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of the individual values. The idea of weighted mean plays a role in descriptive

statistics and also occurs in a more general form in several other areas of

mathematics

Definition

Weighted Mean is an average computed by giving different weights to some of

the individual values. If all the weights are equal, then the weighted mean is the

same as the arithmetic mean. Whereas weighted means generally behave in a

similar approach to arithmetic means, they do have a few counter instinctive

properties. Data elements with a high weight contribute more to the weighted

mean than do elements with a low weight. The weights cannot be negative. Some

may be zero, but not all of them; since division by zero is not allowed. Weighted

means play an important role in the systems of data analysis, weighted

differential and integral calculus

The Weighted mean for given set of non negative data {x1, x2, x3, ...xn} with non

negative weights {w1, w2, w3, ...wn} can be derived from the formula

where

x is the repeating value

w is the number of occurrences of x (weight)

x̄ is the weighted mean

The collection of tools employs the study of methods and procedures used for

gathering, organizing, and analyzing data to understand theory of Probability

and Statistics. The set of ideas which is intended to offer the way for making

scientific implication from such resulting summarized data. In many applications

it is necessary to calculate the weighted mean for a set of data with different

individual errors. With this online weighted mean calculator you can effortlessly

make your calculation for the set of given observations

Theorem

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SKILLS TO DEVELOP

To learn what the value of the standard deviation of a data set implies about how the data

scatter away from the mean as described by the Empirical Rule and Chebyshev’s Theorem.

To use the Empirical Rule and Chebyshev’s Theorem to draw conclusions about a data set.

You probably have a good intuitive grasp of what the average of a data set says about that data set. In

this section we begin to learn what the standard deviation has to tell us about the nature of the data

set.

We start by examining a specific set of data. Table 2.5.12.5.1 shows the heights in inches

of 100100 randomly selected adult men. A relative frequency histogram for the data is shown

in Figure 2.5.12.5.1. The mean and standard deviation of the data are, rounded to two decimal

places, x¯=69.92x¯=69.92 and σ=1.70σ=1.70.

72.2 70.0 68.7 67.9 71.1 69.0 70.8

If we go through the data and count the number of observations that are within one standard deviation

of the mean, that is, that

are between 69.92−1.70=68.2269.92−1.70=68.22 and 69.92+1.70=71.6269.92+1.70=71.62 inches,

there are 6969 of them. If we count the number of observations that are within two standard deviations

of the mean, that is, that are

between 69.92−2(1.70)=66.5269.92−2(1.70)=66.52 and 69.92+2(1.70)=73.3269.92+2(1.70)=73.3

2 inches, there are 9595 of them. All of the measurements are within three standard deviations of the

mean, that is,

between 69.92−3(1.70)=64.82269.92−3(1.70)=64.822 and 69.92+3(1.70)=75.0269.92+3(1.70)=75

.02 inches. These tallies are not coincidences, but are in agreement with the following result that has

been found to be widely applicable.

Figure 2.5.12.5.1: Heights of Adult Men

Approximately 68%68% of the data lie within one standard deviation of the mean, that is, in the

interval with endpoints x¯±sx¯±s for samples and with endpoints μ±σμ±σ for populations; if a data

set has an approximately bell-shaped relative frequency histogram, then (Figure 2.5.22.5.2)

approximately 95%95% of the data lie within two standard deviations of the mean, that is, in

the interval with endpoints x¯±2sx¯±2s for samples and with endpoints μ±2σμ±2σ for

populations; and

approximately 99.7%99.7% of the data lies within three standard deviations of the mean, that

is, in the interval with endpoints x¯±3sx¯±3s for samples and with endpoints μ±3σμ±3σ for

populations.

Figure 2.5.22.5.2: The Empirical Rule

Two key points in regard to the Empirical Rule are that the data distribution must be

approximately bell-shaped and that the percentages are only approximately true. The Empirical Rule

does not apply to data sets with severely asymmetric distributions, and the actual percentage of

observations in any of the intervals specified by the rule could be either greater or less than those

given in the rule. We see this with the example of the heights of the men: the Empirical Rule suggested

68 observations between 68.2268.22 and 71.6271.62inches, but we counted 6969.

EXAMPLE 2.5.12.5.1

Heights of 1818-year-old males have a bell-shaped distribution with mean 69.669.6 inches and

standard deviation 1.41.4 inches.

1. About what proportion of all such men are between 68.268.2 and 7171 inches tall?

2. What interval centered on the mean should contain about 95%95% of all such men?

Solution:

1. Since the interval from 68.268.2 to 71.071.0 has endpoints x¯−sx¯−s and x¯+sx¯+s, by the

Empirical Rule about 68%68% of all 1818-year-old males should have heights in this range.

2. By the Empirical Rule the shortest such interval has

endpoints x¯−2sx¯−2s and x¯+2sx¯+2s. Since

x¯−2s=69.6−2(1.4)=66.8(2.5.1)(2.5.1)x¯−2s=69.6−2(1.4)=66.8

and

x¯+2s=69.6+2(1.4)=72.4(2.5.2)(2.5.2)x¯+2s=69.6+2(1.4)=72.4

the interval in question is the interval from 66.866.8 inches to 72.472.4 inches.

Figure 2.5.32.5.3: Distribution of Heights

EXAMPLE 2.5.22.5.2

Scores on IQ tests have a bell-shaped distribution with mean μ=100μ=100 and standard

deviation σ=10σ=10. Discuss what the Empirical Rule implies concerning individuals with IQ scores

of 110110, 120120, and 130130.

Solution:

A sketch of the IQ distribution is given in Figure 2.5.32.5.3. The Empirical Rule states that

1. approximately 68%68% of the IQ scores in the population lie between 9090 and 110110,

2. approximately 95%95% of the IQ scores in the population lie between 8080 and 120120,

and

3. approximately 99.7%99.7% of the IQ scores in the population lie between 7070 and 130130.

1. Since 68%68% of the IQ scores lie within the interval from 9090 to 110110, it must be the

case that 32%32% lie outside that interval. By symmetry approximately half of that 32%32%,

or 16%16% of all IQ scores, will lie above 110110. If 16%16% lie above 110110,

then 84%84% lie below. We conclude that the IQ score 110110 is the 84th84th percentile.

2. The same analysis applies to the score 120120. Since approximately 95%95% of all IQ scores

lie within the interval form 8080 to 120120, only 5%5% lie outside it, and half of them,

or 2.5%2.5% of all scores, are above 120120. The IQ score 120120 is thus higher

than 97.5%97.5% of all IQ scores, and is quite a high score.

3. By a similar argument, only 15/10015/100 of 1%1% of all adults, or about one or two in every

thousand, would have an IQ score above 130130. This fact makes the score 130130 extremely

high.

Chebyshev’s Theorem

The Empirical Rule does not apply to all data sets, only to those that are bell-shaped, and even then is

stated in terms of approximations. A result that applies to every data set is known as Chebyshev’s

Theorem.

CHEBYSHEV’S THEOREM

For any numerical data set,

at least 3/43/4 of the data lie within two standard deviations of the mean, that is, in the interval

with endpoints x¯±2sx¯±2s for samples and with endpoints μ±2σμ±2σ for populations;

at least 8/98/9 of the data lie within three standard deviations of the mean, that is, in the

interval with endpoints x¯±3sx¯±3s for samples and with endpoints μ±3σμ±3σ for

populations;

at least 1−1/k21−1/k2 of the data lie within kk standard deviations of the mean, that is, in the

interval with endpoints x¯±ksx¯±ks for samples and with endpoints μ±kσμ±kσ for

populations, where kk is any positive whole number that is greater than 11.

Figure 2.5.42.5.4: Chebyshev’s Theorem

It is important to pay careful attention to the words “at least” at the beginning of each of the three

parts of Chebyshev’s Theorem. The theorem gives the minimum proportion of the data which must lie

within a given number of standard deviations of the mean; the true proportions found within the

indicated regions could be greater than what the theorem guarantees.

EXAMPLE 2.5.32.5.3

A sample of size n=50n=50 has mean x¯=28x¯=28 and standard deviation s=3s=3. Without knowing

anything else about the sample, what can be said about the number of observations that lie in the

interval (22,34)(22,34)? What can be said about the number of observations that lie outside that

interval?

Solution:

The interval (22,34)(22,34) is the one that is formed by adding and subtracting two standard

deviations from the mean. By Chebyshev’s Theorem, at least 3/43/4 of the data are within this

interval. Since 3/43/4 of 5050 is 37.537.5, this means that at least 37.537.5 observations are in the

interval. But one cannot take a fractional observation, so we conclude that at least 3838observations

must lie inside the interval (22,34)(22,34).

If at least 3/43/4 of the observations are in the interval, then at most 1/41/4 of them are outside it.

Since 1/41/4 of 5050 is 12.512.5, at most 12.512.5 observations are outside the interval. Since again

a fraction of an observation is impossible, x(22,34)x(22,34).

EXAMPLE 2.5.42.5.4

The number of vehicles passing through a busy intersection

between 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. and 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was observed and recorded on every weekday

morning of the last year. The data set contains n=251n=251 numbers. The sample mean

is x¯=725x¯=725 and the sample standard deviation is s=25s=25. Identify which of the following

statements must be true.

1. On approximately 95%95% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was

between 675675 and 775775.

2. On at least 75%75% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was

between 675675 and 775775.

3. On at least 189189 weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing through the

intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was

between 675675 and 775775.

4. On at most 25%25% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was either less

than 675675 or greater than 775775.

5. On at most 12.5%12.5% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was less than 675675.

6. On at most 25%25% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was less than 675675.

Solution:

1. Since it is not stated that the relative frequency histogram of the data is bell-shaped, the

Empirical Rule does not apply. Statement (1) is based on the Empirical Rule and therefore it

might not be correct.

2. Statement (2) is a direct application of part (1) of Chebyshev’s Theorem

because x¯−2sx¯−2s, x¯+2s=(675,775)x¯+2s=(675,775). It must be correct.

3. Statement (3) says the same thing as statement (2)

because 75%75% of 251251 is 188.25188.25, so the minimum whole number of observations

in this interval is 189189. Thus statement (3) is definitely correct.

4. Statement (4) says the same thing as statement (2) but in different words, and therefore is

definitely correct.

5. Statement (4), which is definitely correct, states that at most 25%25% of the time either fewer

than 675675 or more than 775775 vehicles passed through the intersection. Statement (5) says

that half of that 25%25% corresponds to days of light traffic. This would be correct if the

relative frequency histogram of the data were known to be symmetric. But this is not stated;

perhaps all of the observations outside the interval (675,775675,775) are less than 7575. Thus

statement (5) might not be correct.

6. Statement (4) is definitely correct and statement (4) implies statement (6): even if every

measurement that is outside the interval (675,775675,775) is less than 675675 (which is

conceivable, since symmetry is not known to hold), even so at most 25%25% of all

observations are less than 675675. Thus statement (6) must definitely be correct.

KEY TAKEAWAY

The Empirical Rule is an approximation that applies only to data sets with a bell-shaped

relative frequency histogram. It estimates the proportion of the measurements that lie within

one, two, and three standard deviations of the mean.

Chebyshev’s Theorem is a fact that applies to all possible data sets. It describes the minimum

proportion of the measurements that lie must within one, two, or more standard deviations of

the mean.

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Anonymous

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o 2.4: Relative Position of Data

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SKILLS TO DEVELOP

To learn the concept of the relative position of an element of a data set.

To learn the meaning of each of two measures, the percentile rank and the zz-score, of the

relative position of a measurement and how to compute each one.

To learn the meaning of the three quartiles associated to a data set and how to compute them.

To learn the meaning of the five-number summary of a data set, how to construct the box

plot associated to it, and how to interpret the box plot.

When you take an exam, what is often as important as your actual score on the exam is the way your

score compares to other students’ performance. If you made a 7070 but the average score (whether

the mean, median, or mode) was 8585, you did relatively poorly. If you made a 7070 but the average

score was only 5555 then you did relatively well. In general, the significance of one observed value

in a data set strongly depends on how that value compares to the other observed values in a data set.

Therefore we wish to attach to each observed value a number that measures its relative position.

Anyone who has taken a national standardized test is familiar with the idea of being given both a score

on the exam and a “percentile ranking” of that score. You may be told that your score was 625625 and

that it is the 85th85th percentile. The first number tells how you actually did on the exam; the second

says that 85%85% of the scores on the exam were less than or equal to your score, 625625.

Given an observed value xx in a data set, xx is the PthPth percentile of the data if P%P% of the data

are less than or equal to xx. The number PP is the percentile rank of xx.

EXAMPLE 2.4.12.4.1

What percentile is the value 1.391.39 in the data set of ten GPAs considered in a previous Example?

What percentile is the value 3.333.33?

Solution:

1.391.761.902.122.532.713.003.333.714.00(2.4.1)(2.4.1)1.391.761.902.122.532.713.003.333.714.

00

The only data value that is less than or equal to 1.391.39 is 1.391.39 itself. Since 11 out of ten,

or 1/10=10%1/10=10%, of the data points are less than or equal to 1.391.39, 1.391.39 is

the 10th10th percentile. Eight data values are less than or equal to 3.333.33. Since 88 out of ten,

or 8∕10=.80=80%8∕10=.80=80% of the data values are less than or equal to 3.333.33, the

value 3.333.33 is the 80th80th percentile of the data.

The Pth percentile cuts the data set in two so that approximately P%P% of the data lie below it

and (100−P)%(100−P)% of the data lie above it. In particular, the three percentiles that cut the data

into fourths, as shown in Figure 2.4.12.4.1, are called the quartiles of a data set. The quartiles are the

three numbers Q1Q1, Q2Q2, Q3Q3 that divide the data set approximately into fourths. The following

simple computational definition of the three quartiles works well in practice.

DEFINITION: QUARTILE

For any data set:

2. Define two subsets:

1. the lower set: all observations that are strictly less than Q2Q2

2. the upper set: all observations that are strictly greater than Q2Q2

3. The first quartile Q1Q1 of the data set is the median of the lower set.

4. The third quartile Q3Q3 of the data set is the median of the upper set.

EXAMPLE 2.4.22.4.2

Find the quartiles of the data set of GPAs of discussed in a previous Example.

Solution:

1.391.761.902.122.532.713.003.333.714.00(2.4.2)(2.4.2)1.391.761.902.122.532.713.003.333.714.

00

This data set has n=10n=10 observations. Since 1010 is an even number, the median is the mean of

the two middle observations: x~=(2.53+2.71)∕2=2.62x~=(2.53+2.71)∕2=2.62. Thus the second

quartile is Q2=2.62Q2=2.62. The lower and upper subsets are

U={2.71,3.00,3.33,3.71,4.00}U={2.71,3.00,3.33,3.71,4.00}.

Each has an odd number of elements, so the median of each is its middle observation. Thus the first

quartile is Q1=1.90Q1=1.90, the median of LL, and the third quartile is Q3=3.33Q3=3.33, the median

of UU.

EXAMPLE 2.4.32.4.3

Adjoin the observation 3.883.88 to the data set of the previous example and find the quartiles of the

new set of data.

Solution:

1.391.761.902.122.532.713.003.333.713.88,4.00(2.4.3)(2.4.3)1.391.761.902.122.532.713.003.333

.713.88,4.00

This data set has 1111 observations. The second quartile is its median, the middle value 2.712.71.

Thus Q2=2.71Q2=2.71. The lower and upper subsets are now

Lower: L={1.39,1.76,1.90,2.12,2.53}L={1.39,1.76,1.90,2.12,2.53}

Upper: U={3.00,3.33,3.71,3.88,4.00}U={3.00,3.33,3.71,3.88,4.00}.

The lower set LL has median, the middle value, 1.901.90, so Q1=1.90Q1=1.90. The upper set has

median 3.713.71, so Q3=3.71Q3=3.71.

In addition to the three quartiles, the two extreme values, the minimum xminxmin and the

maximum xmaxxmax are also useful in describing the entire data set. Together these five numbers are

called the five-number summary of a data set,

{ XminXmin, Q1Q1, Q2Q2, Q3Q3, XmaxXmax }

The five-number summary is used to construct a box plot, as in Figure 2.4.22.4.2. Each of the five

numbers is represented by a vertical line segment, a box is formed using the line segments

at Q1Q1 and Q3Q3 as its two vertical sides, and two horizontal line segments are extended from the

vertical segments marking Q1Q1 and Q3Q3 to the adjacent extreme values. (The two horizontal line

segments are referred to as “whiskers,” and the diagram is sometimes called a "box and whisker plot.")

We caution the reader that there are other types of box plots that differ somewhat from the ones we

are constructing, although all are based on the three quartiles.

Note that the distance from Q1Q1 to Q3Q3 is the length of the interval over which the middle half of

the data range. Thus it has the following special name.

DEFINITION: INTERQUARTILE

The interquartile range IQRIQR is the quantity

IQR=Q3−Q1(2.4.4)(2.4.4)IQR=Q3−Q1

EXAMPLE 2.4.42.4.4

Construct a box plot and find the IQRIQR for the data in Example 2.4.32.4.3.

Solution:

From our work in Example 2.4.12.4.1, we know that the five-number summary is

Xmin=1.39Xmin=1.39

Q1=1.90Q1=1.90

\[Q2 = 2.62\)

Q3=3.33Q3=3.33

Xmax=4.00Xmax=4.00

The interquartile range is: IQR=3.33−1.90=1.43IQR=3.33−1.90=1.43.

zz-Scores

Another way to locate a particular observation xx in a data set is to compute its distance from the

mean in units of standard deviation. The zz-score indicates how many standard deviations an

individual observation xx is from the center of the data set, its mean. It is used on distributions that

have been standardized, which allows us to better understand its properties. If zz is negative then xx is

below average. If zz is 00 then xx is equal to the average. If zz is positive then xx is above the average

DEFINITION: zz-SCORE

The zz-score of an observation xx is the number zz given by the computational formula

z=x−μσ(2.4.5)(2.4.5)z=x−μσ

Figure 2.4.32.4.3: x-Scale versus z-Score

EXAMPLE 2.4.52.4.5

Suppose the mean and standard deviation of the GPA's of all currently registered students at a college

are μ=2.70μ=2.70 and σ=0.50σ=0.50. The zz-scores of the GPA's of two students, Antonio and

Beatrice, are z=−0.62z=−0.62 and z=1.28z=1.28, respectively. What are their GPAs?

Solution:

Using the second formula right after the definition of zz-scores we compute the GPA's as

Antonio: x=μ+zσ=2.70+(−0.62)(0.50)=2.39x=μ+zσ=2.70+(−0.62)(0.50)=2.39

Beatrice: x=μ+zσ=2.70+(1.28)(0.50)=3.34x=μ+zσ=2.70+(1.28)(0.50)=3.34

KEY TAKEAWAYS

The percentile rank and zz-score of a measurement indicate its relative position with regard

to the other measurements in a data set.

The three quartiles divide a data set into fourths.

The five-number summary and its associated box plot summarize the location and distribution

of the data.

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o 2.3: Measures of Variability

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beyond the scope of this license may be available at copyright@ucdavis.edu.

Statistics Definitions > Weighted Mean

Watch the video or read the article below:

A weighted mean is a kind of average. Instead of each data point contributing equally to the final mean, some data

points contribute more “weight” than others. If all the weights are equal, then the weighted mean equals the arithmetic

mean (the regular “average” you’re used to). Weighted means are very common in statistics, especially when studying

populations.

When you find a mean for a set of numbers, all the numbers carry an equal weight. For example, if you want to find

the arithmetic mean of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10:

1. Add up your data points: 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 10 = 26.

2. Divide by the number of items in the set: 26 / 5 = 5.2.

What do we mean by “equal weight”? The first sentence in some tests (like this one) is sometimes “All questions carry

an equal weight”). It’s saying that all the questions in the exam are worth the same number of points. If you have a 100

point exam and 10 questions, each question is worth 1/10th of the points. In the above question, you have of a set of five

numbers. You can think of each number contributing 1/5 to the total mean (as there are 5 numbers in the set).

In some cases, you might want a number to have more weight. In that case, you’ll want to find the weighted mean. To

find the weighted mean:

1. Multiply the numbers in your data set by the weights.

2. Add the results up.

For that set of number above with equal weights (1/5 for each number), the math to find the weighted mean would be:

1(*1/5) + 3(*1/5) + 5(*1/5) + 7(*1/5) + 10(*1/5) = 5.2.

Sample problem: You take three 100-point exams in your statistics class and score 80, 80 and 95. The last exam

is much easier than the first two, so your professor has given it less weight. The weights for the three exams are:

Exam 1: 40 % of your grade. (Note: 40% as a decimal is .4.)

Exam 2: 40 % of your grade.

Exam 3: 20 % of your grade.

What is your final weighted average for the class?

1. Multiply the numbers in your data set by the weights:

.4(80) = 32

.4(80) = 32

.2(95) = 19

2. Add the numbers up. 32 + 32 + 19 = 83.

The percent weight given to each exam is called a weighting factor.

The weighted mean is relatively easy to find. But in some cases the weights might not add up to 1. In those cases, you’ll

need to use the weighted mean formula. The only difference between the formula and the steps above is that you divide

by the sum of all the weights.

The image above is the technical formula for the weighted mean. In simple terms, the formula can be written as:

Weighted mean = Σwx/Σw

Σ = the sum of (in other words…add them up!).

w = the weights.

x = the value.

To use the formula:

2. Add the numbers in Step 1 up. Set this number aside for a moment.

3. Add up all of the weights.

4. Divide the numbers you found in Step 2 by the number you found in Step 3.

In the sample grades problem above, all of the weights add up to 1 (.4 + .4 + .2) so you would divide your answer (83)

by 1:

83 / 1 = 83.

However, let’s say your weighted means added up to 1.2 instead of 1. You’d divide 83 by 1.2 to get:

83 / 1.2 = 69.17.

Warning: The weighted mean can be easily influenced by outliers in your data. If you have very high or very low

values in your data set, the weighted mean may not be a good statistic to rely on.

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Weighted Mean: Formula: How to Find Weighted Mean was last modified: October 15th, 2017 by Stephanie Glen

By Stephanie Glen | January 23, 2014 | Statistics How To |

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34 thoughts on “Weighted Mean: Formula: How to

Find Weighted Mean”

1. iden kerryFebruary 11, 2015 at 2:06 am

well done thanks

Nice one ! Thanks ! It helps a lot !

Very helpful, it has a lot to learn and repeat in a short time.

This is so easy to understand and interprete thanx

very helpful.Thank you.

thanx dats so useful

Very simple to understand,thanks

Really helpful in understanding the basic difference !!

Thank u :)

thanx sir

Great….easy to understand. Thanks much. Itox JK – 14x

Really helpful , thanks a lot ….

how did you calculate the weight of 0.4 is becoming 80

can you please explain , i dont know how to calculate Weight of the score.

Regards,

R.Saran

9943041432

Saran, do you mean you’re having trouble following the weighted mean example?

0.4 is the same as 40%. The 80 is the number of points scored in the exam (from the question). You just calculate

the two.

You have made it very easy to understtad! thanks a lot

Thanks explained perfectly

it’s good but can you discribe weighted arithmetic mean by more examples & differnt tyeps of examples.

Thank you very much

This problem is very clearly understanding

Superb! Thank you so much!

Teach me how to compute weighted mean

Not 19. That’s 17

Hi, Steve,

Where are you seeing this? The only place is I see a 19 is .2(95). Google tells me that’s 19 :)

Yes. Thanks for spotting that. It’s corrected.

Hey,

The initial scores per the question statement were 80, 80 and 85.

“Sample problem: You take three 100-point exams in your statistics class and score 80, 80 and 85. ”

Thanks for spotting that, Shruti. I fixed the typo in the article and I’ll fix the video later on (hopefully I’ll get to it

today :) ).

my problem solved ……. thanks a lot

You can only use weights till 100% right? then the total weights must always add upto 1.0….please help me

understand this…..i mean u used (40%, 40%, 20%) right? but whatever u use it must always add upto 100%..if i

am mistaken plz help me understand……

Weights can add up to more than 1. If they do, use the formula.

As a simple example of why, think of GPAs. Technically, a GPA can only got up to 4.0 (which would equal

getting 100% in all classes). But sometimes classes (like AP classes) are given more weight — say 5.0 instead of

4.0.

Thanks, but, how about : The grades of a student and the credits that he received for the courses that he or she got

the grades in? Like this= English- 90, Math – 89, Science- 86 and Spanish- 89. The credits will be 3, 4, 3 and 4

respectively.

31. AndalePost authorMarch 14, 2017 at 11:31 am

I’m assuming you want the weighted mean for the grades. Use the formula, figuring out the weights like this:

90(.3)

89(.4)

86(.3)

89 (.4)

Then divide by 1.4 (the total weight)

Wow! I really love that.Okay but a little difficult to understand

Why is the total weight 1.4

Where are you seeing the total weight of 1.4?

This web page presents statistics formulas described in the Stat Trek tutorials. Each formula links to a web

page that explains how to use the formula.

Parameters

Population mean = μ = ( Σ Xi ) / N

Population variance = σ2 = Σ ( Xi - μ )2 / N

Standardized score = Z = (X - μ) / σ

Statistics

Sample mean = x = ( Σ xi ) / n

Sample variance = s2 = Σ ( xi - x )2 / ( n - 1 )

Pooled sample standard deviation = sp = sqrt [ (n1 - 1) * s12 + (n2 - 1) * s22 ] / (n1 + n2 - 2) ]

Correlation

Standard error of regression slope = sb1 = sqrt [ Σ(yi - ŷi)2 / (n - 2) ] / sqrt [ Σ(xi - x)2 ]

Counting

Probability

Random Variables

In the following formulas, X and Y are random variables, and a and b are constants.

Chi-square statistic = Χ2 = [ ( n - 1 ) * s2 ] / σ2

Expected value of difference between random variables = E(X - Y) = E(X) - E(Y)

Variance of the difference between independent random variables = Var(X - Y) = Var(X) + Var(Y)

Sampling Distributions

Standard deviation of difference of sample means = σ d = sqrt[ (σ12 / n1) + (σ22 / n2) ]

Standard deviation of difference of sample proportions = σ d = sqrt{ [P1(1 - P1) / n1] + [P2(1 - P2) / n2] }

Standard Error

Standard error of difference of sample means = SEd = sd = sqrt[ (s12 / n1) + (s22 / n2) ]

Standard error of difference of paired sample means = SEd = sd = { sqrt [ (Σ(di - d)2 / (n - 1) ] } / sqrt(n)

Pooled sample standard error = spooled = sqrt [ (n1 - 1) * s12 + (n2 - 1) * s22 ] / (n1 + n2 - 2) ]

Standard error of difference of sample proportions = sd = sqrt{ [p1(1 - p1) / n1] + [p2(1 - p2) / n2] }

Hypergeometric formula: P(X = x) = h(x; N, n, k) = [ kCx ] [ N-kCn-x ] / [ NCn ]

Linear Transformations

For the following formulas, assume that Y is a linear transformation of the random variable X, defined by the

equation: Y = aX + b.

Estimation

Hypothesis Testing

Degrees of Freedom

The correct formula for degrees of freedom (DF) depends on the situation (the nature of the test statistic, the

number of samples, underlying assumptions, etc.).

One-sample t-test: DF = n - 1

Two-sample t-test: DF = (s12/n1 + s22/n2)2 / { [ (s12 / n1)2 / (n1 - 1) ] + [ (s22 / n2)2 / (n2 - 1) ] }

Sample Size

Below, the first two formulas find the smallest sample sizes required to achieve a fixed margin of error, using

simple random sampling. The third formula assigns sample to strata, based on a proportionate design. The

fourth formula, Neyman allocation, uses stratified sampling to minimize variance, given a fixed sample size.

And the last formula, optimum allocation, uses stratified sampling to minimize variance, given a fixed budget.

nh = n * [ ( Nh * σh ) / sqrt( ch ) ] / [ Σ ( Ni * σi ) / sqrt( ci ) ]

Statistics Tutorial

Statistical formulas are used to calculate values related to statistical concepts or analyses. Here we will

discuss common formulas and what they stand for.

Population Mean

The term population mean, which is the average score of the population on a given variable, is

represented by:

μ = ( Σ Xi ) / N

The symbol ‘μ’ represents the population mean. The symbol ‘Σ Xi’ represents the sum of all scores

present in the population (say, in this case) X1 X2 X3 and so on. The symbol ‘N’ represents the total

number of individuals or cases in the population.

Population Standard Deviation

The population standard deviation is a measure of the spread (variability) of the scores on a given

variable and is represented by:

σ = sqrt[ Σ ( Xi – μ )2 / N ]

The symbol ‘σ’ represents the population standard deviation. The term ‘sqrt’ used in this statistical

formula denotes square root. The term ‘Σ ( Xi – μ )2’ used in the statistical formula represents the sum of

the squared deviations of the scores from their population mean.

Population Variance

The population variance is the square of the population standard deviation and is represented by:

σ2 = Σ ( Xi – μ )2 / N

The symbol ‘σ2’ represents the population variance.

Sample Mean

The sample mean is the average score of a sample on a given variable and is represented by:

x_bar = ( Σ xi ) / n

The term “x_bar” represents the sample mean. The symbol ‘Σ xi’ used in this formula represents the

represents the sum of all scores present in the sample (say, in this case) x1 x2 x3 and so on. The symbol

‘n,’ represents the total number of individuals or observations in the sample.

Sample Standard Deviation

The statistic called sample standard deviation, is a measure of the spread (variability) of the scores in the

sample on a given variable and is represented by:

s = sqrt [ Σ ( xi – x_bar )2 / ( n – 1 ) ]

The term ‘Σ ( xi – x_bar )2’ represents the sum of the squared deviations of the scores from the sample

mean.

Sample Variance

The sample variance is the square of the sample standard deviation and is represented by:

s2 = Σ ( xi – x_bar )2 / ( n – 1 )

The symbol ‘s2’ represents the sample variance.

Pooled Sample Standard Deviation

The pooled sample standard deviation is a weighted estimate of spread (variability) across multiple

samples. It is represented by:

The term ‘sp’ represents the pooled sample standard deviation. The term ‘n1’ represents the size of the

first sample, and the term ‘n2’ represents the size of the second sample that is being pooled with the first

sample. The term ‘s12’ represents the variance of the first sample, and ‘s22’ represents the variance of the

second sample.

Tools to Calculate Sample Size and Power Analysis

Statistics Solutions offers free tools to calculate appropriate sample sizes and conduct power analysis for

your dissertation or research study. Our sample size calculator is available for free when you sign up for

the dissertation toolbox membership.

The free toolbox membership also includes access to our Sample Size / Power Analysis Write-up

Generator with References tool.

The Sample Size/Power Analysis Calculator with Write-up is a tool for anyone struggling with power

analysis. Simply identify the test to be conducted and the degrees of freedom where applicable

(explained in the document), and the sample size/power analysis calculator will calculate your sample

size for a power of .80 of an alpha of .05 for small, medium and large effect sizes. The calculator then

presents the write-up with references which can easily be integrated in your dissertation

document. Click here for a sa

Theorem

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Table of contents

SKILLS TO DEVELOP

To learn what the value of the standard deviation of a data set implies about how the data

scatter away from the mean as described by the Empirical Rule and Chebyshev’s Theorem.

To use the Empirical Rule and Chebyshev’s Theorem to draw conclusions about a data set.

You probably have a good intuitive grasp of what the average of a data set says about that data set. In

this section we begin to learn what the standard deviation has to tell us about the nature of the data

set.

We start by examining a specific set of data. Table 2.5.12.5.1 shows the heights in inches

of 100100 randomly selected adult men. A relative frequency histogram for the data is shown

in Figure 2.5.12.5.1. The mean and standard deviation of the data are, rounded to two decimal

places, x¯=69.92x¯=69.92 and σ=1.70σ=1.70.

70.5 71.0 70.9 69.3 69.4 69.7 69.1

If we go through the data and count the number of observations that are within one standard deviation

of the mean, that is, that

are between 69.92−1.70=68.2269.92−1.70=68.22 and 69.92+1.70=71.6269.92+1.70=71.62 inches,

there are 6969 of them. If we count the number of observations that are within two standard deviations

of the mean, that is, that are

between 69.92−2(1.70)=66.5269.92−2(1.70)=66.52 and 69.92+2(1.70)=73.3269.92+2(1.70)=73.3

2 inches, there are 9595 of them. All of the measurements are within three standard deviations of the

mean, that is,

between 69.92−3(1.70)=64.82269.92−3(1.70)=64.822 and 69.92+3(1.70)=75.0269.92+3(1.70)=75

.02 inches. These tallies are not coincidences, but are in agreement with the following result that has

been found to be widely applicable.

Figure 2.5.12.5.1: Heights of Adult Men

Approximately 68%68% of the data lie within one standard deviation of the mean, that is, in the

interval with endpoints x¯±sx¯±s for samples and with endpoints μ±σμ±σ for populations; if a data

set has an approximately bell-shaped relative frequency histogram, then (Figure 2.5.22.5.2)

approximately 95%95% of the data lie within two standard deviations of the mean, that is, in

the interval with endpoints x¯±2sx¯±2s for samples and with endpoints μ±2σμ±2σ for

populations; and

approximately 99.7%99.7% of the data lies within three standard deviations of the mean, that

is, in the interval with endpoints x¯±3sx¯±3s for samples and with endpoints μ±3σμ±3σ for

populations.

Figure 2.5.22.5.2: The Empirical Rule

Two key points in regard to the Empirical Rule are that the data distribution must be

approximately bell-shaped and that the percentages are only approximately true. The Empirical Rule

does not apply to data sets with severely asymmetric distributions, and the actual percentage of

observations in any of the intervals specified by the rule could be either greater or less than those

given in the rule. We see this with the example of the heights of the men: the Empirical Rule suggested

68 observations between 68.2268.22 and 71.6271.62inches, but we counted 6969.

EXAMPLE 2.5.12.5.1

Heights of 1818-year-old males have a bell-shaped distribution with mean 69.669.6 inches and

standard deviation 1.41.4 inches.

1. About what proportion of all such men are between 68.268.2 and 7171 inches tall?

2. What interval centered on the mean should contain about 95%95% of all such men?

Solution:

1. Since the interval from 68.268.2 to 71.071.0 has endpoints x¯−sx¯−s and x¯+sx¯+s, by the

Empirical Rule about 68%68% of all 1818-year-old males should have heights in this range.

2. By the Empirical Rule the shortest such interval has

endpoints x¯−2sx¯−2s and x¯+2sx¯+2s. Since

x¯−2s=69.6−2(1.4)=66.8(2.5.1)(2.5.1)x¯−2s=69.6−2(1.4)=66.8

and

x¯+2s=69.6+2(1.4)=72.4(2.5.2)(2.5.2)x¯+2s=69.6+2(1.4)=72.4

the interval in question is the interval from 66.866.8 inches to 72.472.4 inches.

Figure 2.5.32.5.3: Distribution of Heights

EXAMPLE 2.5.22.5.2

Scores on IQ tests have a bell-shaped distribution with mean μ=100μ=100 and standard

deviation σ=10σ=10. Discuss what the Empirical Rule implies concerning individuals with IQ scores

of 110110, 120120, and 130130.

Solution:

A sketch of the IQ distribution is given in Figure 2.5.32.5.3. The Empirical Rule states that

1. approximately 68%68% of the IQ scores in the population lie between 9090 and 110110,

2. approximately 95%95% of the IQ scores in the population lie between 8080 and 120120,

and

3. approximately 99.7%99.7% of the IQ scores in the population lie between 7070 and 130130.

1. Since 68%68% of the IQ scores lie within the interval from 9090 to 110110, it must be the

case that 32%32% lie outside that interval. By symmetry approximately half of that 32%32%,

or 16%16% of all IQ scores, will lie above 110110. If 16%16% lie above 110110,

then 84%84% lie below. We conclude that the IQ score 110110 is the 84th84th percentile.

2. The same analysis applies to the score 120120. Since approximately 95%95% of all IQ scores

lie within the interval form 8080 to 120120, only 5%5% lie outside it, and half of them,

or 2.5%2.5% of all scores, are above 120120. The IQ score 120120 is thus higher

than 97.5%97.5% of all IQ scores, and is quite a high score.

3. By a similar argument, only 15/10015/100 of 1%1% of all adults, or about one or two in every

thousand, would have an IQ score above 130130. This fact makes the score 130130 extremely

high.

Chebyshev’s Theorem

The Empirical Rule does not apply to all data sets, only to those that are bell-shaped, and even then is

stated in terms of approximations. A result that applies to every data set is known as Chebyshev’s

Theorem.

CHEBYSHEV’S THEOREM

For any numerical data set,

at least 3/43/4 of the data lie within two standard deviations of the mean, that is, in the interval

with endpoints x¯±2sx¯±2s for samples and with endpoints μ±2σμ±2σ for populations;

at least 8/98/9 of the data lie within three standard deviations of the mean, that is, in the

interval with endpoints x¯±3sx¯±3s for samples and with endpoints μ±3σμ±3σ for

populations;

at least 1−1/k21−1/k2 of the data lie within kk standard deviations of the mean, that is, in the

interval with endpoints x¯±ksx¯±ks for samples and with endpoints μ±kσμ±kσ for

populations, where kk is any positive whole number that is greater than 11.

Figure 2.5.42.5.4: Chebyshev’s Theorem

It is important to pay careful attention to the words “at least” at the beginning of each of the three

parts of Chebyshev’s Theorem. The theorem gives the minimum proportion of the data which must lie

within a given number of standard deviations of the mean; the true proportions found within the

indicated regions could be greater than what the theorem guarantees.

EXAMPLE 2.5.32.5.3

A sample of size n=50n=50 has mean x¯=28x¯=28 and standard deviation s=3s=3. Without knowing

anything else about the sample, what can be said about the number of observations that lie in the

interval (22,34)(22,34)? What can be said about the number of observations that lie outside that

interval?

Solution:

The interval (22,34)(22,34) is the one that is formed by adding and subtracting two standard

deviations from the mean. By Chebyshev’s Theorem, at least 3/43/4 of the data are within this

interval. Since 3/43/4 of 5050 is 37.537.5, this means that at least 37.537.5 observations are in the

interval. But one cannot take a fractional observation, so we conclude that at least 3838observations

must lie inside the interval (22,34)(22,34).

If at least 3/43/4 of the observations are in the interval, then at most 1/41/4 of them are outside it.

Since 1/41/4 of 5050 is 12.512.5, at most 12.512.5 observations are outside the interval. Since again

a fraction of an observation is impossible, x(22,34)x(22,34).

EXAMPLE 2.5.42.5.4

The number of vehicles passing through a busy intersection

between 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. and 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was observed and recorded on every weekday

morning of the last year. The data set contains n=251n=251 numbers. The sample mean

is x¯=725x¯=725 and the sample standard deviation is s=25s=25. Identify which of the following

statements must be true.

1. On approximately 95%95% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was

between 675675 and 775775.

2. On at least 75%75% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was

between 675675 and 775775.

3. On at least 189189 weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing through the

intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was

between 675675 and 775775.

4. On at most 25%25% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was either less

than 675675 or greater than 775775.

5. On at most 12.5%12.5% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was less than 675675.

6. On at most 25%25% of the weekday mornings last year the number of vehicles passing

through the intersection from 8:00a.m.8:00a.m. to 10:00a.m.10:00a.m. was less than 675675.

Solution:

1. Since it is not stated that the relative frequency histogram of the data is bell-shaped, the

Empirical Rule does not apply. Statement (1) is based on the Empirical Rule and therefore it

might not be correct.

2. Statement (2) is a direct application of part (1) of Chebyshev’s Theorem

because x¯−2sx¯−2s, x¯+2s=(675,775)x¯+2s=(675,775). It must be correct.

3. Statement (3) says the same thing as statement (2)

because 75%75% of 251251 is 188.25188.25, so the minimum whole number of observations

in this interval is 189189. Thus statement (3) is definitely correct.

4. Statement (4) says the same thing as statement (2) but in different words, and therefore is

definitely correct.

5. Statement (4), which is definitely correct, states that at most 25%25% of the time either fewer

than 675675 or more than 775775 vehicles passed through the intersection. Statement (5) says

that half of that 25%25% corresponds to days of light traffic. This would be correct if the

relative frequency histogram of the data were known to be symmetric. But this is not stated;

perhaps all of the observations outside the interval (675,775675,775) are less than 7575. Thus

statement (5) might not be correct.

6. Statement (4) is definitely correct and statement (4) implies statement (6): even if every

measurement that is outside the interval (675,775675,775) is less than 675675 (which is

conceivable, since symmetry is not known to hold), even so at most 25%25% of all

observations are less than 675675. Thus statement (6) must definitely be correct.

KEY TAKEAWAY

The Empirical Rule is an approximation that applies only to data sets with a bell-shaped

relative frequency histogram. It estimates the proportion of the measurements that lie within

one, two, and three standard deviations of the mean.

Chebyshev’s Theorem is a fact that applies to all possible data sets. It describes the minimum

proportion of the measurements that lie must within one, two, or more standard deviations of

the mean.

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