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1 Numerical Methodology

We applied a finite element methods as an deterministic numerical solver for given ECG forward

modeling problem. In this section we give a brief review about our approach and describe a problem

setup of which the polynomial chaos solver is making use in uncertainty quantification. In the end,

we how the error size decreases by the refinement of the torso data set and simplified square data

for verification of accuracy of the solver.

The data set is a 2-dimensional slice of torso volume data. It is discrtised by triangular elements

having straight edges. We define nodal finite elements over them by assigning additional nodal points

and defining corresponding shape functions to obtain linear, quadratic, and cubic finite element

approximation of given problem. Table1 is showing the number of nodes and elements for the 3

kinds of approximations.

The shape functions of certain order are obtained by taking products of the 1-dimensional La-

grange polynomials of the order. By definition of nodal approximation shown in [1], [2], [3], and [5],

we used 3,6, and 10 nodal points and shape functions for linear, quadratic, and cubic approximations,

respectively.

The deterministic part of our ECG modeling is represented by the following Laplace equation

with conductivity σ(x) on the torso Ω as shown in equation (1). To approximate numerically, we

formulate the method of weighted residual by incorporating the standard Bubnov-Galerkin method

[4] which uses test functions to be same as trial function in weak formulation.

u(Ω0 ) = α(Ω0 ) (2)

5u(Ω1 ) = 0 (3)

where Ω0 is the interior boundary, corresponding to the surface of the heart, and Ω1 is the exterior

boundary, corresponding to the surface of the thorax.

To verify the accuracy of finite element solver, we tested two experiments which took various

conditions into account. The first one is to see if the solver can process different scales on the

1

Table 1: The number of nodes and elements for each approximation.

Interior Nodes Exterior Boundary Ω1 Inner Boundaries Ω0 Elements

Linear Elements 545 53 60 1203

Quadratic Elements 2293 106 120 1203

Cubic Elements 5244 159 180 1203

choice of different mesh data. We applied the solver to realistic torso data whose scale vary on

(−200, 200) × (−200, 200). The we set Dirichlet boundary conditions on all exterior and interior

boundaries. The second experiment is to see if the solver is accurately approximating a known ana-

lytic solution. This checked the convergence of error to the known solution by using progressive mesh

refinements in 3 different order of approximations. The figure(1) is showing the change of resultant

errors in each experiment:

Error Change of Numerical solution to Exact Solution by Mesh Refinements Error Change of Numerical solution to Exact Solution by Mesh Refinements

0 0

10 10

−1

−1 10

10

−2

10

−2

10

−3

10

Discrete L Error

Discrete L2 Error

−3

10

2

−4

10

−4

10

−5

10

−5

10

−6

10

−6

10 Linear Approximation −7 Linear Approximation

Quadratic Approximation 10 Quadratic Approximation

Cubic Approximation Cubic Approximation

−7 −8

10 10

0 1 2 −2 −1 0

10 10 10 10 10 10

Avarage Length of Edges of Elements Avarage Length of Edges of Elements

Figure 1: Decrease of errors with respect to mesh element size and order of approximation: The norm

used are L2 norms. 3 lines are showing convergence in different approximation orders in trial(basis)

functions: Linear (Blue line), Quadratic (Red tiny dots), and Cubic (Green dots). They are the

result of solving on realistic torso data on 3 different mesh refinements(Left) and on Neumann and

Dirichlet boundary conditions on progressive refinements of square data set(Right).

Table(2) is explicitly showing the error of the finite element solver to known analytic solution.

We choose u(x, y) = cos(c1 x) cos(c2 y) to be an analytic solution. We noticed the errors decrease

for increase of order of approximation and mesh refinements. And it is showing the slope of error

decrease in both experiments. The values are close to 1+order of approximation as expected in

theory.

2

Table 2: (Left)The errors of approximation of finite solver to the known analytic solution, (Right)The

slopes which show the speed of convergence of each different order of approximations and mesh

refinements

Mesh Resolution Linear Quadratic Cubic

Experiments Linear Quadratic Cubic

1 3.503e-1 1.4e-3 2.44e-5

Ex. 1 1.9904 3.0287 4.0082

2 8.82e-2 2.0e-4 1.51e-6

Ex. 2 1.9630 2.9928 4.0186

3 3.93e-2 1.0e-4 3.0e-7

References

[1] David S. Burnett Finite Element Analysis, From Concepts to Applications. Addison-Wesley

Publishing Company, 1987.

[2] Thomas. J. R. Hughes The Finite Element Method, Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element

Analysis. Prentice Hall, 1987.

[3] Christopher R. Johnson Lecture note of Advanced Methods in Scientific Computing. School of

Computing, University of Utah, 2002.

[4] George Em Karniadakis, Spencer J. Sherwin Spectral/Hp Element Methods for Cfd. Oxford

Univ Press, 1999.

[5] O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor The Finite Element Method; The Basis. Butterworth Heinemann,

2000.

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