You are on page 1of 39

L-­ 8:  

Activated  Sludge  Process  for  


Wastewater  Treatment
ACTIVATED  SLUDGE  PROCESS

SECONDARY  TREATMENT
Biological  Wastewater  Treatment
Food
O2 O2

Food Food

O2 O2
Microorganisms  consume  organic  matter  from  
the  wastewater,  using  oxygen  for  respiration
Suspended  Growth,  

Millions  of  aerobic  and  facultative  micro-­


organisms  remove  pollutants  thru  living  and  
growing  process
Activated  Sludge  System

Air →Provides  Oxygen  and  Mixing

Biomass
(suspended)
Pri.Eff. MLSS Sec.  Eff.
Aeration Secondary
Clarifier
Tank

Return  Activated  Sludge  (RAS)

Waste  Activated  Sludge  (WAS)


Activated  Sludge
Suspended  Growth,  
Biological  Treatment

Need  favorable  conditions  for  growth  and  for  


separation  from  the  water

Biological  solids  are  used  


over  and  over

Growth  rate  produces  about  0.7  kgs  of  


biological  solids  per  kg  BOD  removed
Primary Return
Aeration  Tank
Effluent Sludge

Mixed  Liquor
(MLSS)

Secondary  
Clarifier
PARTS  OF  A  GENERALIZED  BACTERIAL  
CELL  OF  THE  BACILLUS  TYPE

Capsule
Cell  Membrane
Nuclear
Matter
Cell  Wall
Flagellum
New Cells Wastewater

NH3
Slime Layer CO2
Cell H2O
Food Membrane
Oxygen
Storage Enzymes

(Absorption)

Soluble Organics Adsorbed


Particle
Mixed  Liquor
Flocculation
A  process  of  contact  
and  adhesion  whereby  
the  particles  of  a  
dispersion
form  larger-­size  
clusters.
Aeration  Tank

ADSORPTION  
And
ABSORPTION

Secondary  
Clarifier
Sludge  Processing
and  Storage Effluent

Land
Application Disinfect
WAS
RAS
Screening
Influent

Grit
Primary
Clarifiers Aeration Secondary
Tanks Clarifiers

Typical  Flow-­Through  
Activated  Sludge  Plant
Biological  Wastewater  
Treatment
Three  Steps

1.  Transfer  of  Food  from  Wastewater    


to  Cell.
Adequate  Mixing
Enough  Detention  Time
Biological  Wastewater  
Treatment
2.  Conversion  of  Food  to  New  Cells  
and  Byproducts.
Acclimated  Biomass
Useable  Food  Supply
Adequate  D.O.
Proper  Nutrient  Balance
100  :  5  :    1
C    :  N  :  P
Biological  Wastewater  
Treatment

3.  Flocculation  and  Solids  Removal

Proper  Mixing
Proper  Growth  Environment
Secondary  Clarification
Biological  Wastewater  
Treatment

3.  Flocculation  and  Solids  Removal

Controls
Proper  Growth  Environment
Filamentous  Bacteria  – Form  Strings
Mixed  Liquor  Does  Not  Compact  -­ Bulking
Control  Factors
Air
Organic Biomass  Quantity  
Hydraulic  Load
Load,  F:M and  Age
Solids  Load

Pri.Eff. MLSS Sec.  Eff.


Aeration D.O. Secondary
Tank Clarifier

Settleability
Sludge  
Return  Activated  Sludge Blanket  
Depth

Waste  Activated  Sludge


Activated  Sludge  System

Organic  Load =    Kgs  of  Organics  (BOD)  


Coming  into  Aeration  Tank

Pri.Eff. Aeration MLSS Sec.  Eff.


Secondary
Tank Clarifier
How  Much  Food  ?
Primary  Effluent  BOD
BOD  =  FLOW  (MLD)  X  P.E.  BOD  (mg/L)
F  =  Kgs  of  BOD
(Coming  into  Aeration  Tank)

How  is  M (Microorganisms) measured?  


Mixed  Liquor  Volatile Suspended  Solids  
(MLVSS)
M  =  Kgs  of  MLVSS
(In  Aeration  Tank)
Need  to  Balance  Organic  Load  (BOD)  With  
Active  Organisms  in  Treatment  System

Food  to  Microorganism  Ratio


F
F:M or M
Food  to  Microorganism  Ratio
The  F/M  Ratio  for  Best  Treatment  Will  Vary  for  
Different  Facilities
Determined  by  Regular  Monitoring  and
Comparing  to  Effluent  Quality
Often  Will  Vary  Seasonally

Typical  Range:

Conventional  Activated  Sludge


F:M 0.25  -­ 0.45

Extended  Aeration  Activated  Sludge


F:M 0.05  -­ 0.15
Food  to  Microorganism  Ratio

F = Kg  of  BOD
=
M Kg  of  MLVSS

Calculate  Often  to  Monitor/Control


Monthly  (Minimum)
Weekly  (Better)
Use  Moving  Average
Control  Factors
Organic
Load,  F:M
Biomass  Quantity  
Air and  Age Hydraulic  Load
Solids  Load
PE Aeration MLSS
Tank D.O. Secondary FE
Clarifier

Settleability
Sludge  
Return  Activated  Sludge Blanket  
Depth

Waste  Activated  Sludge


Graph    Showing  Growth  
Phases  in  a  Biological  
X
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

System
Abundance  of  Food

When  Food  Supply  is  


Introduced  into  a  
Biological  Treatment  
System  that  is  in  Start-­up

Few  Organisms

X
Time
Lag Graph    Showing  Growth  
Growth Phases  in  a  Biological  
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

System
Food  Begins  to  be  Consumed

Organisms  Begin  to  Acclimate  


Producing  Needed  Enzymes

Organism  Population  Begins  to  Increase

Time
Lag Log
Growth Growth
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

Food
Rapidly
Consumed Organisms  Acclimated

Organism  Population
Rapidly  Increases

Time
Lag Log Declining
Growth Growth Growth
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

Food

Organism  Population  
Growth  Limited  by  Food  
Supply

Time
Lag Log Declining Endogenous
Growth Growth Growth Growth
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

Food

Food  Supply  Depleted  -­


Organism  Growth  Rate  
Continues  Decline

Time
Lag Log Declining Endogenous
Growth Growth Growth Growth
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

Stored  Food  
Food Metabolized  -­
Organisms  Feed  on  
One  Another
(Producing  Less  Sludge)

Sludge  Production

Time
Lag Log Declining Endogenous
Growth Growth Growth Growth
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

Graph    Showing  
Food Growth  Phases  in  
a  Biological  
System

Sludge  Production

Time
Graph    Showing  Growth  Phases  in  a  
Biological  System

This  graph  illustrates  that  


the  activities  of  
Microorganisms  in  a  
biological  treatment  
system  is  related  to  the  
Average  Age  of  the  
Organisms  in  the  System  
or  the  “CRT”  of  the  System

Note:    The  CRT  is  


Controlled    in  an  
Activated  Sludge  System  
by  Wasting  which  will   be  
discussed  later.
Biomass   Cell  Residence  Time  (CRT)
Mean  Cell  Residence  Time  (MCRT)
Age Sludge  Age  (SA)

The  Average  Length  of  Time  in  Days  that  


an  Organism  Remains  in  the  Secondary  
Treatment  System
Suspended  Solids  in  Aerator
SA,  days  =  
Suspended  Solids  in  PE
Total  MLVSS,  (Aerator  +  Clarifier)
MCRT  =  
Total  MLVSS  Wasted  +  Effluent  TSS
Conventional  Activated  Sludge
Aerator  Detention  Time 4  -­ 8  Hrs.
F:M 0.25  -­ 0.45

CRT 4  -­ 6    Days

Extended  Aeration  Activated  Sludge


Aerator  Detention  Time 16  -­ 24  Hrs.
F:M 0.05  -­ 0.15
CRT 15  -­ 25    Days
Young  Sludge Declining Old  Sludge
Lag Log Growth
Growth Growth Endogenous
Growth  Rate  of  Organisms

Growth
Food
Conventional
Treatment
Extended  Air

Sludge  Production

Time
Young  Sludge

• Start-­up  or  High  BOD  Load


• Few  Established  Cells
• Log  Growth
• High  F:M
• Low  CRT
Young  Sludge
Poor  Flocculation
Poor  Settleability
Turbid  Effluent

White
Foam

High  O2
Uptake  Rate
Old  Sludge
• Slow  Metabolism
• Decreased  Food  Intake
• Low  Cell  Production
• Oxidation  of  Stored  Food
• Endogenous  Respiration
• Low  F:M
• High  CRT
• High  MLSS
Old  Sludge
Dense,  Compact  Floc
Fast  Settling
Control  Factors
Organic
Load,  F:M
Biomass  Quantity  
Air and  Age Hydraulic  Load
Solids  Load
PE Aeration MLSS
Tank D.O. Secondary FE
Clarifier

Settleability
Sludge  
Return  Activated  Sludge Blanket  
Depth

Waste  Activated  Sludge