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GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY FROM

TANNERY INDUSTRIES, SOLID LEATHER


WASTE WITH NO SECONDARY EMISSION
Submitted By
Arjun Manoj : CH16BTECH11006
Devajith V S : CH16BTECH11009

DOMAIN AND THEME

The solutions to the problem that we are dealing here comes under the domain of biomass and
bioenergy. As we can see, the secondary waste materials obtained from these processes are biomass
which can be converted to either fuels/fuel additives or value added chemicals.

ABSTRACT

The tanneries are one of the major contributors to pollution. They regularly dump the untreated
waste to rivers and other water bodies. Many chemicals can be fatal to the environment, are mixed
into the water and soil. This poses serious threat to the environment as well as to the health of the
local citizens. The report delves into the prospects of converting the tanneries' biomass wastes to
energy in an eco-friendly way. An overview of the tannery industry, the total amount of waste
produced, and its composition, estimated energy generation, and the technologies available will be
presented in this report.

AIM AND OBJECTIVE

Theoretically, it is possible to extract decent amount of useful energy from tannery waste, which can
help solve the present energy crisis our country to some extent. The conversion of the solid waste
from the tanneries to energy will also help in mitigating the pollution caused by them.
MOTIVATION AND GENESIS

The conventional leather tanning technology is highly polluting as it produces large amounts of
organic and chemical pollutants. Wastes generated by the leather processing industries pose a major
challenge to the environment. According to conservative estimates, about 600,000 tons per year of
solid waste are generated worldwide by leather industry and approximately 40-50% of the hides are
lost to shavings and trimmings. Everyday a huge quantity of solid waste, including trimmings of
finished leather, shaving dusts, hair, fleshing, trimming of raw hides and skins, are being produced
from the industries. Chromium, sulphur, oils and noxious gas (methane, ammonia, and hydrogen
sulphide) are the elements of liquid, gas and solid waste of tannery industries.The tannery effluent, if
not treated properly, can cause serious damage to soil and water bodies. The high amount of salt
contained in the effluent can increase soil salinity, reduce fertility and damage farming in large areas.

CURRENT STATUS AND OPEN QUESTIONS

The current status of tannery industries is not so great, they produce harmful gases, dust and a large
amount of solid waste and the methods discussed here are not used in most industries. A large
amount of waste produced by these tanneries is discharged in natural water bodies. The water in
the low lying areas in developing countries, like India and Bangladesh, is polluted in such a degree
that it has become unsuitable for public uses. Out of 1000 kg of raw hide, nearly 850 kg is generated
as solid wastes in leather processing. Only 150 Kg of the raw material is converted in to leather.
The process also poses many questions
1. The efficiency of methanogenesis/gasification.
2. Cost of production.
3. Feasibility of the process.
4. Design
5. Impurities present after the process.
PLAN OF WORK INCLUDING PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

Gasification of Tannery Wastes

The implementation of gasification has the potential to provide significant cost benefits in terms of
power generation and waste disposal, and increase sustainability within the leather industry. The
gasification process converts any carbon-containing material into a combustible gas comprised
primarily of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane, which can be used as a fuel to generate
electricity and heat. A wide range of tannery wastes can be macerated, flash dried, densified and
gasified to generate a clean syngas for reuse in boilers or other Combined Heat and Power systems.
As a result up to 70% of the intrinsic energy value of the waste can be recovered as syngas, with up
to 60% of this being surplus to process drying requirements so can be recovered for on-site boiler or
thermal energy recovery uses. The gasification technology, by virtue of chemically reducing
conditions, provides a viable alternative thermal treatment for Chrome containing materials, and
generates a chrome (III) containing ash. All of the wastes created by the tannery can be gasified
following pre-treatment methods such as maceration, drying and subsequent densification or
briquetting. A combined drying and gasification process could eliminate solid waste, whilst providing
a combustible gas as a tax-exempt renewable energy source, which the tannery can directly reuse.
Gasification trials have illustrated that up to 70% of the intrinsic energy value of the wastes currently
disposed can be recovered as “synthesis gas” energy.

Biomethanation of Tannery Wastes

Biomethanation (or anaerobic digestion) systems are mature and proven processes that have the
potential to convert tannery wastes into energy efficiently. Anaerobic digestion is a favorable
technologic solution which degrades a substantial part of the organic matter contained in the sludge
and tannery solid wastes, generating valuable biogas. Digested solid waste is biologically stabilized
and can be reused in agriculture. The application of an anaerobic treatment for the break down of
COD from tannery waste water is an innovative and attractive method to recover energy from
tannery wastewater. When the locally available industrial wastewater treatment plant is not
provided by anaerobic digester, a large scale digestion can be planned in regions accommodating a
big cluster of tanneries. It can also incorporate any other domestic, industrial or agricultural wastes.
Chrome-free digested tannery sludge also has a definite value as a fertilizer based on its nutrient
content. Biogas produced in anaerobic digesters consists of methane (50%–80%), carbon dioxide
(20%–50%), and trace levels of other gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, oxygen,
and hydrogen sulfide. Biogas can be used for producing electricity and heat, as a natural gas
substitute and also a transportation fuel. A combined heat and power plant system (CHP) systems
cover a range of technologies but indicative energy outputs per m3 of biogas are approximately 1.7
kWh electricity and 2.5kWh heat. The combined production of electricity and heat is highly desirable
because it displaces non-renewable energy demand elsewhere and therefore reduces the amount of
carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere.

JUSTIFICATION AND NOVELTY

The energy generated by anaerobic digestion or gasification of tannery wastes can be put to
beneficial use, in both drying the wastes and as an energy source for the tannery’s own
requirements, CHP or electricity export from the site. Biomethanation is a relatively new technique.

MILESTONES AND TIME FRAME

The impact over the environment and the concept of environmental sustainability has become in
recent years one of the most important legal principles regarding the sustainable development.
Increase the efficiency by harnessing waste and reducing energy consumption of equipment and
installations are one of the priority directions laid down by the government, so implementing the
green tannery concept fits perfectly into these requirements. Benefit cost ratio is large enough so that
we can consider as energy recovery from tannery waste is feasible even multi economic benefits.
Thus, we can see these methods coming into reality sooner than later.
BENCHMARK AND SPECIFICATIONS OF THE PRODUCT

The current high cost in leather industry will rise still further with the introduction of new regulations,
jeopardizing the sustainability of the industry. Survival and/or further expansion of the tanning
industry depend on its ability to meet the current and future environmental challenges in an
innovative and cost-effective manner.

DELIVERABLES AND BENEFICIARY INDUSTRY/SECTOR

Tanneries are major energy users, and requires up to 30 kW of energy to produce a single finished
hide. Thus, waste-to-energy plant in a tannery promotes the production of electricity from
decentralized renewable energy sources, apart from resolving serious environmental issues posed
by leather industry wastes.

WHO CAN BE….? INDUSTRY, INSTITUTION OR AGENCY PARTNERS

Tannery owners also need to provide full-fledged support to the government to realize this idea
presented in this report. Therefore, the point we are giving out is that ultimately the industry should
be able to suffice the needs of the government in this matter

TENTATIVE BUDGET WITH YEAR AND ITEM WISE BREAKUP


ATTACHMENT