were back-lit with colored lights
seldom reaches the sports and were asked to make the
pages of the world's same throw twice on the same
newspapers, yet she is a great spot. The first time a shutter
amateur athlete who relies speed of 2 seconds was used to
upon understanding employers produce colored blurs. Then,
and minor sponsors to be able on the same frame of film, the
to compete. She cooperated photographer used flash to
readily for these action "freeze" the action. This double
pictures. exposure not only has a still
Judo is a difficult sport to image but also traces of the
photograph. The action throw. T h e action and
happens extremely quickly and excitement of the sport come
usually against an empty through.
background, so a lot of thought
is necessary to produce a
GOLF
U s e p r a c t i c e d a y s for taking
pictures of the big sporting
names, especially if only pro
photographers will be allowed
near the action during the major
event itself. Here, Lee Trevino
is photographed during his final
practice round in the British
Open Golf Championship. With
golf, timing the shot is difficult.
Make allowance for the delay
between pushing the shutter
release and the moment of
exposure. In this picture, with
the action frozen, the ball is a
white blur as it speeds off the
clubhead.

T i m i n g is c r u c i a l , not only
for the photographer but
also for the competitor. In
this instance, the shutter has
been released ahead of the
stroke. By using a 300mm lens,
there is no distraction to the
golfer who is concentrating
hard on his stroke.
w • y

Sr** "

Photographing sporting to chat with the crowd or sign


s t a r s close-up is easier on autographs. Take advantage of
practice days, too. The relaxed occasions like this to take
nature of these sessions gives professional-quality pictures.
you a chance to get a good
portrait as the sportsmen pause

B u n k e r s will a l w a y s g i v e
y o u a c t i o n . Sometimes,
golfers go for an entire round
without hitting a ball into the
sand. But on practice days they
will often deliberately go into
the bunkers to try out their
recovery shots. They may well
hit more than one ball, too,
which means you may have
several attempts at a good
action shot.
TRAMPOLINING
T h e p r o b l e m of c o m p a r a t i v e Using t h e t r a m p o l i n e
s i z e is well illustrated here as s u r r o u n d as a colorful frame
the camera looks down on for this powerful picture,
world champion Sue Shotton the photographer fires as the
from 30-40 feet above the gymnast soars toward the
trampoline. She is dwarfed by camera. This photograph was
the apparatus. This is quite a tried with the atlilete in a
strong portrait, but it lacks the number of different positions,
action of the event. This including horizontal to the
session was helped by the ground.
athlete's willingness to help.

F i n d i n g t h e r i g h t a n g l e for
photographing trampolining is
not easy. Trampolines are
surprisingly large at close
quarters, and the usual view
from ground level leaves a lot
of space between gymnast and
apparatus. In this instance, the
thinking photographer decided
to use the trampoline as a
frame for the picture by
shooting straight down on the
subject. A cooperative team of
volunteers hoisted him up to iin>i!imMuiiuumiiBiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiii
the roof so he was above the
action. Several flash units,
positioned to the side and
underneath the trampoline,
were triggered by slaves from
the flash on the camera.
WHITEWATER KAYAKING/1
Exciting s p o r t s abound with action-packed p i c t u r e s if you
know h o w to g e t t h e m . W h i t e w a t e r kayaking a f f o r d s many
o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r , since c o m p e t i t o r s tackle
the c o u r s e one at a time, against the clock. So, although it
t a k e s only a f e w m i n u t e s for r a c e r s to negotiate t h e rough
w a t e r , if you m i s s a p i c t u r e of one, t h e r e will be a n o t h e r right
behind. A f u r t h e r a d v a n t a g e of this s p o r t is that you do not
n e e d a special pass, a s for s o m e popular e v e n t s . You can c o v e r
the whole c o u r s e , choosing t h e b e s t positions f r o m which to
shoot.
A t e l e p h o t o lens is an a d v a n t a g e but is not essential: a
simple c a m e r a can t a k e good action pictures. T h e trick is to
think clearly about t h e c a m e r a position and to g e t your timing
right. Rough w a t e r p r o v i d e s g r e a t action, but t o o m u c h s p r a y
can obliterate t h e c o m p e t i t o r . And, with s o m a n y v a n t a g e
points, it is o f t e n difficult to w o r k out w h e r e t h e b e s t p i c t u r e s
will be. T h e c o u r s e is not long, but, with b o t h b a n k s and a
v a r i e t y of w a t e r conditions to c h o o s e f r o m , you m u s t have a At t h e s t a r t of t h e e v e n t , T i m i n g i s c r u c i a l . The
clear appreciation of the whole situation and b e s u r e of what competitors face a drop over a picture on the left was taken far
it is you w a n t t o achieve. weir into rough water. This is too late. T h e kayak has already
T h e first rule, as with any e v e n t , is g e t t h e r e early. Walk t h e the natural place for a hit the rough water, sending up
c o u r s e , talk to p e o p l e who k n o w t h e terrain. N o t e w h e r e t h e photographer to start too, since clouds of spray which have
sun is and w h e r e it will b e later on. Think about c a m e r a angles: you can focus on the dropping obliterated the competitor's
would t h e b e s t p i c t u r e s b e f r o m w a t e r level o r f r o m an point before the racer arrives. face. The timing on the right
The sudden descent into the was perfect. The kayak is
e l e v a t e d position along the b a n k s ? Would the m o s t exciting
white water should make a dropping and there is a great
s h o t s be in t h e r o u g h e s t w a t e r ? Is o n e bank b e t t e r than t h e good shot if the timing is right. feeling of action from spray
o t h e r , and should you b e at t h e s t a r t or the finish, or half- thrown up by the paddle. The
w a y down the c o u r s e ? competitor's face is clear.
With t h e s e things clearly m a p p e d out in y o u r mind, think
about t h e e f f e c t s you w a n t t o p r o d u c e . Should t h e action b e
f r o z e n by a fast s h u t t e r s p e e d , o r would it b e b e t t e r to u s e a
s l o w e r s p e e d and pan with t h e action to s h o w m o v e m e n t ?
T h e r e is p l e n t y of time to think during an e v e n t such as this,
but you can be as baffled by a lot of options as you can b y a few.
F o r t h e thinking p h o t o g r a p h e r , h o w e v e r , a thrilling s p o r t
p r e s e n t s an exciting challenge and can p r o d u c e s o m e
spectacular results.

P l o t t i n g t h e o p t i o n s along from the start is the first


the course on a small map will stretch of rough water. The
help the photographer. The photographer here has a side-
course is only about half a mile on view of the competitor.
from start to finish, and both
banks can be walked easily.
Slightly farther downstream
STOP! THINK!
Alter t h e l i g h t i n g

Strong s u n l i g h t shows up the


textures of water and rock.
However, the picture lacks
impact from this angle, although
it is still a good action shot. A
different location or a different
effect will improve it
considerably.
WHITEWATER KAYAKING/2

S h o o t i n g i n t o t h e l i g h t has
produced a totally different
image, even though this was
taken from the same position as
the previous picture.

STOP! THINK:
Try an elevated
position

s&t J - - ^ m

Prom an elevated position,


the photographer looks down
on the race in an area of
relatively calm water. This
does not help to convey the
action at all unless a different
technique is used.
By l o o k i n g d o w n s t r e a m and
exposing for the highlights on
the water, an almost nighttime
effect has transformed the
shot. Timing was important
again here: the shutter was
released as the paddle entered
the wafer.

STOP! THINK:
T a c k l e it h e a d - o n

P a n n i n g w i t h t h e a c t i o n of
t h e k a y a k , together with a
slow shutter speed, has
produced a lively photograph,
even though the kayaker is in a
region of calm water. The
photographer's elevated
position is put t o good use
here: large areas of blue water
add color to the picture and the
spray stands out against this
background. Within a few
yards of the start of the
course, therefore, the
photographer has produced a
variety of pictures. But all his
a t t e m p t s so far have been from
the safety of the bank. What
about positioning the camera
head-on to the action?
So STOP! and THINK!
WHITEWATER KAYAKING/3
Ail ideal h e a d - o n p o s i t i o n in
this instance coincided with the
roughest water in the final
descent of the course. The
photographer positioned himself
so that the racers came directly
at him. Always be prepared to
get your feet wet. The thinking
photographer packs waterproof
gear on such occasions.

The subject was moving 300mm lens was used. Careful


directly toward the camera, focusing was needed, too, since
so the shutter speed did not long lenses have a shallow
need to be as fast as would be depth of field. Creative
necessary were the action cropping of the same picture
going across the frame. A increases its impact
slower speed meant that a dramatically.
tripod was necessary. A
Zooming f r o m this position
offered exciting possibilities.
This dramatic shot required a
sturdy tripod, a slow shutter
speed and changing lens focal
length during the exposure.
Even the most experienced
photographer is never totally
sure what the effects of this
technique will be until the film is
processed. On tliis occasion the
result was worth the effort.
Many photographers would be
content with the coverage of
this event so far, but there is
always the possibility that an
unusual angle has been missed.
So, STOP! and THINK
AGAIN!

STOP! THINK!
Look for the
unusual angle
)
WHITEWATER KAYAKING/4

An u n u s u a l a n g l e m a y
e a s i l y b e o v e r l o o k e d when
there are a lot of picture-taking
opportunities. Halfway down
the course was a small bridge
under which the kayakers had
to pass. This was rejected as a
picture-taking position in the
first instance because some
advertising billboards were in
the way. Also, the action head-
on was disappointing.

By s t a n d i n g o n t h e b r i d g e
a n d l o o k i n g d o w n , the
photographer found the one
place on the course where the
racers passed directly beneath
him. A wide-angle lens was
used this time so that plenty of
rushing water would be in the
frame, as well as the kayaker.
A fast shutter speed froze the
action, and the bright sunshine
yielded saturated colors.
THE MOVING SUBJECT
Action s h o t s a r e not m e r e l y an ingredient of s p o r t s photo-
g r a p h y . T h e r e is m o v e m e n t in s h o t s of e v e r y d a y life — f r o m
a b u s y shopping c e n t e r t o a flowing river, f r o m children in t h e
p a r k t o animals a n y w h e r e . And you can c a p t u r e or e v e n c r e a t e
motion. C l e a r thinking is n e c e s s a r y to decide h o w t o act c o r -
r e c t l y in any situation.
M o v e m e n t can b e " f r o z e n " by a fast s h u t t e r s p e e d . T h i s
m e t h o d is o f t e n u s e d in s p o r t s p h o t o g r a p h y , w h e r e the
p h o t o g r a p h e r w a n t s to r e c o r d a particular m o m e n t and n e e d s
t o " f r e e z e " t h e action, but it is not always t h e m o s t effective
technique.
A slow s h u t t e r s p e e d gives a g r e a t feeling of m o v e m e n t .
Blurring can be u s e d in action p h o t o g r a p h y , but it is also a good
w a y t o r e c o r d r i v e r s and p e o p l e in situations t h a t might o t h e r -
wise look static.
Panning is a combination of t h e first t w o m e t h o d s . You m o v e
t h e c a m e r a itself, following t h e s u b j e c t , during e x p o s u r e . T h e
result is a blurred background but a subject in s h a r p focus.
By " z o o m i n g , " you c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n of m o v e m e n t
e v e n though t h e s u b j e c t is stationary. You o p e r a t e the l e n s '
zoom control during e x p o s u r e , giving an explosive effect to the
picture. If t h e s u b j e c t is c e n t e r e d , it will remain s h a r p . T h e
e d g e s of the p h o t o g r a p h " e x p l o d e " o u t w a r d giving the im-
p r e s s i o n of motion. You can also u s e this t e c h n i q u e o n a
m o v i n g s u b j e c t with startling r e s u l t s ( s e e p. 106).
T h e thinking p h o t o g r a p h e r m u s t c o n s i d e r carefully which
m e t h o d to apply in a specific situation. You n e e d a clear idea
of t h e d e s i r e d result.

T h e b u s t l i n g floor of was used here to keep some


London's Stock E x c h a n g e figures sharp, while blurring
requires a compromise shutter others. Too long an exposure
speed to convey the action would have produced a totally
while freezing certain details so blurred image. Too short an
that the viewer can identify the exposure would have
situation. Ii was necessary to contradicted the busy
observe the scene for a while atmosphere by freezing the
before deciding the final scene completely.
exposure settings. Brokers
who are on the telephone or
deep in conversation are
virtually still. Others move
quickly around the floor. A
shutter speed of 1/2 second
THE MOVING SUBJECT

HOW TO PAN CHANGING

T h e c h o i c e of s h u t t e r s p e e d
can make a big difference to the
end result. In this picture of a
small waterfall in a fast-flowing
river, a shutter speed of 1/250
second has stopped most of the
water movement, retaining just
enough in the foreground to
give some idea of the speed of
the river.

A 1/4 s e c o n d e x p o s u r e gives
the same scene a different
effect. The rushing water now
appears as a series of white
ribbons, although the rocks are
still sharp. T h e same exposure
was used — aperture size
decreased as shutter speed
lengthened. This shows the
choices available when you
want creative blur.

P a n n i n g is following t h e would have stopped this action T h e diagram shows how to


a c t i o n by m o v i n g t h e in mid-jump; it would still have take such a photo. Look at the
c a m e r a in the direction the been a good picture, but a subject through the viewfinder
subject is moving, in this shutter speed of 1/15 second at an early stage. Swing the
instance a horse and rider gave a better feeling of speed. camera smoothly with the
jumping. You must move the The shutter was released when moving subject, which should
camera smoothly, with good the rider was against a be in the center of the
follow-through of the action background of trees. The viewfinder at all times. Release
even after the exposure is resulting green blurs add to the the shutter at the peak of the
made. A fast shutter speed feeling of movement. Had the action and follow through your
rider been shot against the sky, action at the same speed.
there would have been no
streaks to convey the notion of
speed. Background is
extremely important with this
technique.
THE SHUTTER SPEED
USING TIME EXPOSURE ZOOMING
Vary exposure time and exposure. The sun, angling Z o o m i n g i s o f t e n u s e d to
also time of day — to dramatic through the notorious LA g r e a t e f f e c t by movie and TV
effect. The San Diego Freeway smog, has neutralized the color camera crews. You can use this
in Los Angeles is a busy and produced an almost technique in a static situation to
highway at any hour, but early monochromatic image. inject a sense of movement and
morning rush-hour activity is urgency into a photograph.
frozen here by a short

An a c c i d e n t v i c t i m is here
being brought by ambulance to
the emergency unit. The first
shot was lit with flash and
carefully exposed to pick out
the lights of the ambulance.
T h e nature of the emergency
has, however, been totally lost
in the picture.

A zoom l e n s injects a sense of


urgency. Although the subject
was almost stationary on the
stretcher, a 1/15 second
exposure made during zooming
gave life to the picture. The
ambulance crew and the patient
were centered in the frame and
T a k e n at n i g h t , the same towers and the deep blue night so were hardly affected by the
scene acquires a totally sky not only bring the image to zooming effect. But the edges
different look. A shutter speed life but create a great sense of of the photograph have
of 10 seconds has recorded movement. A sturdy base for "exploded," and the streaks of
streaks of red and white from the camera, or even a tripod, light from the sign and lights of
the lights of moving vehicles. was absolutely essential for this the ambulance add considerable
shot. drama.
T h e brightly lit windows of the

106
LANDSCAPES AND LANDMARKS
E v e r y o n e w h o o w n s a c a m e r a l a k e s p i c t u r e s of i n t e r e s t i n g
places at s o m e time o r o t h e r , w h e t h e r they b e castles,
c h u r c h e s , palaces, m o n u m e n t s , l i g h t h o u s e s o r p i c t u r e s q u e
t o w n s . T h e r e s u l t s a r e o f t e n disappointing b e c a u s e t h e e y e
s e e s selectively, while the c a m e r a r e c o r d s the s c e n e in f r o n t
of it exactly as it is, clutter and all.
P h o t o g r a p h i n g places is all about viewpoint, angles and
light. So w h e n you find yourself in an i n t e r e s t i n g place, how-
should you s t a r t taking pictures? S t o p and think about t h e
viewpoint f o r a s t a r t . W h e r e is the b e s t place t o t a k e t h e
p i c t u r e from? T h e n , what about angle? You cannot c h a n g e t h e
n a t u r e of t h e place o r control conditions, but different l e n s e s
c a n help you i n t e r p r e t t h e s c e n e in different w a y s . U s i n g a long
l e n s f r o m a d i s t a n c e o r a wide-angle lens c l o s e - u p can b e v e r y
e f f e c t i v e . If you only h a v e o n e lens, find t h e b e s t v a n t a g e point
a n d lighting conditions for it.
Lighting conditions a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . H o w d o e s
light fall on the s u b j e c t ? M a n y p i c t u r e s a r e t a k e n around mid-
day, w h e n t h e lighting is at its w o r s t , especially w h e r e build-
i n g s o r v i e w s a r e c o n c e r n e d . Would t h e p i c t u r e b e b e t t e r if
t a k e n earlier o r later in t h e day, o r in d i f f e r e n t w e a t h e r con-
ditions? P h o t o g r a p h y is a 24-hour art form, e v e n if it is only
y o u r hobby. Don't ignore the possibility of taking p i c t u r e s at
night.
If you cannot r e t u r n w h e n light conditions a r e different, you
wall have t o m a k e t h e b e s t of things. But with a little time and
e x t r a a t t e n t i o n , you can t r a n s f o r m an ordinary s n a p s h o t into
a great photograph.

A m a g n i f i c e n t c a s t l e always another day, but this was not


makes a good photographic possible. So the thinking
subject. Leeds Castle in Kent, photographer decided to wait
England, is in a lovely setting until dusk, when the castle
and is surrounded by a moat. lights would be turned on and
The castle has been beautifully reflected in the moat. Just
restored to its former glories. before the last of the daylight
But the day this photograph left the sky, a four-second
was taken was gray and rainy. exposure brought the castle to
There were no dramatic clouds life, with the reflections
to liven up the sky. and the creating an intriguing second
gray castle walls matched the image. Richer colors were
weather, making the scene dull brought out in an enchanting
and flat. The obvious thing nighttime shot, produced by the
would have been to return photographer biding his time.
THE LIGHTHOUSE/1
F a m o u s l a n d m a r k s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y photogenic. N e i t h e r
a r e t h e y always in easily a c c e s s i b l c placcs, e v e n for t h e
intrepid p h o t o g r a p h e r . T h e M o n t a u k L i g h t h o u s e is o n e such
landmark. S i t u a t e d at the e x t r e m e tip of L o n g Island, it is a
destination f o r t h o u s a n d s of t r a v e l e r s . It p r e s e n t s an intriguing
challenge to t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r , having the Atlantic O c e a n on
t h r e e sides.
M y first view of the lighthouse w a s short-lived, for a h e a v y
s e a mist c a m e in. A d v e r s e or rapidly changing w e a t h e r con-
ditions should not d e t e r you, indeed t h e y m a y s o m e t i m e s w o r k
to your a d v a n t a g e . On this occasion, h o w e v e r , conditions
w e r e far from ideal.
T h e Montauk L i g h t h o u s e is not o n e of the w o r l d ' s p r e t t i e s t
s t r u c t u r e s , and a c o m m o n p r o b l e m with p h o t o g r a p h i n g any
lighthouse is background. Usually high against the sky, t h e y
c a n b e l e s s than i m p r e s s i v e on film u n l e s s t h e r e a r e particular-
ly d r a m a t i c clouds. In this i n s t a n c e t h e r e w e r e none. AJso, T h e f i r s t v i e w of t h e
lighthouses tend to b e located o n bleak p r o m o n t o r i e s . T h o u g h M o n t a u k L i g h t h o u s e is from
the parking area, looking due
the e y e can s w e e p rapidly o v e r the s c e n e like a movie c a m e r a ,
east. Many visitors go no
it is e x t r e m e l y difficult to c a p t u r e the s e t t i n g in a single still farther than this spot and take
photograph. pictures from here.
It t o o k a g r e a t deal of time, thought and hard w o r k to S e e n t h r o u g h t h e l e n s , the
p r o d u c e the final p h o t o g r a p h in this s e r i e s . Especially with t h e lighthouse looks unspectacular.
changing w e a t h e r conditions, a multitude of different angles The composition is messy and
and v i e w p o i n t s had to b e tried. T i m e of day and c a m e r a angle full of distractions such as the
played an important p a r t in t h e final shot. H e r e , s t e p by s t e p , white lines on the road. The
is h o w t h e -shooting p r o g r e s s e d . sky is bland.

A m a p of t h e a r e a shows the might need a boat to get a


lighthouse to have ocean on sunset shot. There is not much
three sides. Since the sun sets high ground nearby either, so
on the land side of the different angles and foreground
lighthouse, the photographer effects need to be tried.
An " a t m o s p h e r i c " v i e w of
the lighthouse results. The
dark trees and mist-shrouded
lamp house are certainly
effective, and the picture has a
black-and-white effect, although
photographed in color. The
view is limited, however, and
the lighthouse could be any one STOP! THINK!
of several such landmarks. Find a b e t t e r
foreground

As t h e m i s t c l o s e s in,
reducing visibility, so does
the photographer. The idea
here is to create a ghostly
image, framed by the dark
trees. T h e camera is turned to
frame the lamp house
vertically.
THE LIGHTHOUSE/2

> ^

Look f o r p a t t e r n s , which The picture now has color and a


against a flat, dull sky will add strong, interesting frame. It
interest to the foreground. The still shows only part of the
branches of a thorn bush made lighthouse, however, and tells
a diamond pattern for the the viewer nothing about its
camera to look through (below). dramatic setting. This
A 200mm lens was used to photograph is effective as part
throw the bush out of focus so of a scries of pictures of the
that it framed, but did not Montauk Lighthouse, but by
intrude upon, the subject. itself it does not say enough.
A d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t is
created as the photographer
moves to his left, circling the
lighthouse toward the sea.
Some dune grasses are now in
the foreground and. since the
sky is so dull, they might add
some interesting texture.

Abstract foreground shapes


can be fun, and this wider shot
shows the lighthouse in situ.
STOP! THINK!
\
/
Start again
The picture does not work well,
however. The grasses are out
of character with the subject
and the silhouettes serve no
creative purpose. It is time to
rethink the photograph
completely.
THE LIGHTHOUSE/3

Lighthouses mean rocks


a n d s e a to most people. By
walking to the edge of the
ocean, the photographer gets
the shoreline in the foreground.
The lighthouse is now seen in
context, but this is not the
most interesting of photos.
S e a w e e d - c o v e r e d r o c k s in
the foreground frame the
lighthouse nicely, but due to
the very low angle of the shot,
they have darkened the picture.
Also, the lighthouse is
relegated to the background.
STOP! THINK!
Find a new
viewpoint

Moving f a r t h e r u p t h e
b e a c h improves the picture in
two ways. The rocks are now
clear of seaweed and. with the
sun shining on them, they are
lighter and add warmth to the
photograph. The buildings are
larger in the frame, too. This is
an interesting treatment, but
the picture can still be
improved.

A much more graphic image


is produced by holding the
camera vertically so most of the
picture is filled by rocks. This is
an "unreal" treatment of the
lighthouse and changes the
whole perspective of the
THE LIGHTHOUSE/4
Good c o m p o s i t i o n makes this
picture (left). It is well balanced
with the tree, branches and
shrubs. All help to draw your
eye to the center.

B a c k t o t h e land now (below)


as the photographer, having
explored the ocean view of the
building, investigates the view T h e f i n a l p i c t u r e (right) is
from the approach road to the basically the same as the one
lighthouse. Backing off with an at top, but, fittingly,
80-200mm zoom lens, he uses lighting is the key to showing
the tree as a frame. the Montauk Lighthouse at
its best. The finishing touches
are the evening light and the
angle of the sun's reflections as
they fire the windows of the
lighthouse buildings. A
polarizing filter darkens the sky
to emphasize this.

T i m e of d a y the last trick in better lighting. Crossing the


the repertoire of the landscape road, changing the lens and
photographer — adds the waiting produced this wide-
element of drama previously angle view. The changing light
lacking. Having found a good of the setting sun shows the
angle, the photographer needs lighthouse as a true beacon.
TIME OF DAY
W H E N ? you c h o o s e to t a k e a p h o t o g r a p h can m a k e o r b r e a k T o w e r Bridge, London, just
a picture. T h e quality of daylight c h a n g e s greatly f r o m d a w n b e f o r e d a w n is bathed in light.
to d u s k , s o you m u s t think carefully about how t h e time of day This is a good subject to show
is going t o affect taking pictures. how lighting changes, because
P h o t o g r a p h y is all about light. T o p r o d u c e a picture, light the River Thames at this point
m u s t p a s s through t h e c a m e r a lens o n to t h e film, but the flows northwest to southeast,
so the sun moves across our
quality of that light is m o r e i m p o r t a n t than t h e quantity. You
view here during the course
can u s e a n u m b e r of light s o u r c e s , from natural light to tung- of the day. An early-rising
s t e n and flash, b u t for t h e a v e r a g e p h o t o g r a p h e r daylight is the photographer is rewarded with
m o s t c o m m o n light s o u r c e . this picture in the early morning
T h e color of daylight c h a n g e s f r o m s u n r i s e to s u n s e t . M a n y light. A slow exposure made
professional landscape p h o t o g r a p h e r s u s e a mobile h o m e to b e the flowing water appear
on t h e s p o t and t a k e a d v a n t a g e of early or late lighting con- smooth, with the result that the
ditions. You d o not n e e d t o g o t o t h e s e lengths, but t h e think- bridge and I IMS Belfast are
dramatically reflected in the
ing p h o t o g r a p h e r m u s t b e p r e p a r e d to rise early, s t a y out late
river.
and b e patient if t h e w e a t h e r c h a n g e s f o r the w o r s e .
S u n r i s e and s u n s e t h a p p e n quickly and it is not enough
m e r e l y t o b e in t h e right, place at the right time. O f t e n you have
only a f e w s e c o n d s w h e n the lighting is ideal. If, f o r example,
you want to p h o t o g r a p h the Lincoln Memorial in Washington
DC f r o m t h e far e n d of t h e Reflecting Pool ( s e e page 124),
t h e r e m a y not b e sufficient time to get to the o t h e r e n d of t h e
pool b e f o r e t h e light of t h e rising sun h a s m o v e d off the s t a t u e .
You n e e d t o a s s e s s quickly t h e e f f e c t s of different lighting on
a s u b j e c t and to c o n s i d e r time of day as p a r t of y o u r overall
planning. As always, h a v e a clear idea of what you a r e trying
t o adhieve.
A s well as color balance, t h e w a y light falls on a s u b j e c t
during t h e c o u r s e of t h e day m u s t b e carefully c o n s i d e r e d . T o
s h o w t e x t u r e , light should slant a c r o s s a surface, not fall
directly on it f r o m t h e direction of t h e c a m e r a . S h a d o w is
important in shaping a s u b j e c t , to give it d e p t h and contour.
Although midday is o f t e n t h e w o r s t time f o r p h o t o g r a p h y ,
m a n y p i c t u r e s a r e t a k e n then. T h e s u n is at its highest, s o
p e o p l e t e n d t o have black s h a d o w s a r o u n d their e y e s , c a u s e d
by the t o p light. T h e l o w e r t h e light, t h e w a r m e r and m o r e
flattering t h e picture. M a n y fashion s h o o t s a r e d o n e early o r
late in t h e day f o r this r e a s o n . Professional p h o t o g r a p h e r s
o f t e n t a k e a r e s t during n o o n d a y sunlight, and you would do
well to adopt a similar " s i e s t a " mentality.
W h e n e v e r you t a k e p i c t u r e s , b e a w a r e of the lighting, u s e
it creatively, and r e m e m b e r that the quality, not the quantity,
of light p r o d u c e s a good p h o t o g r a p h .
TOWER BRIDGE/1
S u n r i s e i s o n e h o u r l a t e r , at
about 5 a.m. in the summer.
Already the color balance is
changing radically as the sun
climbs above the horizon. A low
light silhouettes the bridge and
lights the sliip from the side.
The sun rises steeply to the
left here, producing rapidly
changing light and, in summer,
passes overhead rather than
behind the bridge. None of
these or the following pictures
was taken with a filter and,
therefore, show the changing
conditions quite accurately. All
were taken on the same day.
TOWER BRIDGE/2
By 8 a . m . the attractive
golden light of early morning
has gone. This image is not as
strong as the first two.
although the angle of the light
still produces an interesting
effect. Exposing for the
highlights has preserved the
silhouette effect, but there is
less impact than earlier on.

Midday is when many tourists


might photograph Tower
Bridge, but top light completely
ruins the picture. The river is
bustling with pleasure boats,
and the bridge has detail, but
the sky is flat and
uninteresting. The picture
merely records the scene.
In ( h e l a t e a f t e r n o o n , around
5 p.m., the photographer had
to contend with patchy clouds
and the sun going in and out of
them. T h e result is that in this
picture only one tower is sunlit.
The lower angle of the light
produced a slight improvement
on the midday photograph.

By 6 p . m . the low evening


sunlight, falling fully on the
bridge, brings the picture to life
once more. The color of the
light has altered again, and
there is now a warm, golden
hue. T h e ship is well lit and a
single pleasure cruiser adds
MHoJ interest in the foreground but
B^iii'ijj does not detract from the
subject. Early morning and
evening have, therefore,
proved the best times to
photograph Tower Bridge,
showing how crucial time of day
is to the thinking photographer.

• -
TIME OF DAY

WASHINGTON MONUMENT

C r o w d s a r e a p r o b l e m when idea. This picture of the


you photograph well-known Washington Monument was
landmarks during the day. An taken early in the day, but
early start will not always solve already too many people spoil
this problem because there may- this view.
be other people with the same

E v e n i n t h e m i d d l e of t h e
day, however, it is possible
to avoid the crowds by
changing the angle of view.
Getting down at the edge of the
Reflecting Pool clears the
foreground and exploits
the mirror-like qualities of the
water. But the picture could
still be improved. When would
be a better time of day?
*
D a w n is a w o n d e r f u l t i m e photographed in silhouette
for a landscape photographer. against the rising sun. The only
This is when the light is at its inhabitants of the park at this
best. It may be a struggle to hour are the ducks, one of
get out of bed early enough, which obligingly took off in the
but the results arc often worth right part of the frame. A single
the effort. Here, in the early exposure was all that was
morning stillness, the possible. T h e right time of day,
Reflecting Pool is a perfect together with a little bit of luck,
mirror, and the Washington combine to produce a strikingly
Monument can be beautiful image.
LINCOLN MEMORIAL

Some subjects can be shot


o n l y at a c e r t a i n t i m e of
d a y . At the other end of the
Reflecting Fool from the
Washington Monument is the
Lincoln Memorial. Only for a
few minutes after sunrise does
the sun illuminate the giant
figure of Lincoln seated within
the memorial building. Too
early, and the pillars throw a
shadow: too late, and the sun is
high enough to create a shadow
on the face. The ideal view,
across the pool with the figure
perfectly lit, makes a dramatic
photograph.

T h e p r o b l e m of s h a d o w on
the statue as the sun climbs
high becomes apparent during
the time it takes to walk the
length of the pool. So you
would need another early start
to take a close-up of the figure
fully illuminated. This head-on
view, taken late in the day, is
the most common angle, but
there are other options.

In t h e m i d d l e of t h e day,
when there are crowds of
visitors who tend to stand
directly in front of the statue,
moving to the side not only
T h e l a r g e e x p a n s e of
s h a d o w at the bottom of the
frame, contrasting with the
brightly lit statue at the top.
makes this a powerful picture.
It is a striking, yet at the same
time rather intimate, view. The
pillars lit at the edges make a
stark frame and, with the use of
the vertical format and the
placing of the statue off-center,
the result is an unusual view of
the Lincoln Memorial.

W i t h t h e s u n h i g h in t h e
s k y , only the foot of the statue
is illuminated, but light reflected
off the marble lloor gives good
modeling on the face. Closing in
on the statue, still framed to
one side by the edge of a pillar,
means that the whole emphasis
of the photograph is on the
figure. A portrait, which the
picture has now become, is
seldom lit from below, but in
this instance it is extremely
effective, producing a striking
photograph.

eliminates the problem, but


produces a new viewpoint.
From here, use the pillars as a
frame.
REFLECTIONS
R e f l e c t i o n s can be a nuisance t o a p h o t o g r a p h e r , but t h e y can
also help him c r e a t e s o m e g r e a t e f f e c t s . U n w a n t e d reflections
can b e cut out b y using a polarizing filter o r by the careful
choice of c a m e r a angle, and t h e y can be minimized by controll-
ing the lighting. Alternatively, t h e y can b e put to practical u s e .
F o r e x a m p l e , a m i r r o r in a r o o m effectively l e n g t h e n s , or
w i d e n s , t h e a p p e a r a n c e of that r o o m , a n d w h e n p h o t o g r a p h i n g
in a small r o o m , a reflection in a m i r r o r can b e as valuable as
a wide-angle lens.
M o d e r n a r c h i t e c t u r e has e e n t h e rise, literally, of m o r e and
m o r e m i r r o r e d buildings. T h e s e can b e put to c r e a t i v e u s e by
t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r , f o r e x a m p l e in c o n t r a s t i n g t h e n e w building
with s u r r o u n d i n g architectural s t y l e s .
Reflections can also b e u s e d to c r e a t e mood in a picture. You
do not n e e d t o limit yourself t o m i r r o r s . Any shiny s u r f a c e
— a window p a n e , a s h o p f r o n t — is reflective. If you a r e using
flash, s t a n d at an angle t o t h e glass, o t h e r w i s e t h e light will
b o u n c e s t r a i g h t back into the lens and ruin t h e picture. You
should t r e a t any glass as a mirror, w i i e t h e r o r not you a r e
p h o t o g r a p h i n g reflections.
On t h e following p a g e s a r e s o m e e x a m p l e s of the c r e a t i v e
u s e of reflections, t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y p o s e and t h e solutions.

C o n c e a l i n g t h e c a m e r a can seen in the picture. It took


be a problem when the frame is many trials to find the only
full of mirror images. This place where the reflection of
staircase in the Barbican the camera was blocked by the
Centre in London is a mass of cross-rail, but this spot did not
mirrors that produces a coincide with the best camera
kaleidoscope of color. angle. In the end, a
Photograpliing it presents a real compromise was made: the
challenge for the thinking camera and photographer are
photographer. WHERE? in this just visible in the bottom right
instance is not the location of of the frame but their presence
the subject but the position of is minimized by the power of
the camera so that it cannot be this extremely busy image.
CREATING IMAGES

l i l i

T h e s t a n d a r d v i e w of the
castle in Disney World's Magic
Kingdom lacks atmosphere.
This frequently photographed
landmark has been pictured
"for the record" just as it has
millions of times before.

T h e m o o d is c h a n g e d
c o m p l e t e l y by viewing the
castle's reflection in the window
of the saloon on Main Street.
T h e soft-focus effect gives a
misty, almost ethereal
appearance to the castle,
especially in contrast to the
umbrellas of the pavement cafe
in the foreground. The clever
use of reflection here has
created a mood, rather than
merely recording a mirror
image of the scene.
M o d e m g l a s s b u i l d i n g s in
Washington DC offer the
photographer plenty of scope
for creative imagery. The
angled wall of reflecting panels
mirrors the street life of the
nation's capital in a fascinating
and exciting way.

An a b s t r a c t i m a g e is
achieved by closing in. By-
cropping out the surrounding
scene, this startling picture
gives a unique view. The
building itself clearly says
"progress" while the reflection
shows older buildings among
the trees.
OLD AND NEW

An i n t e r e s t i n g b u t o b v i o u s
v i e w of New York's high-rise
architecture, this picture shows
the old reflected in the new. It
is little more than a snapshot,
with no strong focal point and
too much surrounding detail
intruding into the image.

C l o s i n g in o n t h e g l a s s
p a n e l s of the new building
shows more detail of the old
architecture in the striking
reflections. This picture tells us
little about the new skyscraper,
however, and some of the
impact of the old against the
new is lost. There must be a
better angle.
C a p t u r i n g t h e w h o l e of the lamp shows that the camera
skyscraper but retaining the was at ground level. It is not
reflected image of the building easy to get the exposure right
opposite, the thinking in a situation such as this and
photographer has successfully the photographer must decide
brought together old and new what his priorities in the image
in a dramatic picture. By are. In this instance, it was felt
shooting straight up at the new that perfect exposure for the
building with its curved reflections compensated for the
elevation, the old-style slight flare resulting from the
architecture is still clearly overexposure of the sky.
reflected in the lower panels of Indeed, the haziness at the top
the skyscraper, while the whole of the skyscraper actually
of the new building makes enhances the building by
impressive viewing. The street emphasizing its height.
KKILKCTIONS

ELIMINATION TECHNIQUES
T h e e y e c a n ignore reflections, but the c a m e r a cannot. if you a r e not careful. Put t h e lens close t o the g l a s s and shield
Eliminating u n w a n t e d reflections n e e d s a little thought. T a k e it with a d a r k cloth. A polarizing filter is useful for eliminating
a m a n w e a r i n g glasses. If you w e r e to p h o t o g r a p h him h e a d - o n reflections in w i n d o w s o r car windshields. By rotating it slow-
with a flash on o r n e a r the c a m e r a , t h e glass will act like a ly, t h e image of the reflection will b e minimized or disappear,
m i r r o r and reflect light back into the lens. T h u s you should d e p e n d i n g on t h e angle at which you a r e facing t h e s u r f a c e .
c h a n g e t h e angle s o t h e light c o m e s f r o m t h e side o r f r o m T h e basic rule is to t r e a t all glass as if it w e r e a m i r r o r . If you
a b o v e to avoid problem reflections. cannot s e e a reflection t h r o u g h t h e lens, t h e r e will not b e o n e
P h o t o g r a p h i n g through a window also p r o d u c e s reflections in t h e picture. S o S T O P ! T H I N K ! and look b e f o r e you s h o o t .

P i n p o i n t r e f l e c t i o n s in through glass, which has front of the subject eliminated,


g l a s s e s result from a double reflected light back on to the the side lighting cuts across the
reflection of the light. The light eyeglasses, there is still the surface of the eyeglasses,
here is, correctly, coming from original problem of head-on illuminating the eyes of author
the side, but by shooting lighting. With the glass pane in Len Deighton.

B e a u t i f u l s u n s e t s or
dramatic cloud formations seen
from aircraft windows often
tempt the photographer. But
the pictures may be
disappointing with unwanted
reflections creeping into them.
The solution to the problem is
to put the camera right up
against the window, either with
a rubber lens hood on it or
surrounded by dark clothing.
This will cut out reflections
through the double or multiple
layer of glass. This sunset over
Iceland was produced in this
way.
S h o p w i n d o w s highlight the
problem of angled reflections.
In the picture, a shopper
pauses by a window full of
distracting reflections of the
street opposite. A polarizing
filter was used to take the
photograph below, and this
time the camera can sec into
the shop quite clearly. A
polarizing filter is an extremely
useful accessory for the
photographer, not least
because of its ability to reduce
reflections in windows.
FOCUS ON BUILDINGS
P h o t o g r a p h i n g a building is like taking a p i c t u r e of a giant positioning of t h e c a m e r a will b e the deciding factor. It m a y b e
still-life on location. Buildings d o not m o v e , which m a y s e e m n e c e s s a r y to get a v a n t a g e point f r o m a neighboring building
obvious, but m a n y p h o t o g r a p h e r s d o not appreciate the t o g e t the b e s t view, o r back off and s h o o t f r o m a distance.
implications of that fact. It m e a n s that you m u s t k e e p moving S o m e t i m e s , s h o o t i n g straight up can b e effective.
t o find t h e right c a m e r a angle and lighting. W h e r e v e r you a r e , the w a y the light falls o n t h e building will
W H E R E ? you t a k e t h e p i c t u r e f r o m is all-important. Build- b e a n o t h e r important factor. In the end, you'll n e e d patience
ings a r e o f t e n s u r r o u n d e d by intrusive d e v e l o p m e n t s , s o you a s well as photographic t e c h n i q u e to g e t t h e b e s t r e s u l t s .
m a y not b e able t o pick the ideal spot and g e t a clear view. You W h e n p h o t o g r a p h i n g buildings, t h e r e f o r e , t a k e your time and
m a y have to w o r k with only p a r t of t h e s t r u c t u r e \isible. A k e e p m o v i n g a r o u n d t h e subject, t o a s s e s s all potential view-
choice of l e n s e s m a y b e an advantage, but ultimately the p o i n t s and c h a n g e s of light.

Moving t o t h e r i g h t and
turning the camera does little to
improve the picture. But
including the sunlit building at
A c o m m o n p l a c e v i e w of the the left of the frame should
square near the Plaza Hotel in provide a spark of inspiration
New York includes all the for the thinldng photographer.
elements of this popular spot, This building could be used in a
but it captures little of the city's much more creative way.
excitement and its impressive
and varied buildings.

Moving a r o u n d still f a r t h e r
and reverting to the vertical
format has dramatically
improved the view. The statue
is silhouetted against the
skyscraper. By exposing for
the brightly lit building, the
photographer has produced a
picture with a strong design of
light and shadow. But the
thinking photographer should
not be content even with this.
Moving r i g h t a r o u n d t h e
s t a t u e , the photographer
continues to use the
silhouetting technique, but the
background is now an ultra-
modern skyscraper, harshly lit
against a blue sky. The color of
the sky has been deepened by a
polarizing filter. The result is a
stark and powerful image that
illustrates the benefits of
lighting and exploring all angles
of view.
THE GIANT STILL-LIFE
T h e c o n v e n t i o n a l v i e w of
the EPCOT Center at Florida's
Disney World is from the
entrance to the park. It is easy
to be overwhelmed by this
magnificent dome, but it would
be a pity to settle for the one-
for-the-record type of picture
and not do greater justice to an
ambitious project.

D r a m a t i c l i g h t i n g on the The sky was, therefore, monorail to come along. He


dome is emphasized in this underexposed, creating a dark, exposed when it was starkly
picture by the effects of a moody effect. Having found the outlined against the shadowy
polarizing filter and exposing for right angle and decided upon part of the dome. 'Hie result is
the highlights, where the sun the composition, the a well-balanced, impressive
strikes the top of the building. photographer waited for the picture.
FOCUS ON BUILDINGS

A n o t h e r f a m i l i a r i m a g e of
the EPCOT dome is across
flower beds, which are
beautifully maintained and full of
color. The effort required by a
ground-level view is often
rewarded by a fine picture.

An u n e x p e c t e d f o r e g r o u n d ,
bright with color, leads your
eye to the focal point of the
picture — the dome. By using a
low angle, the photographer
has hidden most visitors, giving
the impression that this is an
exclusive view of EPCOT.
There is a good sense of
perspective, which again helps
focus attention on the dome.
T h e vertical format means
there is less empty sky than
there would have been with a
horizontal format.
LOCATION SHOTS
T a k i n g p i c t u r e s of a t o w n — w h e t h e r y o u k n o w it well o r a r e p o w e r c a b l e s would spoil t h e v i e w . T h e p i c t u r e s q u e buildings
just visiting — is n o t a s e a s y a s you m i g h t t h i n k . T h e r e is r a r e l y must, therefore, b e photographed close-up.
a stunning view around e v e n ' corner, so before you start you T o d o this, you m u s t walk and look. You will u n d o u b t e d l y
m u s t pinpoint t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s or t h e i n t e r e s t i n g d e t a i l s m i s s t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e s if you d r i v e a r o u n d in a car.
that c o n v e y t h e f e e l of t h e place. K e e p y o u r e y e s o p e n f o r t h e u n u s u a l a n d b e p r e p a r e d t o find
You will s e l d o m find a n e l e v a t e d v a n t a g e point e x a c t l y a p i c t u r e w h e r e y o u l e a s t e x p e c t it.
w h e r e you w a n t it t o g i v e an overall v i e w . F o r i n s t a n c e , S a g B y following t h e s e f e w s i m p l e guidelines, y o u s h o u l d e n d up
H a r b o r , an old whaling p o r t o n L o n g Island, is an a t t r a c t i v e w i t h a s e r i e s of p h o t o g r a p h s that a d m i r a b l y c a p t u r e s t h e
t o w n , but t h e r e is n o high g r o u n d f r o m which you can g e t a c h a r a c t e r of t h e t o w n .
g o o d p i c t u r e . E v e n if t h e r e w e r e , l a r g e n u m b e r s of o v e r h e a d

A g e n e r a l v i e w of tht? main
street in Sag Harbor is not very
interesting. T r e e s conceal the
buildings and unsightly
overhead cables dominate the
scene. On the face of it. this
would s e e m a difficult subject to
photograph, but thinking in
close-up is the key. Set off on STOP! THINK:
foot, looking out for the unusual Look out for
angle. angles

S h a p e s a n d s h a d o w s make
this a graphic study of a flight of
steps leading to a porch. T h e
colorful tulips in the spring
sunshine and the texture of the
wood are good finishing
touches. This is not in itself a
portrait of the town, but the
character of the wooden
buildings in the old port is
established.
PORTRAIT OF A TOWN/1

T h e while railings,
photographed from the corner,
create a powerful frame for the
old clapboard house on Main
Street. By moving in close, the
photographer eliminates the
power cables. The light is flat,
but the wooden planks
throughout the image give it a
graphic quality.

STOP! THINK!
Look f o r
color
LOCATION SHOTS

PORTRAIT OF A TOWN/2

S p r i n g is a c o l o r f u l t i m e ,
and you should take advantage
of it. This spacious, well-tended
garden creates an impression of
affluence and. although the
image is dominated by trees
and shrubs, the period feeling is
retained by the inclusion of the
porch at left. Expose this type
of scene carefully. If you
expose for the more shadowy
parts of the garden, the
highlights will lose their detail
by burning out.

I s o l a t e s o m e c o l o r by taking
part of the house in close-up.
The shutters and plants help
convey the feeling of a well-
maintained part of town. An
overall view of the house was
not possible, but a close-up
clearly shows the character of
this house in Sag Harbor.
H i d e u n s i g h t l y o b j e c t s by
creating a frame for the
picture. Above, the branch
covers ugly cables, while the
STOP! THINK! fence adds interest in the
Frame your foreground. STOP! THINK!
pictures Below, a view of the whaling Look for the
museum uses the barred gate abstract
to cut out a boring expanse of
roadway and focus on the
building. T h e top bar conceals
overhead cables.
PORTRAIT OF A TOWN/3
S p o t t i n g t h e u n u s u a l as you
walk through a town can
provide pictures of the less
obvious aspects of town life.
Here, a dressmaker's dummy
stands in the porch of a clothing
shop. The exposure was for
highlights on the dress, so the
picture is tightly framed by
strong shadows. There is an
almost abstract quality about
the photograph, yet at the
same time it gives the viewer
an impression of the town.

M a k e a record for posterity


with your pictures. Everybody
loves to look at old street
or shop signs, but they
are becoming rare. The
window sign of the Main
Street tavern shows Sag
Harbor has not given up all its
old-world charm. Photograph
such things when you see
them. They may not be there
much longer.
>
L i f e in S a g H a r b o r is the photographer wandered
around the back streets of the
town. A simple close view says
it all — clapboard houses with
neatly cultivated gardens. The
summed up in this picture, tulips balance the bright colors
perhaps more than in any of the flag, and both contrast
other. It is a strongly composed with the dark rocking chairs.
image that clearly says, The impression gained from
"peaceful, small-town America." tills graphic shot is just as
This scene, too, was spotted as telling as it would be from a
larger photograph of the whole
town.
A QUESTION OF SCALE
It is o f t e n difficult to g e t an idea of the size of o b j e c t s in a everybody knows. Put alongside t h e object to b e
p h o t o g r a p h u n l e s s t h e r e is a familiar r e f e r e n c e point. P e o p l e p h o t o g r a p h e d , t h e v i e w e r can appreciate t h e relative sizes and
a r e t h e m o s t obvious points of r e f e r e n c e . T o s e e a p e r s o n g e t a s e n s e of scale that might o t h e r w i s e b e missing.
standing b y a large building, f o r example, gives the v i e w e r a T h e r e are many i n s t a n c e s in p h o t o g r a p h y w h e n the scale of
good idea of just h o w big it is. t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ought to b e m a d e clear but is not; this is a
With smaller objects, and in c l o s e - u p photography, t h e r e f r e q u e n t omission on t h e p a r t of a m a t e u r and professional
a r e o t h e r p r o p s you c a n u s e to s h o w scale: books, t e l e p h o n e s , p h o t o g r a p h e r s alike. H e r e a r e s o m e e x a m p l e s of h o w b e s t t o
m a t c h e s and coins a r e e v e r y d a y items, t h e size of which give an idea of scale.

Many visitors to t h e
L i n c o l n M e m o r i a l in
Washington DC are faced with
the dilemma of how to show the
whole monument, as well as
family or friends. This picture is
the all-too-frequent result. To
include all of the building, the
photographer has backed off so
far that the person on the steps
is reduced to a tiny,
unrecognizable figure. This is a
common problem when you
want to record a "being there"
photograph.

T h e key is the movable


" o b j e c t . " Both the
photographer and the young
lady are movable, but the
photographer is in the right
place, so the subject must
come nearer to the camera. An
auto-focus camera was used,
with a flash to soften the harsh,
midday sunlight on the face.
P i c t u r e s of t h e p r e h i s t o r i c
s t a n d i n g s t o n e s at
Stonehenge in England rarely
do justice to this massive
monument. The introduction of
the figure of author Richard
Adams — photographed in
connection with his book Main
— gives the viewer a clue to
the size of the structure. The
standing stones serve a double
purpose: they provide a
suitable setting, reflecting the
ancient, mythological nature of
the book, and they make a
powerful frame for the figure in
this impressive portrait. The
vertical format of the picture
mirrors the shape of the
stones.
INTRODUCING FIGURES
The building on t h e island
gives some idea of scale, but
this picture lacks a focal point,
which would make the shot
much better. The location is
Burgh Island, off the south
coast of England, here
photographed on a gray day at
high tide. T h e result is a large
expanse of water, with nothing
to direct your eye to any
particular point.

T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a f i g u r e
i n t o a l a n d s c a p e adds depth
as well as scale. The galloping
horse and rider also provide a
point of interest, transforming a
straightforward view into an
interesting picture. Calmer
weather and the expanse of
wet, reflective sand at low tide
set off the rider, and the late
afternoon light also improves
the shot. All these factors have
a bearing on each other.
S c a l e is p u t t o a d i f f e r e n t
u s e in this picture taken off the
island of Crete in the
Mediterranean. The feeling of
"getting away from it all" is
emphasized by the figures
being small and "lost" in an
expanse of ocean. This
was achieved by shooting the
picture from the top of a cliff
and deliberately tilling the entire
frame with ocean. The figures
give a clear idea of the depth of
the water, and the picture
creates a lovely feeling of
warmth. This could be almost
anywhere in the world — a
timeless travel shot.
THE DRAMATIC PORTRAIT

In portraiture, scale can be


u s e d to dramatic effect,
although an approach such as
this might not immediately
spring to mind. This was a
professional assignment —
to photograph the chief
executive of a ship-repairing
company — and it seemed a
good idea to photograph the
man "in the dock." T h e dry-
dock was completely empty,
which emphasized its vastness.

P o s i n g t h e m a n at t h e
b o t t o m of t h e d o c k on the
pier that supports the ship's
keel created a wonderful sense
of scale. The picture has been
cropped to eliminate most of
the dock walls, giving a stark,
grapliic quality to this portrait.
The symmetry works to the
same effect.
THE SILHOUETTE
S i l h o u e t t e s a r e g r e a t mood e n h a n c e r s . W h e t h e r s h o t o n color
or black-and-white film, t h e y give a p h o t o g r a p h a s t a r k ,
graphic quality. T h e y a r e usually a c h i e v e d by e x p o s i n g for t h e
background to minimize detail in the f o r e g r o u n d subject.
By s t o p p i n g t h e lens right down, night s c e n e s c a n be
a c h i e v e d at midday, with the s u n taking on t h e a p p e a r a n c e of
a bright m o o n . A c c u r a t e focusing is important, also, to give
clean, s h a r p e d g e s t o t h e subject.
Look for s u b j e c t s to t a k e in silhouette. C o n t e n d e r s will be
t h o s e in which lack of detail will e m p h a s i z e mood, and w h e r e
the outlines a r e s t r o n g and s t a r k . It is w o r t h e x p e r i m e n t i n g
with this m e t h o d of producing p i c t u r e s with a p o w e r f u l visual
impact, b u t b e discriminating in using the technique.

A c l u m p of r e e d s by a l a k e
is not immediately inspiring
unless the reeds can be
silhouetted dramatically against
the backdrop of the sky.

E x p o s u r e is the deciding
f a c t o r with this day-for-night
effect. The photographer
exposed for the bright evening
sun, thus throwing the reeds
into sharp relief. Exposure was
judged to accommodate the
reflections, and the lens
focused on the reeds. A fast
shutter speed was used.
T h e u s e of n a t u r a l
s i l h o u e t t e s makes an
interesting landscape out of an
ordinary scene. Here the
picture was not shot directly
into the light, so the sky is still
blue. By exposing for the
highlights on the tree, the sky
is darkened by underexposure,
and the cows are in silhouette.
Accurate exposure is important
to keep detail in color areas.
The splendid antlers of these
Scottish highland deer cried out
for a silhouette shot. Food
enticed them into the frame.
VARYING THE TECHNIQUE
A s e n s e of t i m e l e s s n e s s is
emphasized in this picture by
the silhouette technique. The
subject's grandfather used the
same plate camera to
photograph the sea and
shipwrecks. Here, he and the
camera, with its old wooden
tripod, merge, silhouetted
against the sky. The exposure
was for the seascape, and the
outline of the subject was
sharply in focus.

In t h i s s h o t , t h e s h a p e s
a r e self-contained. The
outlines of the silhouette are
clean and sharp. The subject is
standing back from the camera
and is viewed from a different
angle, with the undulating line
of the rocks set against the
sky. Although the sea is not
visible, the rocks suggest it is
not far away.
T h e p l a y f u l mood of t h i s
y o u n g boy is beautifully
captured in the warm evening
light off Key West, Florida, by
means of the silhouette
technique. The ghostly, out-of-
focus figures on the pier
contribute to the abstract
quality of the image. They do
not intrude into the picture but
help to fill the empty skyline,
thanks to a 500mm lens and a
shallow depth of field.
CREATING A MOOD
This lone fisherman is not
a n o b v i o u s c a n d i d a t e for an
exciting image. There is no
action, the shoreline is
undistinguished and the lighting
ordinary.

A sparkling background
transforms the picture.
The unexpected silhouette, Closing in on the subject with a
especially if the subject is set telephoto lens and shooting
against an unusual backdrop, straight into the reflected light
can provide a striking image. A on the water's surface produces
woman driving a jeep down Sag a photograph with enormous
Harbor main street on Long impact. T h e exposure was
Island, New York, caught the carefully made to give minimum
photographer's eye. The detail in the fisherman's face
woman stood out in stark relief and arms. The photographer
against white garage doors. then had to wait for a little bit
Her semi-profile is emphasized of action as the rod was cast.
by the outline of her glasses. The resulting picture was a
The open-top vehicle adds powerful study in
interest. concentration.
GLAMOUR PHOTOGRAPHY
F a s h i o n o r " b e a u t y " p h o t o g r a p h y is a skilled and specialized thought and ingenuity to conceal bad b a c k g r o u n d s . Second,
b u s i n e s s . Model, m a k e - u p , hair, c l o t h e s and location all you a r e unlikely t o b e w o r k i n g with a highly paid, e x p e r i e n c e d
c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d c r e a t i n g t h e mood of t h e picture. T h e model. T h e subject m a y b e a relative or the "girl n e x t d o o r . "
photographic technique e m p l o y e d and t h e lighting, w h e t h e r in So h o w should you a p p r o a c h a b e a c h session? What a r e the
t h e controlled e n v i r o n m e n t of a studio o r on location, m u s t b e pitfalls? And h o w can you m a k e an inexperienced model look
carefully planned. T h i s is t h e realm of t h e professional g r e a t ? You m u s t not b e t o o ambitious. K e e p the situation as
p h o t o g r a p h e r , but t h e thinking a m a t e u r can g e t s o m e e x - simple a s possible and, m o s t important, c o n c e n t r a t e on relax-
cellent r e s u l t s too b y thinking t h e s h o o t t h r o u g h in detail. ing y o u r subject. If s h e f e e l s at e a s e , t h e n you a r e half-way to
As an e x a m p l e , 1 have c h o s e n an o u t d o o r s e t t i n g f o r a taking g r e a t p h o t o g r a p h s .
"glamour p h o t o g r a p h y " s e s s i o n : a m o d e l on a beach. Con- F o r this s t e p - b y - s t e p s e q u e n c e of pictures, I deliberately
ditions are rarely ideal. You m a y lack the p e r f e c t location or t h e c h o s e a s u b j e c t with no modeling e x p e r i e n c e and a beach that,
w o m a n of y o u r d r e a m s . And this is only t h e beginning. although s p a c i o u s e n o u g h to give s o m e privacy, w a s far f r o m
T h e n e x t stumbling block could be t h e beach itself. B e a c h e s p e r f e c t . T h i s is the situation y o u a r e m o s t likely t o face, e i t h e r
in a d s and m a g a z i n e s always look s m o o t h , clean and inviting, o n vacation o r if you wish t o t r y your hand at glamour
but in reality this is s o m e t i m e s not t h e case. It t a k e s a lot of photography.

Y o u r f i r s t t h o u g h t may be to
take the model to the water's
edge, stand with the sun high
behind the camera and take a
picture at eye level. When you
s e e the result, you may wonder
what went wrong.

— >

T h i s c l u m s y p o s e is a typical Correct the model's


result. Everything about this p o s i t i o n by lowering the
picture is wrong: the subject is camera angle and turning her so
standing awkwardly and does she is back-lit and you are
not know what to do with her shooting into the sun. T h e sea
hands; she is squinting into the is now behind her, which
sun; and the camera is looking improves the background.
slightly down at her, which is
unflattering. T h e shoreline cuts
through her head, and the
beach is a mess. Many holiday
pictures turn out just like this.
ON THE BEACH/1

STOP! THINK!
Try a different pose

T u r n i n g h e r body slightly
away from the camera has a
slimming effect. With one hand
on her head, the outline of her
body is now clear. She is
standing on her toes, which
improves the leg line. It is
difficult, however, for an
inexperienced model to cope
with all the elements of a full-
length shot. And the beach is
still messy.

C r o p p i n g t h e p o s e to the
thighs means that the subject
has to stand in a less awkward
position, and the extent of the
beach is reduced. Hands can be
a problem: an inexperienced
model does not know what to
do with them, and an amateur
photographer does not know
what to suggest. By placing her
hands on or behind her head,
the model clears the body line
and, by tilting the upper part of
her body, gives a cun-e to the
waistline. Watch for wrinkles
around the waist if she bends
too far. This is one of several
"fail-safe" poses used by
photographers everywhere.
Explore new camera angles STOP! THINK! S l i g h t o v e r e x p o s u r e of t h e
and a different position. Vary the exposure s k i n is necessary to make it
Sitting or kneeling is look smooth and flawless. If
more relaxed than standing. you are shooting into the light,
Here the model is moved judging the exposure for skin
nearer the water and a low tones can be tricky. It is best to
camera angle is used. bracket.

T o o f a r f o r w a r d . This
viewpoint does not flatter the
legs which appear
disproportionately large. With
this pose, the model should
point the toes and sit tall so
that her body stretches out
smoothly. The hand on the
head helps the body outline.

T o o f a r b e h i n d . The legs are


shortened, while the hand on
the sand looks too large. It is - i - - - -
worth trying different camera
positions, but in this instance
neither the three-quarter front
nor the rear approach adds
anything to the picture or
flatters the model.
Exposing for the highlights,
when the sun is shining on the STOP! THINK!
sea, will render skin tones dark Try another
and muddy. You may have to background
burn out the highlights, but the
atmosphere of the seaside
setting will be retained.

Kneeling is an attractive
p o s i t i o n for the model to
adopt. The golden rules of
posing also apply here. Always
make her point her toes and
stretch the body for maximum
length. Unfortunately her hair is
beginning to look a little untidy,
and, pleasant though the
photograph is, the background
could be improved greatly.
STOP! THINK!
Return to a
sitting position

G r a s s a n d s a n d add
d i f f e r e n t t e x t u r e s and. with a
high camera angle, can be used
to frame the model. Moving her
away from the water has
provided a more interesting
composition.

B e w a r e of t h e s u n o n t h e
m o d e l ' s f a c e . Although the
camera angle is good, the
lighting is patchy, with streaks
of sunlight over half the face.
The pose is relaxed and the
picture well framed, but it lacks
impact.

Sitting the model higher up


in t h e d u n e s and maintaining
the vertical format have
produced the start of a good
— >
photograph. The grasses are
K n e e l i n g in t h e w r o n g well placed behind the subject,
p o s i t i o n can be disastrous. but the lighting is patchy and
Avoid the cut-off look. T h e legs her legs are awkwardly posed.
look thick and awkward. A too- In addition, the model's hands
high camera angle and harsh look awkward.
lighting combine to make the
model's figure look
unattractive. This is the
kneeling equivalent of the first
picture in the series.
STOP! THINK!
Go for bolder images

T i g h t e n u p t h e p o s e by
swinging the legs around and
carefully balancing the position
of the hands. One hand can now
be used to hold back her hair.
By turning, the model has even
lighting on her face. Although
the photographer is shooting
into the sun, this is a much
more elegant and relaxed pose,
helped by the sitting tall
position. This relaxed pose
mirrors the tall, sweeping
grasses, but a bolder image still
is possible.
ON THE BEACH/4

R e f l e c t l i g h t b a c k off t h e
s a n d onto the model, hi this W i t h a zoom l e n s , the
instance, a beach towel was thinking photographer has made
used. Here the model is posed a glamorous portrait. Although
on top of tlie dunes in a small he has ignored all the obvious
clearing framed by dune elements of the seaside, the
grasses. The photographer is model's bikini gives a hint of
now shooting against the sky. location. Shallow depth of field
has thrown the grass out of
The clear sky emphasizes focus. There is a feeling of
t h e body s h a p e . Tight wind-blown freshness and
cropping and the model's exliilaration, emphasized by the
closed eyes create a model throwing back her head.
feeling of luxurious warmth. The hair is off her face, her
Her body is stretched to avoid neck is stretched, and the soft
skin creases, so easily light is flattering.
overlooked with this pose.
All you need is a standard
lens and a beach towel.
NUDES
P h o t o g r a p h i n g t h e n u d e is probably the m o s t difficult f o r m of
p h o t o g r a p h y . It brings its o w n unique s e t of p r o b l e m s . M a n y
a p h o t o g r a p h e r h a s b e e n at a loss w h e n first e m b a r k i n g on a
n u d e p h o t o g r a p h y session, b u t t h e r e a r e a f e w basic guidelines
you can follow.
T h e first p r o b l e m could b e t h e model. Unlike a p h o t o g r a p h y
s e s s i o n on a beach, w h e r e y o u r model could b e a relative or
a friend, it is r a r e that an i n e x p e r i e n c e d model will relax suf-
ficiently for n u d e p h o t o g r a p h y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , it is e s s e n t i a l for
t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r to know t h e model: good communication
b e t w e e n t h e t w o is e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . T h e r e is a fine line
b e t w e e n a p i c t u r e that is tastefully e x e c u t e d and one that is
not.
U n l e s s t h e s e s s i o n is in a studio, privacy m a y also b e a
p r o b l e m . While many p e o p l e think nothing of t o p l e s s o r n u d e
sunbathing on s o m e r e s o r t b e a c h e s , it is quite a different
m a t t e r w h e n t h e r e is a c a m e r a p r e s e n t . You will, t h e r e f o r e ,
h a v e to c h o o s e a t i m e of day w h e n o t h e r p e o p l e a r e n o t around.
Planning is t h e key. C o n s i d e r t h e location well in advance
a n d allow yourself p l e n t y of time. N e v e r r u s h a session, and
s e t t l e f o r a f e w really good p h o t o g r a p h s r a t h e r than a lot of
average ones.

Nude p h o t o g r a p h y can be sand, provided a body for it and


h u m o r o u s . There is no reason an amusing companion for the
why photographer and model model.
should not have fun. This model
on a Tunisian beach had cast off
her bikini top for a spot of
peaceful sunbathing. The
matchstick man, drawn in the
T h e o u t l i n e of t h e b o d y is globe. A clear profile and a
beautiful in its stark simplicity. good separation of legs and arm
T h e model was sunbathing on make this an artistic, yet
the roof of her hotel, simple, photograph. The
silhouetted by a richly colored picture is timeless.
African sunset. The curve of
the roof makes her look as if
she is stretched out over the
A VARIETY OF ANGLES
Nude photography does not
a l w a y s h a v e to b e p o s e d .
Candid moments can provide
good pictures. This model was
relaxing after a long photo
session, but the alert
photographer spotted a picture.
It is a natural, uncontrived pose
that would probably not have
been tried during the session.

Add a s i m p l e p r o p . Using a
designer hat transforms this
rear view of a nude on a
Tunisian beach into a striking
photograph. Strong sunlight
throws a stark shadow on the
sand and adds interest. Without
the hat, the picture would not
work, but the addition of this
one outrageous prop, together
with the graphic use of the
shadow, makes this a fascinating
study. The photographer has
resisted the temptation to crop
in close on the picture and has
used the space to good effect.
" W K

.Simple p r o p s m a k e t h i s
a g r e a t p i c t u r e . A yellow
turban and boldly patterned belt
are all that adorn the model's
naked body as she sits amid the
ruins of a castle. This was a
good subject in itself, but the
addition of the model's mirror,
cleverly placed so that she
could see the camera in it and
therefore appears to be looking
at the photographer, creates an
intimate feeling. Simplicity
was the rule here, but
the mirror not only fills an
empty space in the frame but
gives the picture much greater
impact.
PHOTOGRAPHING ANIMALS
Animal p h o t o g r a p h y i s s o m e t h i n g of a paradox. You m a y have
to wait for h o u r s to g e t the c h a n c e of a good picture, but once
t h e action begins, y o u r r e a c t i o n s m u s t b e lightning quick, o r
you will m i s s a fleeting c h a n c e .
W h e t h e r they a r e y o u r p e t s at h o m e , wild animals in t h e
c o u n t r y , or exotic c r e a t u r e s in z o o s or safari parks, animals
a r e a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e of photographic inspiration and chal-
lenge. P r o b l e m s will o c c u r if you do not a p p r e c i a t e the basic
and s e e m i n g l y obvious fact — animals do not p o s e for pictures.
You m u s t w a t c h for t h e right m o m e n t and exploit it w h e n it
o c c u r s . M a n y p h o t o g r a p h e r s have b e e n caught loading film
w h e n an animal decides to do s o m e t h i n g worth photographing
— and it rarely r e p e a t s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e .
S o w i t h animal p h o t o g r a p h y , you m u s t b e quick to focus,
quick to r e l e a s e the s h u t t e r , and quick to anticipate what might
h a p p e n n e x t . H e w h o h e s i t a t e s will lose a good picture. With
animals as s u b j e c t s , it is always w o r t h taking a f e w e x t r a
frames.
Occasionally you m a y b e able to control t h e situation in the
wild by using food to a t t r a c t an animal's attention. This is not
always d e s i r a b l e or e v e n safe, but it can s o m e t i m e s give you
a c h a n c e y o u would not o t h e r w i s e have. At z o o s , o r in p a r k s
w h e r e you a r e obliged t o k e e p c a r w i n d o w s closed, hold t h e
c a m e r a c l o s e t o the f e n c e o r g l a s s t o eliminate u n w a n t e d lines
o r reflections.
Although you should t r y t o g e t a s close a s possible, n e v e r
c r o s s s a f e t y f e n c e s without authorization. N o p i c t u r e is w o r t h
injury, and you will only s e t a bad e x a m p l e to o t h e r visitors.
Staff in zoos and p a r k s a r e usually s y m p a t h e t i c to a
p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s r e q u i r e m e n t s . If you are in doubt about w h e r e
you a r e p e r m i t t e d to go, ask t h e m .
Let p a t i e n c e b e y o u r rule, especially w h e n p h o t o g r a p h i n g
animals in t h e wild. You may feel you a r e waiting an e t e r n i t y ,
but the r e w a r d of a good wildlife picture will m a k e it w o r t h -
while. W h a t e v e r t h e animal o r t h e location, o n c e you h a v e
waited, quick w i t s and decisive action can give you s o m e g r e a t
pictures.

A lioness basking in t h e of focus. This splendid creature


a f t e r n o o n s u n provides a could, therefore, be anywhere:
majestic animal portrait. By- in a zoo or on the African
using a wide aperture to limit savannah. A telephoto lens
the depth of field and placing would reduce the depth of field
the camera right against the even further and concentrate
mesh fencing, the photographer attention on the lioness's head.
'eliminates' the fence. It is out
IN THE WILD
T h i s wolf w a s t a k e n at M i r r o r t h e s u b j e c t in t h e
c l o s e q u a r t e r s in a wildlife b a c k g r o u n d . This blue heron
park. It provided a chance to wading in the shallows off the
take pictures without fencing Florida Keys was photographed
getting in the way. In such a at water level with a 500mm
situation, you must obey lens. The background is well
notices and the instructions of out of focus, but the aerial
staff. It is useful to have at roots of the mangrove tree are
least one person with you to visible. They mirror the bird's
spot other animals and to watch long neck. The heron's color,
out for danger. too, is reflected in the water. In
this way the bird appears at one
with its surroundings.

M a k i n g s o m e t h i n g o u t of
n o t h i n g is possible with a little
imagination. With its clever
camouflage, tliis gecko on a
screen door at Lion Country
Safari in Florida was almost
invisible from the outside. But
the thinking photographer went
inside the building and, with the
camera close to the mesh,
created an interesting
silhouette of the tiny creature.
This is one way to photograph
colorless or small animals
successfully.
Wait f o r t h e a c t i o n , hi this
instance, the photographer
waited until the seagull called to
its mate, then reacted swiftly,
transforming a still-life into a
lively study. You must be
patient when photographing
animals. It is necessary, to turn
an ordinary, static picture into
one that captures the nature of
the beast.
PICTURES THAT DON'T EXIST
W e h a v e all s e e n t h e p i c t u r e s that don't exist — t h e full
m o o n o v e r s u c h - a n d - s u c h a place that you s u s p e c t w a s r a t h e r
m o r e than a coincidence. O r t h e b i z a r r e f a n t a s y image that you
a r e certain w a s a p r o d u c t of the p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s mind r a t h e r
than reality. C h e a t i n g this m a y be, but is it not the logical
conclusion of t h e thinking p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s c r e a t i v e imagina-
tion?
Such p i c t u r e s a r e not m e r e l y t h e r e s u l t of t h e c a m e r a s e e i n g
things differently f r o m the naked e y e , o r t h e behavior of t h e
film altering the w a y a s c e n e a p p e a r s . P i c t u r e s that d o n ' t exist
a r c c r e a t e d in m a n y different w a y s , s o m e t i m e s d u e to highly
specialized p r o c e s s e s . O t h e r images a r e far e a s i e r to p r o d u c e .
D o u b l e o r multiple e x p o s u r e is a c o m m o n technique, and t h e
sandwich t r a n s p a r e n c y is a n o t h e r . T o sandwich, put t w o o r
m o r e slides t o g e t h e r and r e - p h o t o g r a p h t h e m to p r o d u c e a
n e w picture.
You can do this t y p e of p h o t o g r a p h y t o g r e a t effect, but u s e
it sparingly. Quality, not quantity, is m o s t i m p o r t a n t .

A d d i n g t h e m o o n or sun can
break up a large expanse of sky
in a landscape shot. This night
view of the Berlin Wall shows
well the barrier between East
and West. T h e photographer
waited for an approaching bus,
the lights of which add interest
to the foreground, but there
was too much sky on this
moonless night. A bright full
moon a week later provided the
answer. T h e film of the Wall
was run through the camera
again, this time exposing for S a n d w i c h i n g was used to lets you manipulate the
the moon and locating it in the produce this dramatic picture of components of a picture to alter
top left-hand comer of the a British Airways jet flying over scale and perspective.
picture. The two frames above New York. First, the plane was
show the single component photographed on its final
images, while below is the new approach to Heathrow Airport
double exposure — a much in London. Then, the urban
more interesting picture. evening skyline was taken from
the Brooklyn side of the East
River in New York. The two
images were sandwiched
together and re-photographed
to produce the new image
shown here. This technique
THE HUMOROUS VIEW
A s e n s e of h u m o r is invaluable to any p h o t o g r a p h e r . W h e t h e r
you a r e c r e a t i n g a f u n n y picture by carefully controlling a situa-
tion or m e r e l y o b s e r v i n g s o m e h u m o r o u s facet of t h e life going
on a r o u n d you, c o n s i d e r y o u r unique position to r e c o r d such
m o m e n t s . Always b e on the lookout f o r the h u m o r o u s situa-
tions that h a p p e n e v e n ' day.
T h e s e c r e t of good h u m o r o u s p h o t o g r a p h y is planning and
anticipation, o r both. S o m e funny things j u s t happen, as s h o w n
on p a g e s 10 and 16. O t h e r s have to b e c r e a t e d f r o m an idea.
T h e a d v e n t of m o d e r n c a m e r a s p r o d u c e d a n e w b r e e d of
paparazzi p h o t o g r a p h e r s , who stalk the f a m o u s w h e r e v e r t h e y
m a y be. Photographic t e c h n i q u e is a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t in
t h e s e i n s t a n c e s — t h e c a m e r a d o e s virtually all the w o r k —
but the o p e r a t o r m u s t h a v e t h e knack of being in t h e right place
at t h e right time (or w r o n g , d e p e n d i n g which e n d of t h e lens
you a r e on). T h e r e s u l t s can b e v e r y amusing, especially if t h e
s u b j e c t s a r e rich and famous, but t h e u n f o r t u n a t e victims m a y
not s h a r e t h e p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s s e n s e of humor. If you w a n t to
sell y o u r p i c t u r e s , you should m a k e s u r e t h e h u m o r is g e n t l e
and inoffensive.

U n i n t e n t i o n a l h u m o r can
often be the funniest. This
BMX bike champion had set up
his ramps near an empty lot to
practice his jumps. By careful
positioning, the photographer
was able to build a humorous
caption into the picture,
transforming an ordinary action
shot showing the rider's
advanced technique into a
photograph that can raise a
smile as well.

S p o t t i n g t h e f u n n y s i d e of
an everyday situation can
produce some great
photographs. Only top dogs are
exhibited at Cruft's Dog Show
in London, and for this lonely
labrador it was a long, cold wait
as his owner visited the show
to s e e some finer specimens.
There is gentle humor in this
photograph as well as a sharp
social comment on the British
attitude towards pets.
P e r h a p s t h e r e is n o f u n n i e r the over-zealous enthusiast,
s u b j e c t than photographers dripping with far too much
themselves. Some will go to photographic "jewelry," in a
any lengths to get the right search for the elusive "big
angle, and it can be a rewarding one." All the equipment in the
exercise to observe other world, however, is no good if
photographers as they strive you cannot think a picture
for perfection. A collection of through in the right way.
pictures of photographers in
action holds a lesson for us all.
Techniques range from the
casual, one-handed approach to
BLACK AND WHITE
M a n y photographic e x p e r t s a g r e e that t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l pic-
t u r e s a r e in black and white. W a r s and o t h e r h u m a n t r a g e d i e s
a r e classic i n s t a n c e s in which t h e impact of black and white
l e a v e s color floundering. In n e w s p a p e r s , of c o u r s e , black and
white is still the m e d i u m in which the p h o t o g r a p h e r m u s t work.
H o w e v e r , the v a s t majority of t o d a y ' s p h o t o g r a p h y is in
color. P h o t o g r a p h e r s c o n t e n d that it is much m o r e difficult to
w o r k in black a n d white, and it certainly d o e s r e q u i r e a dif-
f e r e n t a w a r e n e s s . C o n t r a s t i n g colors m a y m e r g e into t h e
s a m e t o n e s , and w o r k i n g in a negative m e d i u m gives t h e
p h o t o g r a p h e r different e x p o s u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . With color
the g e n e r a l rule is " w h e n in doubt, u n d e r e x p o s e , " with black
and w h i t e t h e o p p o s i t e is t r u e .
T h e p h o t o g r a p h e r h a s much m o r e control o v e r t h e e n d
result with black and white. A print can b e w o r k e d o n in the
d a r k r o o m . Skies can b e printed in or held back, for e x a m p l e ,
and highlights can b e controlled by different p a p e r c o n t r a s t s .
T h e whole e x p o s u r e latitude is far wider with black and white
p h o t o g r a p h y , but this d o e s not e x c u s e bad t e c h n i q u e s .
If t h e advice is " k e e p it s i m p l e " in color, it is e v e n m o r e s o
in black a n d white. S u c h p h o t o g r a p h s a r e at their b e s t w h e n
graphically simple. T o n a l s e p a r a t i o n m u s t b e distinct. Al-
t h o u g h a g r e a t deal is possible in the d a r k r o o m , you shouldn't
rely totally o n d a r k r o o m t e c h n i q u e to salvage y o u r p h o t o s .

I MWmte

If y o u e v e r find y o u r s e l f end of the press line-up and


taking pictures alongside waited. It was a gamble, since a
professional photographers, "safety shot," the head-on view,
you may pick up some tips by was not possible from there.
watching how they think ahead. T h e Queen and the President
When President Reagan visited did move off in the right
Britain in June 1982, he was direction, but with a party of
invited to go riding with the other riders. However, with a
Queen at Windsor Castle. long lens (300mm), there was a
There was a photo-call for the brief moment when I could
world's press, but as the heads exclude the other riders.
of state sat astride their horses, Because I used fast film, I could
the scene looked posed and use a fast shutter speed and
lacking in atmosphere. handhold the camera. The back
I remembered the President view is unmistakably that of the
riding into the sunset in his Queen and the President of the
movie days and could imagine United States. A bit of quick
the couple moving off — into thinking and a little luck gave
the sunrise in this instance. So me a fine photograph.
1 took a chance and went to the
PRINTING EFFECTS
A s k i l l e d p r i n t e r can make a careful printing of the sky and
good photograph great. This foreground create a picture
picture — part of a black and with eye-catching impact. One
white photo-essay on the decay simple image tells the whole
of British seaside resorts — is story of the sorry state of this
a good example of tliis. It was seaside town, and the printing
taken 011 England's east coast has given it a stark reality. T h e
and shows a beach-ride cart photographer helped the printer
looking for customers along the in tliis instance by using a red
deserted shore. T h e broken- filter. With black and white film,
down pier beyond completes the filter increases contrast by
the story. making a blue sky much
The straight print from the blacker, while keeping the
negative is shown below, but clouds white.
on the left is the final result. A
more contrasty paper and

.S-r. T-'Jjte.si t : •- •••


. -
THE GRAPHIC IMAGE
B l a c k a n d w h i t e film can
give a stark, graphic quality to
an image that is enhanced by
good, creative printing. Looking
for a lead picture for a photo-
essay on West Point Military'
Academy in the United States,
the photographer came across
this imposing statue framed by
an archway. This could just as
easily have been taken by a
tourist, however. What was
needed was a figure to set the
whole thing off. A marching
cadet came to the
photographer's rescue and
injected the required military
flavor. The right moment to
take the shot was when the
cadet was outlined against the
white stone of the statue's
base. There was time only for
one shot.
When the picture was
printed, detail in the archway
was eliminated by printing it to
a solid black. This made a
strong frame for the marching
soldier, focusing viewers'
attention on the action. The
human figure, dwarfed by the
statue, also gives a good sense
of scale.
TECHNICAL
INFORMATION
If t h e approach to p h o t o g r a p h y d e s c r i b e d in this book had t o
b e s u m m e d up in t w o w o r d s , t h e y would b e S T O P ! T H I N K !
If you d o n o t s t o p b e f o r e you p r e s s the s h u t t e r r e l e a s e and
think clearly a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t you are going to photograph,
and h o w you are going t o do it, t h e e n s u i n g confusion will b e
t r a n s l a t e d on film as undistinguished pictures.
T h e point h a s b e e n m a d e m a n y t i m e s that t h e r e is n o n e e d
t o o w n sophisticated e q u i p m e n t in o r d e r to t a k e g r e a t
p h o t o g r a p h s . E v e n a simple c a m e r a can b e a c r e a t i v e tool in
t h e h a n d s of a thinking p h o t o g r a p h e r . F o r t h o s e who
a p p r e c i a t e t h e technical details, t h e r e follows a list that
includes the c a m e r a model (all w e r e Nikon), lens, e x p o s u r e and
m a k e of film u s e d f o r m o s t of the p i c t u r e s in this b o o k .
Nearly all p h o t o g r a p h i c s u b j e c t s a r e c o v e r e d h e r e , but t h e
s a m e r u l e s apply f o r t h o s e that have b e e n omitted. A n s w e r
t h e six k e y q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e you s e t out, and S T O P ! and
T H I N K ! b e f o r e you s h o o t . Nothing is impossible, but really
g r e a t p h o t o g r a p h s m a y t a k e j u s t a little m o r e time and thought.
All t h e p h o t o g r a p h s in this book w e r e t a k e n with Nikon e q u i p m e n t . T h e main p i c t u r e on a page is indicated b y an a s t e r i s k (*).
T h e positions of o t h e r p i c t u r e s o n a page a r e detailed w h e r e relevant; o t h e r w i s e , information applies t o all p i c t u r e s on a page.

PAGE CAMERA LENS FILM EXPOSURE


MODEL

Jacket front F3 15mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-8

8-9* F3 500mm Ektachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-8

10-11* F3 55mm macro Tri-X 1/125 sec, /-4

12-13* F3 50mm Ektachrome 64 4 sees, / - l l

14-15* F3 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, / - l l

16-17* FM2 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6

18-19* F3 6mm fisheye Kodachrome 64 1 sec, /-8

20-21 FTN 200mm Tri-X 1/250 sec, /-5.6


Nikkormat

22 (iabove) F3 35mm Ektachrome 64 1/60 sec, / - 8


(below) F3 35mm Ektachrome 64 1/125 sec, / - l l

23 F3 500mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, /-8

24 F3 24mm Kodachrome 64 20 sees, / - l l

25 F3 500mm Kodachrome 64 2 mins, / - 8

26 (above) FM2 24mm Kodachrome 64 1/2000 sec, / - l l


(below) F3 300mm Ektachrome 64 1/500 sec, /-8

27 F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-4

28-29 F3 15mm Tri-X 1/60 sec, /-5.6

30 FM2 55mm 3M 1000 1/250 sec, /-5.6

31 FM2 55mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-4

32-33* FM2 55mm Fuji 400 1/15 sec, /-8

34-35* FM2 55mm Ilford XP1 1/125 sec, /-5.6

36-37 FM2 55mm Fuji 100 1/60 sec, f-4

38-39* FM2 55mm Fuji 400 1/250 sec, /-2.8

40-41 FM2 55mm Ektachrome 64 open shutter, /-5.6

42 (above) FM2 55mm Ektachrome 64 1/250 sec, f-4


(below left) FM2 55mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, f-4
(below right) FM2 55mm Tri-X Electronic flash, /-16
PAGE CAMERA LENS FILM EXPOSURE
MODEL

43 (above) FM2 55mm Ilford XP1 Electronic flash, /-22


(below) FM2 55mm Ektachrome 64 Electronic flash, /-5.6

44 FM2 35mm Tri-X 1/30 sec, /-5.6

45 FM2 35mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6

46-47 FM2 105mm Fuji 50 Electronic flash, / - l l

48 (above and FM2 35mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6


below left)
(below right) FM2 300mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6

49 (above) FM2 300mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6


(below) FM2 105mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, / - 5 . 6

50-51* FM2 55mm Ektachrome 64 1/500 sec, / - 8

52-55 FM2 55mm Ektachrome 64 1/250 sec, / - 4 . 5

56-57* FM2 105mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, / - 5 . 6

58-62 F3 55mm Fuji 100 1/30 sec, /-5.6

63* F3 55mm 3M 1000 1/125 sec, /-5.6

64-65 FM2 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-8

66 (left) F3 35mm Fuji 100 Electronic flash. /-8


(right) F3 35mm Fuji 100 Electronic flash, /-5.6

67 (above) F3 35mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, / - l l


(below) F3 35mm Fuji 100 Electronic flash, /-8

68* F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, /-4

69* F3 55mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6

70 (above and F3 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-4.5


center)

70 (below) F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, /-4

71 (above) F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/60 sec, f-4


(below left) F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6
(below right) F3 35mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6

72-73 (above) F3 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-4.5


(below) F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-4

74 F3 300mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6

75 (above) F3 300mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6


(below left) F3 200mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6
(below right) F3 24mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, / - l l

76* F3 300mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-4.5

77 (above) F3 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6


(below) F3 200mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-4.5
PAGE CAMERA LENS FILM EXPOSURE
MODEL

78 (<above and F3 300mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6


below left)
(below right) F3 200mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-8

79 (above) F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-4


(below) F3 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6

80-81* FM2 55mm Fuji 100 Electronic flash, /-8

82-83* FM2 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-5.6

84 (above) FM2 105mm Fuji 400 1/125 sec, / - 2 . 8


(below) FM2 55mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, / - 5 . 6

85 (above) FM2 55mm macro Fuji 100 1/125 sec, f-4


(below) FM2 55mm Fuji 100 Electronic flash, /-8, with filter

86-87* FM2 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 1/60 sec, /-8

88-89 FM2 105mm Fuji 100 Electronic flash, /-5.6,


then 2 sees at /-8

90-91 F3 300mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, / - 5 . 6

92-93 FM2 35mm Fuji 100 Electronic flash, / - l l

95 (above left F3 300mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, /-8


and right)
(below) F3 200mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, f-S

96-97 (above)* F3 500mm mirror Fuji 100 1/2000 sec, /-8


(below)* F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/8 sec, /-22

98 F3 300mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, /-4.5

99 F3 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/15 sec, /-16

100-101* F3 15mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, f-S

102-103 F3 55mm Kodachrome 64 1/2 sec, f-S

104 F3 180mm Kodachrome 64 1/15 sec, /-16

105 (above) F3 200mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, f-4 \ with polarizing


(below) F3 200mm Kodachrome 64 1/4 sec, /-32 J fflto

F3 80-200mm zoom Kodaclirome 64 1/250 sec, /-4.5


•—-

III

F3 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 10 sees, / - l l


F3 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 Electronic flash, f-S

107 F3 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 1/15 sec, /-5.6, during zoom

108-109 F3 24mm Fuji 50 4 sees, f-S

110* FM2 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, f-S

111* FM2 200mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, f-4

112* FM2 200mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, / - 5 . 6

113* FM2 55mm Kodaclirome 64 1/125 sec, / - l l


PAGE CAMERA LENS FILM EXPOSURE
MODEL

114 (above) FM2 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-8


(below) FM2 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec. /-8

115 FM2 55mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-5.6

116 (above) FM2 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 1/60 sec, /-8

117 FM2 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 64 1/30 sec, /-5.6 with polarizing
filter

118-119 FM2 105mm Fuji 50 1/15 sec, /-5.6

119 (above) FM2 105mm Fuji 50 1/4 sec, /-5.6

120 (above) FM2 105mm Fuji 50 1/125 s e c , / - 5 . 6


(below) FM2 105mm Fuji 50 1/250 sec, /-8

121 (above) FM2 105mm Fuji 50 1/250 sec, /-8


(below) FM2 105mm Fuji 50 1/500 sec, /-8

122-123* F3 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, / - l l

124 (above) F3 200mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-8


(below left) F3 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/60 sec, /-5.6

125 (above) F3 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-5.6


(below) F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-5.6

126-127 F3 15mm Kodachrome 64 1/8 sec, /-8

128* FM2 55mm Kodachrome 64 1/60 sec, /-5.6

129 F3 80-200mm zoom Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-8

130-131* FM2 15mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-8

132-134 not recorded

135 FM2 24mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, / - l l with polarizing


filter

136* F3 200mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, / - 8 with polarizing


filter

137* FM2 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, / - l l

138 (below) F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, /-8

139 F3 15mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, / - l l

140 (above) F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-5.6


(below) F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-5.6

141 (above) F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, /-5.6


(below) F3 55mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-8

142 (above) F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-8


(below) F3 105mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-5.6

143 F3 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-8


PAGE CAMERA LENS FILM EXPOSURE
MODEL

144 AF35 35mm Kodachrome 64 Automatic, with flash

145 F3 15mm Fuji 100 1/30 sec, / - 8

146 (above) F3 85mm Fuji 100 1/125 sec, /-5.6


(below) F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/500 sec, /-5.6

147 FM2 105mm Kodaclirome 64 1/250 sec, /-8

148-149* F3 85mm Kodachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-5.6

150-151 F3 105mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-8

152-153* F3 35mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-8

154 not recorded

155 F3 500mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, /-8

156-162 FM2 55mm Ektachrome 64 various

163 FM2 200mm Ektachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-5.6

164-165* F3 24mm Ektachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-5.6

166 (below) F3 24mm Ektachrome 64 1/500 sec, / - l l

167 F3 35mm Ektachrome 64 1/60 sec, / - 5 . 6

168-169 F3 200mm Ektachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-4.5

170 (above) F3 135mm Ektachrome 64 1/125 sec, /-5.6


(below) F3 55mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, /-8

171 (above) F3 500mm Kodachrome 64 1/500 sec, /-8


(below) F3 500mm Kodachrome 64 1/250 sec, /-8

172 (above left) F3 500mm Fuji 100 1/30 sec, /-8


(above right) F3 24mm Fuji 100 8 sees, /-8

173 not recorded

174 (below) FM2 35mm Tri-X 1/125 sec, /-5.6

174-175* FM2 35mm Fuji 100 1/250 sec, /-8

175 FM2 80-200mm zoom Kodachrome 6-1 1/250 sec, /-4.5

176-177 F3 300mm Tri-X 1/500 sec, /-4.5

178-179* F3 55mm Tri-X 1/125 sec, /-8, with red filter

180-181 F3 105mm Tri-X 1/250 sec, /-8

182-183 F3 105mm Fuji 50 Electronic flash, / - l l


GLOSSARY
against the light: describes a contrast: the degree of difference highlights: the brightest parts of a ASA or less, giving fine grain and
situation when the subject is between light and dark tones in an photograph. good image sharpness.
between the photographer and the image. When there is a wide
light source, so as to be back-lit. difference, a photograph is latitude: describes a film's degree SLR (single lens reflex): a
described as "contrasty"; when of tolerance to exposure variations camera in which a mirror, set at a
angle of view: the position of the there is not much difference, it is that will still produce an acceptable 45" angle behind the lens, reflects
camera in relation to the subject, or described as "flat". result. the image up to the viewfinder. The
the angle "seen" by a given lens. mirror swings out of the way when
cropping: the framing of a low key: describes a photograph the shutter is released. The user
aperture: an adjustable hole in the photograph in the camera as the of predominantly dark tones. sees through the viewfinder the
iris of the lens that opens and shot is taken, or the selection of exact image that will be reproduced
closes by means of a system of only part of a photographic image macro lens: a lens capable of on film.
metal leaves and allows light to for printing or enlarging. focusing extremely close to a
pass through onto the film. The subject; a close-up lens. soft focus: describes an image that
size of the hole, or aperture, is depth of field: the area of a has been diffused by filters or by
defined in /-stops. photograph that appears acceptably mirror lens: a lens that uses shooting through glass or other
sharp in front of and behind the concave mirrors to "fold" the path materials to reduce the overall
ASA (American Standards point on which the lens is focused. of light rays and produce a long- sharpness of the picture. This
Association): the rating of the focal-lcngth lens in a relatively technique is often used to soften
sensitivity of a film to light, which double exposure: one or more compact lens body. The mirror lens skin tones or smooth out any
determines the exposure setting. exposures made on the same piece has a fixed aperture. The out-of- blemishes.
The faster, or more sensitive, the of film, resulting in the imposition of focus "doughnut" effect often seen
film, the higher the ASA number. one image on another. on highlights is produced by such a standard lens: a lens with a focal
lens. length approximately equal to the
auto-focus: describes a camera exposure: a criterion that depends diagonal of the format for which it is
that focuses automatically on a on the amount of light reaching the overexposure: a condition that intended. For a 35mm camera, it is
subject in the viewfinder without film. It is determined by die results when too much light generally 50-55mm.
any manual adjustment. combination of aperture setting, reaches the film, so that the image
which controls the intensity or is too light and lacks contrast; stopping down: reducing the size
automatic camera: a camera in amount of the light, and shutter highlights may be burned out and of the aperture and thus the amount
which the exposure is controlled speed, which controls the exposure show no detail. of light entering the camera. This
automatically by built-in time. also increases the depth of field.
components. A semi-automatic pan and tilt head: a tripod
camera requires the user to select fast film: film with a rating of 200 mechanism that allows the camera sync cord/synchronization
the aperture setting or the shutter ASA or more. to swing and tilt through 180° or lead: the lead that joins a camera
speed. more. to an electronic flash, to trigger the
fisheye lens: a lens with an angle flash when the shutter is fully
available light: describes existing of view of 180° or more; it often panning: describes following the opened.
natural light without supplementary produces a circular image. motion of a subject with the camera
lighting. and releasing the shutter during the telephoto lens: a lens with a
flare: an effect produced when a swing of the camera. In this way. a longer focal length and a narrower
burning out: describes what bright light shines directly on the slower shutter speed can lie used angle of view than a standard lens.
happens when detail is lost in the lens, either projecting the shape of to keep the subject sharp while It permits focusing at greater
image due to overexposure. the aperture onto the image or blurring the background to give the distances from the subject and
causing a loss of sharpness. effect of movement and/or speed. produces greater magnification; it is
cast: any overall color tone used to bring subjects closer
affecting the film, often due to the /-stop/number: a term which polarizing filter: a filter used to without moving the camera nearer
use of a particular light source or to refers to the size of the aperture cut out reflections and haze by to them.
the photograph being taken either through which light passes to the reducing polarized light. Used on a
early or late in the day. film. The lower (smaller) the blue sky, it deepens the color, tungsten light: artificial light,
number, the wider the aperture and increasing the contrast between produced by a bulb containing a
color negative film: any film used thus the more light that will strike sky and clouds. tungsten filament.
for producing color prints. It the film.
records colors as their reciprocity failure: the alteration underexposure: an effect that
complementaries. The focal length: the distance of the color balance and exposure of results when insufficient light
complementary colors are reversed between the optical ccnter of the a film during extremely long or reaches the film, so that the image
in the printing to give the original lens, when focused on infinity, and short exposures because the appears very dark.
colors. the film plane. The longer the focal normal relationship between
length, the narrower the angle of exposure and light intensity does wide-angle lens: a lens with a
color reversal film: film used for view. not then apply. shorter focal length than a standard
producing color transparencies lens and a field of view of 60° or
(slides). This film gives a positive gelatin filter: a transparent self-timer mechanism: a camera more. Used for photographing a
transparency by "reversing" the material tliat absorbs some control that delays the firing of the wide area from close range.
negative image during processing. wavelengths of light passing shutter after the release button is
through it. U.is placed in front of pressed. It enables the zoom lens: a lens tliat can be
color saturation: the density and the lens to change the color balance photographer to make last-minute adjusted to a range of continuously
strength of color. of the light or to create a special adjustments or to move into the variable focal lengths by sliding or
effect. picture himself. rotating the barrel.
color transparency film: see
color reversal film. graininess: the granular effect shutter: the device in a camera zooming: describes moving a
that appears on fast film due to its that controls the length of time of variable focus lens during an
complementary colors: pairs of increased sensitivity. The faster the exposure, so determining the exposure, often to produce an
colors (eg blue and yellow) which, the film, die coarser the grain. amount of time during which the "explosion" effect.
when mixed together as light film is exposed to the light.
beams of the correct intensity, will high key: describes a photograph
produce white light. of predominantly light tones. slow film: film with a rating of 100
INDEX
A D G
action shots 40, 42, 76, 88-107, 171, depth of field 32, 39, 43, 84, 98, 153, 168 Gibraltar, Rock of 25
174-5 Deighton, Len 132 glamour 8, 24, 156-63
Adams, Richard 145 Derby Day, Epsom 72-9 glass, shooting through 32, 48, 126, 132-3
advertising 8, 23, 26, 40 Disney World 64, 128, 136-7 Goddard, Martyn 38-9, 42
angles, camera 14, 31, 46, 48, 53-4, 63, distractions 51, 52, 58-9, 60, 61, 80, 110, golf 9 0 - 1
67, 72, 76, 77, 84, 86, 92, 94, 98-100, 133 graphic image 26, 30-1, 34-5, 48, 115,
108, 110, 114, 122, 124, 126, 130-1, 138-9, 143, 148, 150, 166, 180
134-7, 138, 152, 156-63
animals 56, 168-71, 174 E
anticipation 16, 24, 56-7, 168, 174 exposure H
aperture setting see exposure, timing double 28, 88, 172-3 hands 69, 84-5, 157
architectural shots see buildings multiple 40, 172 high-key photography 24
auto-focus camera 144, 174 over- 24, 85, 131, 140, 158 highlights 14, 97, 120, 136, 140, 142, 151,
timing 12, 18, 25, 28, 31, 39, 64, 75, 159, 176
80, 97, 9 8 - 9 , 102, 104, 106, 108, 118, horse-racing 7 2 - 9
B 131, 140, 150-2, 154, 158-9 humor 10, 16, 20, 57, 70, 164, 174-5
babies 58 -63 under- 24, 136, 151
background 8, 32, 36, 39, 46, 52, 59-61,
72, 74, 75, 88, 97, 104, 150, 154, 156, I
159-60, 168, 170 F improvisation 72
Barbican Centre, London 126 facial contours 32, 38, 48 intimate moments 38, 66, 68, 70;
beach 156-63 family portraits 50-5, 58-63, 6 6 - 7 1 see also poses, relaxed
Beeston, Jennifer 36-7, 42 famous people 44, 46-9, 76, 174, 176
Berlin Wall 172 fashion 118, 156
best sellers 16, 20-3; see also selling film J
photographs color balance 12, 118 judo 88
black and white film 10, 24, 34-5, 39, 42, fast 20, 30-1, 38, 63, 176
43, 44, 176-81; see also monochrome slow 12
effect type of 24, 3 0 - 4 3 K
blurring 25, 88, 102, 104 field of view 18 kayaking 94-101
Bradshaw, Ian 30-1, 39, 42, 43 filter Kennington, Jill 8
Briggs, Karen 88 orange 4 3 Kings Road, London 16
buildings 18, 108, 110-17, 126-31, polarizing 116, 126, 132, 133, 135, 136
134-43, 144 red 179
soft-focus 48, 85
see also reflectors
C "first thoughts" picture 51, 58, 156
cars 8 6 - 7 flare 51, 131
cartoon, photographic 16 flash 28, 39, 40, 42, 43, 58, 66, 67, 80,
Cauthen, Steve 77 84, 92, 106, 126, 144
children 56-65, 70, 153 Florida 23, 64, 136, 153, 170
circular photograph 18 focal length 99
close-ups 60-1, 76, 80-5, 91, 125, 130, focal point 34, 58, 84, 130, 137, 146
138-43, 144 focus
color, enhancing 12, 25, 32 -3, 36, 86, out-of-focus effect 8, 36, 112, 163
108, 135, 179 sharp 84, 98, 102, 150, 152
color balance see film soft effect 38, 128
color negative film 24 foreground 54, 60, 80, 111-14, 121, 122,
communication 28-43, 44, 50, 164 128, 137, 141, 150, 172
cord, long sync 28 framing 16, 18, 30-3, 38-9, 44-7, 52, 54,
cropping 38, 61, 64, 98, 129, 148, 157, 58, 63, 66, 68-9, 77, 80, 82, 92, 111,
162, 166 112, 114, 116, 125, 139, 141, 142, 145,
cross-light see light 160-2, 180
crowds 18, 75, 77, 122, 124, 137 "freezing" movement 39, 42, 64, 70, 88,
Cruft's Dog Show 10, 174 90, 94, 100, 102, 104, 106
Fullerton, Fiona 4 6 - 7
L N S
landmarks 108-17, 122, 128 New York 27, 130-1, 134-5, 173 "safety shot" 24, 176
landscapes 12, 23, 27, 108, 118, 123, 151 newspaper photography 10, 20, 176 Sag Harbor, Long Island 138-43
Leeds Castle, Kent 108 Nieman, Julian 34-5, 43 sandwich transparency 172-3
lens nighttime shots 25, 106, 108, 172 saturated colors 100
fisheye 18 nudes 164-7 scale 27, 72, 92, 144-9, 173, 180
hood 51, 132 scene-setting 72
mirror 8 self-timer mechanism 18, 86
standard 10, 12, 18, 50, 58, 61, 162 O selling photographs 23, 24, 174
telephoto 68, 75, 77, 79, 94, 154, 168 occasions, special 80, 82-3, 85; shadows 42, 43, 60, 64, 66, 80, 118,
wide-angle 48, 100, 116 see also weddings 124-5, 134, 138, 142, 166
zoom 77, 99, 106, 116, 163 opportunities, photographic 12, 16, 20, 33, Shotton, Sue 92
55mm 28 56-7, 63, 66-7, 75, 77, 79, 91, 100, shutter, open 40
135mm 83 166, 176 shutter speeds see exposure, timing
200mm 20, 112 silhouettes 14, 26, 75, 113, 119, 120, 123,
300mm 77, 90, 98, 176 134-5, 150-5, 165, 170, 180
500mm 25, 153, 170 P skin tones 8, 24, 39, 84-5, 158
light panning 94, 97, 102, 104 space, use of 30, 32, 34, 83, 166
afternoon 14, 30, 121, 146 paparazzi 174 sports photography 82-3, 88-101, 102
angle 43, 80, 108, 116, 118-21, 132-3, perspective 33, 83, 115, 137, 173 St Paul's Cathedral, London 18
134-5 photo essay 72-9, 179, 180 still-life 35, 80, 82-5, 134, 136
color of 118 photographic equipment 24, 175 Stock Exchange, London 102
cross-light 28, 3 8 - 9 Piggott, Lester 76 Stonehenge, England 145
daylight 118-21 planning 24, 58, 66, 71, 72, 75, 76, 94, sun, photographing into 26, 51-2, 96, 154,
evening 12, 86, 108, 116, 121, 150 118, 156, 164, 174 156, 161
midday 14, 67, 108, 118, 120, 122, 124 plate cameras 152 sunsets 12. 23, 26, 116, 132
morning, early 18, 106, 118-20, 123, portraits 8, 39, 42, 44-55, 58-63, 66-71,
124, 144 91, 92, 125, 148, 163
quality of 118 poses T
side 30, 36, 43, 59, 61, 119, 132 aggressive 3 0 - 1 technical information 184-8
soft 8, 28, 32, 35, 36, 38-9, 44, 62, 69, formal 44-5, 66 texture 34, 39, 43, 84. 95, 113, 118,
80, 84-5, 163 relaxed 33, 35, 36, 42, 44, 48, 50-5, 160
studio 46 62, 66. 68-9, 156-63 Thurston, Patrick 3 2 - 3
sunlight 50, 100, 166 positioning 51-5, 59, 62, 64, 74, 86, 94, time of day for lighting see light
time of day 14, 18, 86, 106, 108, 110, 96-9, 108, 124-5, 126, 134-5, 156-63, timing 10, 20, 70, 90-1, 94, 97, 118, 180;
116, 118-25 174; see also angles, camera see also opportunities
unflattering 50, 58, 67, 118, 160 print-through 40 Tower Bridge, London 118-21
see also glass, reflections, sun printing effects 176, 177-8 trampolining 9 2 - 3
Lincoln Memorial 118, 124-5, 144 props 28, 52, 58, 60, 63, 69, 80, 166-7 transparency film 24
locations 44, 48, 50, 58, 86, 138-43, 156, travel photography 14, 32, 147
164 Trevino. Lee 90
Los Angeles 106 R "tricks," photographic 40, 171-2
reciprocity failure 12, 25 tripod 12, 24 , 25, 28, 58, 98- 9, 106, 152
reflections 14, 25, 42, 82-3, 108, 116, tungsten light 28, 84
M 118, 126-33, 150, 170
Macintyre, Nigel 4 0 - 1 elimination techniques 66, 67, 126,
McGraw, Ali 4 8 - 9 132-3 V
magazine photography 8, 46, 72 reflectors, white 8, 85
Manhattan 25 Richmond, Duke of 44 viewfinder 58, 104
Michelle, Vicki 2 8 - 4 3 Rutland, Duke of 44
mirrors 46, 71, 132, 167
mirrored images 14, 123, 126-31 W
models 8, 28-43, 156-67
monochrome effect 14, 39, 106, 111 Walsh, Maria 45
Montauk Lighthouse 110-17 Washington, DC 118, 122-5, 129
mother and baby see babies Washington Monument. 122-3, 144
water 14, 25, 64, 94-101, 104, 118, 122
weddings 66-71
West Point Military Academy 180
Z
zooming 99, 102, 106
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author would like to thank the


following for their assistance in the
preparation of this book:

Ivy and Bill Allsopp


Jennifer Beeston
Jon Bigg
Bryn Campbell
Lyn Cullen
Gerry Davis (photograph p. 27)
Donald Binney (for Index)
Martyn Goddard
Tom Hawkyard/3M
Jill Kennington
Leigh
Nigel Macintyre
Tony Martin (for black and white printing)
Vicki Michelle (for enduring the six
photographers)
Julian Nieman
Graham Rutherford / Fuji
Gene Spatz
Lindsay and Ian Thomlinson
Patrick Thurston
Frances Vince

Alamo Car Rental


British Airways
Irish Tourist Board
Lion Country Safari
Nikon (UK) Ltd.
The Observer
Sunday Mirror
Telegraph Sunday Magazine
YOU magazine
Walt Disney Productions Ltd.

Artwork by Hayward and Martin


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