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STATUS OF SPONGE IRON UNITS

IN ORISSA

Prepared by –
Environment Conservation Team
(Aruna Murthy, Himansu Sekhar Patra)
September 2005

Vasundhara, E-14, Gajapati Nagar,


Bhubaneshwar
STATUS OF SPONGE IRON UNITS IN ORISSA

INTRODUCTION
Steel market in India is in a rising phase as infrastructure development has been rightly given high
priority. The secondary sector of steel production has witnessed phenomenal growth in recent years.
The steel production through the secondary sectors, which works only 21.39% in 1993-94, has gone
up to 35.46% in the year 2001-02. The reasons are:

1. Low investment

2. Ability to produce quality steel economically through this process

3. Availability of Sponge Iron both in quality and quantity, which is a major raw material for
secondary steel makers.

In the secondary sector, the steel production is mainly by EAF and induction furnace. Induction
furnace route is gaining importance due to low investment cost and ability to produce quality steel
at lower cost. A number of induction furnace units have been established with varied production
capacity. With the increasing demand of sponge iron as the major raw material for the secondary
steel makers, there is mushrooming growth of sponge iron units in the country, particularly in the
eastern side. All of them have opted for coal based plants having rotary kilns.

The process of sponge iron making aims to remove oxygen from iron ore. When that occurs, the
departing oxygen causes micro pores in the ore body making it porous. The final product, when
observed under a microscope, resembles a honey comb structure, looking spongy in texture, hence,
the name “Sponge Iron”

RAW MATERIALS REQUIRED

Sponge Iron manufacture is highly sensitive to raw material characteristics. Therefore, it is essential
to examine the chemical and physical characteristics of raw materials, both individually and in
combination. The basic raw materials for the production of Sponge Iron are iron ore, non-coking
coal, and dolomite.

Coal: Important factors determining coal quality are:

1. Chemical properties such as fixed carbon, ash-content, volatile material, etc.

2. Physical properties such as reactivity, and ash-fusion temperature.


Iron Ore: In sponge Iron making, iron ore is reduced in solid state. Unlike in the conventional steel
melting process, the gangue content of iron ore cannot be separated as a slag. Therefore, it becomes
imperative to select an iron ore with a high iron content and a low gangue content, to optimize yield
during steel making. Apart from this, to ensure a better kiln campaign life and output, iron ore is
made to undergo a series of other tests such as – Shatter, tumbler and abrasion indices, reducibility,
etc.

Dolomite: It acts in the processes as a Desulphuriser removing sulphur from the feed mix during
the reduction process. It is mixed in small proportion along with other raw materials before
charging into the kiln.

TECHNOLOGY INVOLVED
Production of Steel through the conventional blast furnace requires coking coal of which India has
limited reserves. Therefore, evolution of a technology for the reduction of Iron Ore using
abundantly available non-coking coal was contemplated, giving birth to direct reduction Iron
Technology (DRI).

PROCESS
Iron ore (Hematite) and non-coking coal are the prime raw materials for the production of sponge
Iron. These are charged into a rotary kiln in a requisite proportion along with some dolomite. Coal
plays a dual role in the process by acting as a reductant as well as a fuel for providing heat to
maintain the requisite temperature inside the kiln at 950-1050°C. The reduction process occurs in
the solid state. The crucial factor in this reduction process is the controlled combustion of coal and
its conversion to carbon monoxide to remove oxygen from the iron ore. The overall process requires
a duration of approximately 10-12 hrs inside the kiln, during which iron ore is optimally reduced
and discharged to rotary cooler for cooling below 120°C, before coming out into the finished
product circuit.
EXISTING SPONGE IRON UNITS IN ORISSA
List of Sponge Iron Units in the state of Orissa as on 28.02.2005
Sl. No Name and Location

SUNDERGARH DISTRICT

1 Agrasen Sponge (P) Ltd, Mandiakudar, Sundergarh


2 Bajrang Ispat Pvt. Ltd, Kuarmunda, Sundergarh
3 Govindam Project, Kalosihira, Kuarmunda, Sundergarh
4 Jagannath Sponge Pvt. Ltd, Kuarmunda, Sundergarh
5 Jai Balaji Jyoti Steels Ltd., Tainser, Lathikata, Sundergarh
6 Jay Iron and Steels Ltd, Balanda, Sundergarh
7 Kalinga Sponge Iron Ltd., Kalunga I.E. Sundergarg
8 Khaderia Ispat Ltd., Kuarmunda, Sundergarg
9 Maa Tarini Industries Pvt Ltd, Balanda, Sundergarh
10 Mangalam Ispat Pvt Ltd, Usra Road, Kuarmunda, Sundergarh
11 Meta Sponge Pvt Ltd., Kalinga I.E.Sundergarh
12 Neepaz Mattaliks Pvt Ltd. Hariharpur, Kuarmunda Sundergarh
13 OCL India Ltd.(Sponge Iron Division) Rajgangpur, Sundergarh
14 Pawan Jay Sponge Iron Ltd., Bijabahal, kunjaharia, SUndargarh
15 Pooja Sponge Iron Ltd., kalunga I.E. Sundergarh
16 Prabhu Sponge Iron Pvt Ltd., Jhagarpur, Rajgangpur, Sundergarh
17 Reliable Sponge Pvt Ltd. Jhaliaberina, Bonan Sundergarh
18 Rexon Strips Ltd, Kumakala, Sundergarh
19 Scan Sponge Iron Ltd., Ramabahal, Rajgangpur, Sundergarh
20 Scan Steels Ltd.(Sponge Iron Division), Ramabahal, Rajgangpur, Sundergarh
21 Seeta Sponge Iron Ltd, Kalunga I.E.Sundergarh
22 Sri Balaji Metallics Pvt Ltd., Kharibandh, Sundergarh
23 Sri Ganesh Metallics Ltd., Kuarmunda, Sumdergarh
24 Srishti Ispat Ltd.(Sponge Iron Division), Bringatoli, Sundergarh
25 Sponge Udyog Pvt.Ltd, Kalunga, Sundergarh
26 Sri Mahavir Ferroalloys Pvt.Ltd., Kalunga I.E. Sundergarh
27 Suraj Products Ltd., Barapali, Kesarmal, Rajgangpur, Sundergarh
28 Swastik Ispat Pvt Ltd, Kuarmunda, Sundergarh
29 T.R.Chemicals Pvt Ltd., Barapali, Kesarmal, Rajgangpur, Sundergarh
30 Utkal Metalliks Ltd, Kalunga I.E., Sundergarh
31 Veda Vyas Ispat Pvt.Ltd., Kuarmunda, Sundergarh

KEONJHAR

32 Aditya Sponge and Power Pvt Ltd., Telkoi, Dubulpal, Keonjhar


33 Beekay Steels and Power Ltd, Uliburu, Nalda, Keonjhar
34 Crackers India Alloys Ltd. (Sponge) Govardhanpur, Deojhar, Keonjhar
35 Deepak Steel and Power Ltd., Topadihi, Keonjhar
36 Grewal Associates, Matkambeda, Barbil, Keonjhar
37 Hima Ispat Pvt Ltd., Barpada, Guali, Keonjhar
38 Kusum Power Met Ltd., Kutugaon, Chipinda, Keonjhar
39 MSP Sponge Iron Pvt Ltd., Haladiaguna, Gohardhanpur, Keonjhar
40 N.K.Bhojani Pvt Ltd, Rugdihi, Barbil, Keonjhar
41 OMDC Sponge Iron Plant, Thakurani, Keonjhar
42 Orion Ispat Ltd, Ramachandrapur, Keonjhar
43 Orissa Sponge iron Ltd.palasapanga, Keonjhar
44 Rungta Mines (Sponge Iron Division), Karakola, Barbil, Keonjhar
45 Sri Ganesh Sponge Iron Ltd., Kutugaon, Keonjhar
46 Sri Metallics Ltd., Loidapada, Keonjhar
47 Sumrit Metallics Pvt Ltd., Soyabali, Barbil, Keonjhar
48 Tata Sponge Iron Ltd., Bilaipada, Joda, Keonjhar

DHENKANAL

49 Scaw Industries Pvt Ltd., I.E., Gundichapada, Dhenkanal,

ANGUL

50 Shree Metallics Ltd., Amalapada, Anugul

JAJPUR

51 Surya Sponge Iron Ltd., Kalkala, Budakendua, Jajpur

MAYURBHANJ

52 Shiv Shakti Sponge Iron Ltd., Pandersil, Mayurbhanj

SAMBALPUR

53 Maa Samaleswari Sponge Iron Ltd., Kattarbhaga, Rengali, Sambalpur


54 T.R. Chemicals Ltd., Belpada, Bamara, Sambalpur

JHARSUGUDA

55 Bahgavati Steels Pvt.Ltd., Badmal Jharsuguda


56 L.N.Metallics Ltd., Siripura, Jharsuguda
57 Pawan Sut Sponge Iron Pvt Ltd., badmal, Jharsuguda
58 Sri Madhav Ispat Ltd., Siriapali, Parmanpur, Jharsuguda
59 SMC Power generation Pvt Ltd, Hirma, Jharsuguda
60 SPS Sponge Iron Ltd, Badmal, Jharsuguda

CUTTACK

61 Shiva Metallics, Suniamuhan, Mancheswar, Cuttack


LIST OF SPONGE IRON PLANTS GRANTED CONSENT TO
ESTABLISH (NOC) As on 14.12.2005
Kiln No
Sl. No Name of Industry Location Block District (Capacity
in TDP)
M/s Shisti Ispat Ltd (Sponge Iron Budhakata,
1 Sundergarh 2 X 100
Div.) Bringatoli
M/s Sri Mahavir Ferro Alloys Pvt. Kalunga Industrial
2 Sundergarh 2 X 100
Ltd. Estate
Barapali, Kesarmal,
3 M/s Suraj Products Ltd. Sundergarh 3 X 50
Rajgangpur
Usra Road,
4 M/s Mangalam Ispat (P) Ltd. Sundergarh 1 X 100
Kuarmunda
Chadrihariharpur,
5 M/s Neepaz Metalliks Pvt. Ltd Sundergarh 5 X 100
Kuarmunda
M/s OCL India Ltd., (Sponge Iron
6 Lomloi Rajgangpur Sundergarh 4 X 100
Division)
7 M/s Maa Tarini India (P) Ltd. Balanda, Kalunga Sundergarh 2 X 50

8 M/s T.R.Chemicals (P) Ltd. Barpalli Rajgangpur Sundergarh 3 X 50

9 M/s Prabhu Sponge (P) Ltd. Jhagarpur Rajgangpur Sundergarh 3 X 50


Mukundapur,
10 M/s Sree Metalliks Ltd. Angul 2 X 100
Amalapada
Sanuimuhan,
11 M/s Shiva Metalliks (P) Ltd. Cuttack 1 X 50
Mancheswar
M/s Shree Jagannath Metalliks Khaprakhai,
12 Keonjhar 1 X 100
Industries Palaspanga
13 M/s Orion Ispat Ltd. Ramchandrapur Keonjhar 2 X 100
Rugudihi, Guali,
14 M/s N.K.Bhojani (P) Ltd. Keonjhar 3 X 40
Barbil
Budhakendua, 2 X 40
15 M/s Surya Sponge Iron Ltd. Jajpur
Kalkala 1X 100
Bijabahal,
16 M/s Pawanjay Sponge Iron Ltd. Sundergarh 3 X 50
Kunjharia
17 M/s Orissa Sponge Ltd. Palaspanga Keonjhar 1 X 350
Kalunga Industrial 1 X 50
18 M/s Utkal Metalliks Ltd. Sundergarh
Estate 1X 40
19 M/s Shiva Shaki Sponge Iron Ltd Pandersil, Sukruli Mayurbhanj 2 X 100
M/s Ganesh Sponge Metalliks
20 Chandrahariharpur Sundergarh 3 X 100
Ltd.
21 M/s Hima Ispat Pvt. Ltd. Barpada, Guali Keonjhar 1 X 300
2 X 100
22 M/s Grewal Associates (P) Ltd. Matkambeda Barbil Keonjhar
1X 100
Badmale,
23 M/s Pawansut Sponge (P) Ltd. Sambalpur
Kukurjanga
24 M/s L.N. Metalliks (P) Ltd Siripura Jharsuguda 1 X 100
M/s Golden Trexim (P)
25 Ltd.(Beekay Steels and Power Ulliboni, Nalda Keonjhar 1 X 300
Ltd.)
26 M/s Khedaria Ispat Ltd Kuarmunda Sundergarh 1 X 50
Gobardhanpur,
27 M/s Cracker India Alloys (P) Ltd. Keonjhar 1 X 100
Deojhar
28 M/s Sponge Udyog (P) Ltd. Jaibahal, Kalunga Sundergarh 1 X 100

29 M/s Sumrit Metalliks (P) Ltd Soyabali, Barbil Keonjhar 1 X 50


Ghantikal,
30 M/s Aarati Steels (P) Ltd Cuttack 2 X 500
Athagarh
M/s Rungta Mines Ltd., (Sponge
31 Karakolha Barbil Keonjhar 4 X 500
Iron Division)
32 M/s Agrasen Sponge (P) ltd Mandiakudar Sundergarh 2 X 50
Naikinbahal, 2 X 40
33 M/s Bajranga Ispat (P) Ltd. Sundergarh
Kuarmunda 1 X 100
34 M/s Vedvyas Ispat (P) Ltd Gobira, Kuarmunda Sundergarh 1 X 100
M/s Sri Ganesh Sponge Iron (P)
35 Kutugaon, Chipinda Keonjhar 1 X 100
Ltd.
M/s Tata Sponge Iron Ltd.
36 Bileipada, Joda Keonjhar 2 X 375
(Expansion)
2 X 50
37 M/s Kusum Power Met (P) Ltd Kutugaon, Chipinda Keonjhar
1 X 100
Kalunga Industrial
38 M/s Meta Sponge (P) Ltd. Sundergarh 1 X 40
Estate
Kalosihira,
39 M/s Gobindam Project (P) Ltd 1 X 100
Kuarmunda
40 M/s OMDC Ltd Dalki, Thakurani Keonjhar 1 X 100
Kalunga Industrial
41 M/s Puja Sponge (P) Ltd Sundergarh 1 X 100
Estate
42 M/s SMC Power Generation Ltd. Hirma Jharsuguda 1 X 300
Kalunga Industrial
43 M/s Kalinga Sponge Iron Ltd. Sundergarh 1 X 100
Estate
44 M/s Rungta Mines Ltd. Kamando Sundergarh
Gundichapada
45 M/s Scaw Industries (P) Ltd Dhenkanal 1 X 300
Industrial Estate
46 M/s Bindal Sponge Ltd. Sunakhani, Talcher Angul 1 X 300

47 M/s Jagannath Sponge (P) Ltd. Kuarmunda Sundergarh 1 X 50


M/s Maa Samaleswari Sponge Katarbagha,
48 Sambalpur 1 X 100
Iron ltd. Rengali
49 M/s SMS Sponge Iron Ltd. Badmal Jharsuguda 6 X 100

50 M/s Sree Madhab Ispat (P) Ltd Siriapali Jharsuguda 2 X 100


Naikinbahal,
51 M/s Swastik Ispat Pvt. Ltd. Sundergarh 1 X 50
Kuarmunda
52 M/s Jyoti Iron & Steel Ltd. Tainsar, Lathikata Sundergarh 2 X 100
Kalunga Industrial
53 M/s Nixon Steel & Power Ltd Sundergarh 1 X 350
Estate
Kalunga Industrial
54 M/s Seeta Sponge Ltd Sundergarh 1 X 50
Estate
55 M/s Bhushan Steel Telkoi, Rengali Sambalpur 2 X 500
Balisuan,
2 X 40
56 M/s MSP Sponge Iron (P) Ltd Haladiaguna, Keonjhar
2 X 50
Gobardhanpur
Ramabahal,
57 M/s Scan Sponge Iron Ltd Sundergarh 1 X 50
Rajgangpur
Gundichapada
58 M/s Atcom Metalliks Ltd. Dhenkanal
Industrial Estate
59 M/s Agarwal Minerals Rugudi Keonjhar

60 M/s Aditya Sponge & Power Ltd. Telkoi, Dubulapal Keonjhar 2 X 100
2 X 50
61 M/s Deepak Steel & Power Ltd. Tapadihi Keonjhar
2 X 100
M/s Sumasankar Sponge Iron (P)
62 Khuntaketa Keonjhar
Ltd
Krushnachandrapur,
63 M/s Ganesh Sponge (P) Ltd. Angul 1 X 100
Parang
64 M/s Bhushan Steel & Strips Ltd. Meramundali Dhenkanal
Kalinga Nagar,
M/s Dinabandhu Steel and Power
65 Industrial Growth Jajpur
Ltd.
Centre
M/s Samaleswari Ferro Metals (P)
66 Bisalkhinda, Sasan Sambalpur 1 X 100
Ltd
Naikinbahal,
67 M/s Maa Shakumbari Sponge Sundergarh 1 X 100
Kuarmunda
68 M/s Reliable Sponge Pvt Ltd. Jhaliaberena, Bonai Sundergarh 1 X 100
Bad-Tumkela,
69 M/s B.R.Sponge & Power Ltd. Sundergarh 2 X 100
Rajamunda
70 M/s Rana Sponge Ltd. Kulei Dhenkanal

71 M/s Maheswari Ispat Ltd. Rampei, Khuntuni Cuttack 2 X 100

72 M/s Jay Iron & Steel Ltd. Balanda, Kalunga Sundergarh

73 M/s Ores ispat Pvt. Ltd. Gurundipalli Sundergarh

74 M/s Balajee Metalliks (P) Ltd. Khairabanda Sundergarh 1 X 50


Kukurjanga,
75 M/s Bhagabati Steel (P) Ltd Jharsuguda 1 X 50
Badmal
Belpara, Basra,
76 M/s T.R.Chemicals (P) Ltd. Sambalpur 1 X 100
Bonai
77 M/s Rexon Strips Ltd. Kumkela Sundergarh 2 X 100
M/s Scan Steels Ltd.(Sponge Iron
78 Rambahal Rajgangpur Sundergarh 1 X 50
Div)
2 X 50
79 M/s Sree Metalliks Ltd. Loidapada Keonjhar
4 X 100
M/s Maa Vaishnavdevi Sponge Kalunga Industrial
80 Sundergarh 2 X 50
Ltd. Estate
Podajalanga,
81 M/s Vasundhara Metalliks (P) Ltd Sundergarh 1 X 50
Bilaimunda, Himgir
82 M/s Singhal Enterprises Hirma Jharsuguda 1 X 100

83 M/s B.R.G.Steel (P) Ltd. Kurunti, Puspanga Dhenkanal

84 M/s Mahakali Ispat (P) Ltd. Gurundipali, Bonai Sundergarh


M/s Sree Sai Sradha Steels (P) Bijabahal,
85 Sundergarh 1 X 25
Ltd. Kunjharia
M/s Bhaskar Steel & Ferro Alloys Bad-Tumkela,
86 Sundergarh 1 X 300
Ltd. Rajamunda
87 M/s Surendra Mining Ind (P) Ltd. Bakhamusa, Bonai Sundergarh

88 M/s Shyam DRI Power Ltd. Pandloy, Rengali Sambalpur

89 M/s Deepak Steel & Power Ltd. Kuliguna, Nalda Keonjhar


Jakhapura,
90 M/s K.J.Ispat Ltd. Kalinganagar Jajpur
Industrial Complex
91 M/s Sri Hari Sponge (P) Ltd. Kendrikela, Bonai Sundergarh
92 M/s Shiv Metalliks (P) Ltd. Gurundipalli, Bonai Sundergarh 1 X 100

93 M/s Ocean Ispat (P) Ltd. Basantapur, Joda Keonjhar

94 M/s Deo Mines& Minerals Thiberna, Bonai Sundergarh


M/s Maa Samaleswari Industries
95 Lapanga Sambalpur 2 X 100
(P) Ltd
Raghunathpalli,
96 M/s Jai Hanuman Udyog Ltd. Jharsuguda 1 X 100
Kolihira
Kalinga Nagar, Ind.
97 M/s Maithan (Mal) Industries Ltd. Jajpur
Complex, Duburi
98 M/s Aryan Ispat & Power (P) Ltd Rengali Sambalpur
Bad-Tumkela,
99 M/s Monica Holdings (P) Ltd Sundergarh
Bonai
100 M/s Vishal Metalliks (P) Ltd Barhamusa Sundergarh

101 M/s Vikram (P) Ltd. Tumkela Sundergarh


Pondaripathor &
102 M/s Action Ispat & Power (P) Ltd Jharsuguda
Marakutta
103 M/s B.R.G. Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. Kurunti, Kuspanga Dhenkanal
Badbahal,
104 Kaushal Ferro Metals (P) Ltd. Sundergarh
Kundukela
105 R.B.Sponge Iron (P) Ltd. Kenghati, Jayantpur Sambalpur
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SPONGE IRON UNITS

Right from the raw material yard to disposal of the final product (Sponge Iron), at every step of its
handling there is pollution. Sponge Iron Plants have the following pollution hazards:
1. Dust emission during raw material preparation and product discharge and handling:
A definite size of iron ore and coal is required for the production of sponge iron. The
suppliers are not adequately equipped to cater to the needs of the sponge iron industries.
Therefore, the industries crush and size the raw materials at their plant premises. During
such crushing and sizing operations, generation of fugitive dust and discarded ore fines and
coal fines in inevitable. Major dust emitting areas include areas such as product discharge
from cooler to conveying system, magnetic separator, and raw material preparation unit.

2. Reduction: The gaseous products of reduction contain mainly raw material dust, and gases
like CO2, CO, H2, NOX, O2, unreacted hydrocarbons, and SOX

3. Waste water discharge: The dusts from the gaseous emissions are separated through ESP
or Gas quenching system. In either case, the disposal is done by converting the dust to a
slurry form to avoid flying of the same in ambient air. In order to recycle the water, the
slurry is allowed to settle in a clari-flocculator, from where the settled solid particles are
pumped out. The polluted slurry water is then allowed to settle in settling ponds, or lagoons
from where the clear water is pumped back for reuse. Such water is polluted with dissolved
solids.

4. Gaseous emissions: The exhaust gas emerges out of DRI kilns at a temperature of about
900°C having some quantities of combustibles. This gas is used to produce steam in waste
heat boilers, which in turn is used to produce power. The dust coming from exhaust gas is
either quenched to make slurry for easy disposal or is collected in dry condition or in wet
condition from the ESP. So far, no utilization of this dust have been found out which causes
air pollution (due to dust) in the near by areas.

5. Char: The partially burnt coal called char is discharged from the reactor along with sponge
iron. After the magnetic separation, the char is separated as waste.

PROBLEMS DUE TO SPONGE IRON UNITS IN ORISSA

In many of the sponge Iron Units in Orissa, ESP has not been installed and where it is installed,
these units switch off their ESPs during the nights for a few hours. Thus, the area becomes a huge
smoke bowl. In some sponge iron units in Sundergarh, it was found that the precipitators were not
running in several of the units. Smoke and soot from the plants carried by the wind cause wheezing
problem in kids, and cows and cattle to become restless. The smoke is sometimes so thick that
vision even at a distance as close as 1 meter becomes difficult. The clothes worn by people
immediately become smeared with coal dust. Even cooking utensils are covered with soot. In
Kormunda (Sundergarh) where Neepaz Metallics (a 1.4 lakh tonnes sponge iron plant) is set up, the
drinking water becomes covered with black soot. The emissions also cause irritation and watering
of eyes in human beings.
LEGISLATION, RULES AND REGULATIONS STIPULATED FOR SPONGE
IRON UNITS IN ORISSA

Government of Orissa, Forest and Environment Dept has stipulated the following regulations for the
establishment of sponge iron plants in the state of Orissa.

A. In six sensitive blocks (Kuarmunda, Lathikata, Rajgangpur and Bonaigarh block of


Sundergarh district, Jharsuguda Block of Jharsuguda District and Rengali block of
Sambalpur district) including 25 Km from block boundary –
¾ No new sponges iron & integrated steel plant will be allowed.
¾ Cases which had been received by the state pollution control board before the Government
decided on a prohibition on establishment of sponge iron plants in the state may be
considered individually un merit. These proposals can be considered on case to case basis
with the condition that they set up a WHRB with a Power plant within 1 year
¾ Proposals of establishment of integrated steel plant where MOUs have already been signed
with the state government may be considered on merit
¾ Expansion proposals received by the SPCB before the decision on prohibition on
establishment or expansion of sponge iron units was made by the government may be
considered on merit within a condition to install WHRB and/or steel plant.
¾ Expansion of existing plant will be allowed for 25/50 TPD to 100TPD for the purpose of
installation of WHRB and power plant.

B. Outside the six sensitive zones


¾ Cases which had been received by the state pollution control board before the government
decision on prohibition to establish sponge iron plant in the state may be considered. These
proposals can be considered on case to case basis with the condition for installation of
WHRB power plant within 1 year.
¾ Cases where MOUs have been signed with the State Government may be considered.
¾ Cases other than the above 2 shall not be considered till an environmental impact study of
the existing units as well as proposed units is done and it is examined by the SPCB in
consultation with steel and mines and industries department.
¾ Expansion proposals of existing sponge iron units may be considered to facilitate installation
of WHRB with CPP or expansion to integrated steel plant.
¾ Proposal for integrated steel plants through DRI route may be considered by sSPCB on the
basis of merit.

C. The pending cases (i.e. Proposals received before the Government’s decision on the
prohibition on establishment of sponge iron) may be cleared with stipulation of installation
of ESP, with separate energy meter, automatic change over to DG set and other pollution
control measures as decided earlier or, recommended by the state pollution control board. In
addition, explicit stipulation for installation of Waste Heat Recovery Boiler (WHRB) with
CPP or upgradation of the unit to steel plant within a period of 1 year from the date of issue
of the NOC shall also be made.

D. The existing sponge iron units shall be required to install WHRB with CPP within 1 year
and take immediate steps for installing equipments for automatic changeover to DG set in
case of power breakdown and for installation of separate energy meter as well as other
pollution control measures as per the direction of SPCB.
MITIGATORY MEASURES – VASUNDHARA’S APPROACH

1. Study the utilization of Char as Activated Carbon:


It has been found that the reactivity of char is high. So, in some cases, a limited quantity of
char can be recycled back to the rotary kiln with good results. Char can be used to
manufacture activated carbon and as domestic fuel.

2. Study of utilization of Char Fines in Fuel Briquettes formation:


The briquettes manufactured from coal char mixed with coal fines are used as a fuel in brick
kilns. The rejects and wastes of bricks have been reduced considerably with the use of these
briquettes, besides reduction of cost of fuel.

3. Study of utilization of Exhaust Gas Dust for building bricks:


Exhaust Gas Dust can be used for building bricks for construction purposes.

4. Establishment of Waste Heat based power plants:


Suggest the establishment of Waste Heat based power plants to encourage utilization of
waste gases. Suitable amendment to the state legislation has already been proposed - Proper
implementation and execution must be ensured.

5. Research on DRI Plant Waste:


The research organizations of the state must rise to the occasion to find methods for
utilization of the DRI Plant Waste; because the growth potential of DRI plants in the country
is quite high and steel production through DRI and induction furnace route is the cheapest of
all the processes in the world today.

6. Ensure control on the pollution from the DRI plant through:


) Installation of suitable de-dusting/ dust extracting equipments at dust emitting points.
) Suitable gas cleaning equipment such as ESP or gas quenching system should be
installed.
) Ensure suitable methods of storing of raw material waste (raw material fines) and
disposal of the same.
) Suitable disposal of the sludge of waste water and reuse of wastewater. The most
effective way is to save all waste water for reuse without allowing them to mix with any
other waste stream.
) Utilization of waste char for water purification, making domestic fuel briquettes, and as
activated carbon. The stockyard should be judiciously planned to avoid flying of dust in
air.

CONCLUSION

It is a fact that the gainful utilization of the generated wastes plays a vital role in the profitability of
any organization. From the foregoing discussions, it is clear that the utilization of DRI plant wastes
need to be strengthened in order to abate future threat to the environment, besides generating profits
for the organization.