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New Era University

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CE 522L
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING (LAB)

LABORATORY EXERCISE NO.1

“CONSOLIDATION TEST”

RATING

NAME: DATE PERFORMED: DATE SUBMITTED:


PAUL ARJAY D. GALEZOGA DECEMBER 07, 2017 JANUARY 13, 2018
COURSE/YEAR:
BSCE/ 5TH YEAR
SCHEDULE:SAT (10:00-1:00pm)

______BRO. GERMAN BARLIS_____


INSTRUCTOR
ABSTRACT

Foundation is the base of the structure so the base must be stronger more than the
others but soil is where the Foundation is putted so the Engineers must know the
behavior of the soil when the structure is ongoing and after several years. One behavior
of the soil that is very essential is what we called the Settlement. Soil settlement is
divided into three categories. The immediate/initial settlement, the Primary
Consolidation and the Secondary Consolidation. Immediate Settlement is caused by the
Elastic Deformation of dry, moist, and saturated soils, without any change in moisture
content. Primary Consolidation but first consolidation is the extraction of water inside the
voids of the soil when axial compression load is applied at the top of the soil. Primary
consolidation settlement is caused by a volume changed in saturated cohesive soils due
to expulsion of water that occupies the void spaces. Secondary consolidation settlement
is caused by a plastic adjustment of soil fabrics. It is an additional form of compression
that occurs at constant effective stress or sometimes called creep. This essential
behavior of the soil can determine using the laboratory exercises and using some
laboratory apparatus that can read the deformation due to time of the soil. After
gathering the data, find out what is needed to relate it in actual. In this laboratory
exercise, we perform the consolidation test of the soil and we determine the parameters
in a graph that we draw and get the deformation at any time, t.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
AND RESULTS

As we can see at the first table, in the first row we have the time, in the 2 nd row we have
the initial reading before the load is added and the final reading in the third row. By
subtracting the initial reading to the final reading we can get the deformation at time, t.
as we can see in the graph, at time 0.5, the primary consolidation settlement already
occurred immediately because the soil is already compacted by the other 3 groups. In
time 8, the soil started to move to the secondary consolidation settlement. In the graph,
we can determine the D0, D50 and D100.

The second graph is between the void ratio and the pressure. As you can see in the
graph, the higher the pressure the smaller the void ratio because as you put a load
above the soil, the water is escaping and the soil particles are having a contact with
each other.

The Third graph is between the coefficient of consolidation and the pressure. It says
that the coefficient of consolidation starts from the minimum and increasing the it will
decrease after the peak is reached by the soil.
PHOTOGRAPH OF THE SET-UP

Determining the Mass of glass plate an mold Determining the inside diameter and height

Trimming the soil by the group 1 Setting up by our instructor

Photo of us while waiting for the several minutes of reading, I am standing in the right
with a black shirt
FINAL DATA SHEET

CYCLE 4 – 16 KG

 Before Test

Consolidation Type = Floating Type


Mass of the ring + glass plate = 408.18 g
Inside Diameter of the ring = 6.325 cm
Height of Specimen Hi = 2.68 cm
Area of Specimen, A = 31.42 cm2
Mass of Specimen + ring + Glass plate = 564.85 g
Initial moisture content of specimen, wi = 0.2066
Specific Gravity of solids, G = 2.65

 After Test

Mass of wet sample + ring + glass plate = 529.51


Mass of Can = 9.56
Mass of Can + Wet soil = 69.68
Mass of wet specimen = 61.01
Mass of can + dry soil = 57.26
Mass of dry specimen, Ms = 150.71
Final Moisture Content of Specimen = 0.1244
Calculations:

Area of Specimen = (Pi/4)(6.325)2 = 31.42 cm2

 Initial Moisture Content:


Wet Weight = 60.05 g
Dry Weight = 52.58 g
60.05−52.58
MC = 𝑥100 = 12.44%
60.05

 Final Moisture Content:


Wet Weight = 60.12 g
Dry Weight = 52.58 g
60.12−47.7
MC = 𝑥100 = 20.66%
60.12
 DATA GATHERED IN LABORATORY
Time (min) 1st (Initial Reading) 2nd (Final Reading) Deformation
0.1 10 9.55 0.45
0.25 9.548 0.452
0.5 9.545 0.455
1 9.54 0.46
2 9.535 0.465
4 9.531 0.469
8 9.527 0.473
15 9.525 0.475
30 9.523 0.477
60 9.522 0.478
120 9.521 0.479
240 9.52 0.48
480 9.519 0.481
1440 9.518 0.482
D10 = 0.472
T1 = 1,
T2 = 4
ΔT = 0.01
D0 = 0.45
D50= 0.4615
T50 = 1.08
 VOID RATIO

Weight Mutiplier Weight (KN) Area Pressure (Kpa) Void Ratio, e


2 7.5 0.14715 0.003142 46.83322724 0.4366
4 7.5 0.2943 0.003142 93.66645449 0.4278
8 7.5 0.5886 0.003142 187.332909 0.29976
16 7.5 1.1772 0.003142 374.665818 0.2235
32 7.5 2.3544 0.003142 749.3316359 0.1077

Determinining the Void Ratio

Mass of solids in specimen, Ms 150.71

Mass of water in specimen before test, Mwi 31.136686

Mass of water in specimen after test, Mwf 18.748324

Height of Solids, Hs 1.796489271

Height of water before test, Hwi 0.990983004

Height of water after test, Hwf 0.596700318

Change in height of Specimen per cycle 0.2066

Height of specimen after test in cycle, Hf 2.4734

Void ratio before test, eo 0.4917985

Void ratio after test, ef 0.376796422

Degree of saturation before test, Si 1.121642298


0.6

0.4
Void Ratio, e

0.2

0
1 10 100 1000
Logarithmic Pressure (KPa)
 COEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION

Hdr 1.34
Cv 0.327531
t50 1.08

Cv (cm²/min)
Cycle 1 0.0393
Cycle 2 0.1474
Cycle 3 0.2948
Cycle 4 0.3275
Cycle 5 0.1165

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25
Void Ratio, e

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
1 10 100 1000
Pressure (KPa)
CONCLUSION

Consolidation test is necessary to know by the Engineers. Before the Foundation is


design, the Engineers must first get the consolidation test of the soil in every column.
Consolidation can only perform with the use of modern technologies. The Engineers
must be familiar in concept of settlement because we don’t want our structure to be like
the structure of Leaning tower of Pisa.

Using the consolidation test, the Engineers now can predict what are the deformation
that occurred in any time.