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Abu Dhabi Building Code


2009 International Building Code

Structural Provisions
Introduction & Overview

2009 IBC® Fundamentals Structural Provisions


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Abu Dhabi Building Code


2009 International Building Code

Emirate of Abu Dhabi Building Code


Based on

2009 International Building Code® (IBC®)

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Emirate of Abu Dhabi Building Code

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Emirate of Abu Dhabi Building Code

• Only Appendix chapters C, E, F, G, H, I, and J


are adopted
• 59 amendments
• 14 additions based on the draft of Sep. 13, 2010
• 35 deletions

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Emirate of Abu Dhabi Building Code

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Emirate of Abu Dhabi Building Code

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Emirate of Abu Dhabi Building Code

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Background of the
International Code Council

ICC, a membership association established in


1994 and dedicated to building safety and fire
prevention, develops the codes used to construct
residential and commercial buildings, including
homes and schools. ICC develops a single set of
comprehensive and coordinated national model
construction codes.

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Background of the
International Code Council

In addition to developing and publishing


international codes, ICC offers code
application assistance, educational
programs and materials, and certification
training and testing.

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Background of the
International Code Council

The International
Code Council is on
the internet at:
www.iccsafe.org

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IBC Structural Chapters

IBC chapters covering structural design requirements are:

 Chapter 16 – Design Loads  Chapter 20 – Aluminum

 Chapter 17 – Inspections/Testing  Chapter 21 – Masonry

 Chapter 18 – Foundations  Chapter 22 – Steel

 Chapter 19 – Concrete  Chapter 23 – Wood

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Alphabet Soup — Acronyms


Structural Design Methods

 ASD – Allowable Stress Design


– Older design method.
– Actual stress from nominal loads ≤
allowable stress.
 LRFD – Load and Resistance Factor Design

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Section 1605.2
Load Combination - LRFD

1.4(D+F) (Eq. 16-1)


1.2(D+F+T) + 1.6(L+H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R) (Eq. 16-2)
1.2D +1.6(Lr or S or R) + (f1L or 0.8W) (Eq. 16-3)
1.2D + 1.6W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) (Eq. 16-4)
1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2 S (Eq. 16-5)
0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H (Eq. 16-6)
0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H (Eq. 16-7)
f1 = 0.5, except 1.0 in public assembly L > 4.79 kN/m2, and for parking
garage live load
f2 = 0.2, except 0.7 for roof configurations (such as saw tooth) that do not
shed snow off the structure
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Section 1605.3.1
Load Combination – ASD Basic
D+F (Eq. 16-8)
D+ H+ F+ L+ T (Eq. 16-9)
D + H + F + (Lr or S or R) (Eq. 16-10)
D + H + F + 0.75(L+T) + 0.75 (Lr or S or R) (Eq. 16-11)
D + H + F + (W or 0.7E) (Eq. 16-12)
D + H + F + 0.75 (W or 0.7E) + 0.75L + 0.75 (Lr or S or R) (Eq. 16-13)
0.6D + W + H (Eq. 16-14)
0.6D + 0.7E + H (Eq. 16-15)
Exceptions:
1. Crane hook loads need not be combined with roof live load or with more
than 3/4 of the snow load or 1/2 of the wind load.
2. Flat roof snow loads of 1.44 kN/m2 or less and roof live loads of 1.44
kN/m2 or less need not be combined with seismic loads. Where flat roof
snow loads exceed 1.44 kN/m2, 20% shall be combined with seismic
loads. 14
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Alphabet Soup — Acronyms


Structural Design Methods

 Strength Design (SD)


– Newer ―limit state‖ design method
– Factored resistance ≥ factored load effect
 ―SD versus LRFD‖
– Term ―LRFD‖ used for aluminum, steel, &
wood
– Term ―Strength Design‖ used for concrete
and masonry
– Same procedure, different names
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Engineering Terminology

 ―Prescriptive‖
– Requirements are prescribed by rules
only.
– Often based on long standing custom.
– Like a recipe to bake a cake —
ingredients and procedure are
prescribed.

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Engineering Terminology

 ―Engineered‖
– Calculations instead of rules.
– Many possible solutions available to
engineer.

 ―Empirical‖
– Derived from observation and/or experiment
rather than theory.
– Similar to prescriptive but involves
calculations to determine compliance.
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Code Terminology

 ―Specification Code‖
– IBC is a specification code that specifies
the requirements for compliance in very
black and white terms.
 ―Performance Code‖
– Performance code does not specify
requirements.
– But gives the ―performance goals‖ to be
achieved.
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Engineering Units
and ―Soft Metric‖

The bad news …


The IBC is in U.S. Customary Units
Feet, inches, pounds (force), seconds
with ―Soft Metric‖ SI conversion in parentheses
For example, IBC Table 1607.1:
Office floor live load, L = 50 psf uniformly distributed
load
Footnote states …
For SI: 1.0 psf = 0.0479 kN/m2
Therefore, 50 psf = 2.4 kN/m2
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Conversion Tools

 http://www.onlineconversion.com/
 http://www.convert-me.com/en/
 http://www.onlineunitconversion.com/
 http://www.microsystools.com/services/unit-
convert/
 http://www.gordonengland.co.uk/conversion/
 http://www.youconvertit.com/ConvertUnits.aspx
 iPhone applications named Unit Converter,
MultiConvert, etc.
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Referenced Structural Standards

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Referenced Structural Standards

Referenced structural standards in 2009 IBC

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Referenced Structural Standards

Referenced structural standards in 2009 IBC

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Referenced Structural Standards

Referenced structural standards in 2009 IBC

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Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

All the standards referenced in the IBC


are listed alphabetically in Chapter 35.

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Chapter 35 Referenced Standards

ASTM Standards. The 2009 IBC


references approximately 280 ASTM
standards. Most of the standards contained
in previous legacy codes, such as UBC
Volume 3, are now ASTM standards and
are referenced standards listed in IBC
Chapter 35.

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Section 102 Applicability — Authority of


Referenced Standards and Conflicts

Section 102.4 states that the referenced standards are to be


considered part of the code:
Referenced code and standards. The codes and
standards referenced in this code shall be considered
part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed
extent of each such reference.
It also states that where there are conflicts between the
code and the standard, the code prevails:
Where differences occur between provisions of this code
and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of
this code shall apply.
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Question and Answer

The description of the occupancy


categories are not the same in the IBC
Table 1604.5 as in ASCE 7 Table 1-1.
Which one governs?

The code user should determine the


occupancy categories from Table 1604.5
of the IBC.

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2009 IBC Table 1604.5 Occupancy Category

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ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1 Occupancy Category

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2009 IBC Table 1604.5 Occupancy Category

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ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1 Occupancy Category

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Section 104.11 - Alternative Materials,


Design and Methods

Every component used in building


construction must comply with the code,
but not every structural element or
product is specifically covered by the
code. The code cannot realistically
include every component and system.

Simpson Strong Wall, Weyerhaeuer


iLevel Shear Brace, Hilti Kwik Bolt and
Hardy Frame are examples of structural
components that are commonly used but
are not specifically included in the code.
Simpson Strong Wall
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Question and Answer

How are items that are not specifically


covered by the code approved?
The code has a procedure for approving
such items under Section 104.11,
Alternative materials, design and
methods of construction and equipment.
Approve – when found equivalent in
quality, strength, effectiveness, fire
resistance, durability and safety.
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Section 104.11.1
Research Reports

 Supporting data.
 Assist in the approval of materials or
assemblies not specifically provided for in
this code.
 Consist of valid research reports from
approved sources.

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Section 104.11.2
Tests

 Insufficient evidence of compliance with the


provisions of this code.
 Evidence that a material or method does not
conform to the requirements.
 In order to substantiate claims for alternative
materials or methods.
 Building officials shall have the authority to
require tests as evidence of compliance to
be made at no expense to the jurisdiction.
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ICC Evaluation Services

ICC Evaluation Services develops reports that can


be used by building officials to approve products not
covered by the code.
ICC Evaluation Service Reports (ESR) can be
accepted as evidence to the building official that the
product conforms to the requirements of the code
(under Section 104.11 as an alternative material,
design or method of construction).
ICC ES website: http://www.icc-es.org/
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Structural Loads
(IBC Chapter 16)

1601 General
1602 Definitions and Notations
1603 Construction Documents
1604 General Design Requirements
1605 Load Combinations
1606 Dead Loads
1607 Live Loads
1608 Snow Loads
1609 Wind Loads
1610 Soil Lateral Loads
1611 Rain Loads
1612 Flood Loads
1613 Earthquake Loads

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Structural Loads
(IBC Chapter 16)

 Chapter 16 covers structural


loads that buildings and
structures must be designed
to safely resist.
 Code references ASCE/SEI
Standard 7-05, Minimum
Design Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures with
Supplements No. 1 and
No. 2.
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Structural Loads
(IBC Chapter 16)

 Structural design loads are found in IBC


and/or ASCE 7-05, in general:
 Structural design criteria are found in
IBC.
 The technical provisions for
environmental loads (snow, wind,
seismic) are only found in the ASCE 7
standard.
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Section 1603
Construction Documents

Construction documents shall show the size,


section and relative locations of structural members with
floor levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. The
following information should also be shown:
 Floor live load.
 Roof live load.
 Roof snow load.
1. Flat-roof snow load, Pf
2. Snow exposure factor, Ce
3. Snow load importance factor, I
4. Thermal factor, Ct
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Section 1603
Construction Documents

 Wind design data


1. Basic wind speed (3-second gust), m/s
2. Wind importance factor, I, and occupancy
category.
3. Wind exposure.
4. The applicable internal pressure
coefficient.
5. Components and cladding design wind
pressures, kN/m2
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Section 1603
Construction Documents
 Earthquake design data
1. Seismic importance factor, I, and occupancy
category
2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, SS
and S1
3. Site class
4. Design spectral response coefficients, SDS
and SD1
5. Seismic design category
6. Basic seismic-force-resisting system(s)

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Section 1603
Construction Documents
 Earthquake design data (continued)
7. Response modification factor(s), R
8. Seismic response coefficient(s), CS
9. Design base shear
10. Seismic analysis procedure used
 Geotechnical information
 Flood design data
 Special loads
 Special inspection items for seismic resistance
(see Section 1707.1)
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Section 1901.4
Construction Documents (Concrete)

The construction documents for structural concrete


construction shall include:
1. The specified compressive strength of concrete at the
stated ages or stages of construction for which each
concrete element is designed.
2. The specified strength or grade of reinforcement.
3. The size and location of structural elements,
reinforcement and anchors.
4. Provision for dimensional changes resulting from
creep, shrinkage and temperature.
5. The magnitude and location of prestressing forces.
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Section 1901.4
Construction Documents (Concrete)
Continued…
6. Anchorage length of reinforcement and location and length
of lap splices.
7. Type and location of mechanical and welded splices of
reinforcement.
8. Details and location of contraction or isolation joints
specified for plain concrete.
9. Minimum concrete compressive strength at time of
posttensioning.
10. Stressing sequence for posttensioning tendons.
11. For structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E
or F, a statement if slab on grade is designed as a
structural diaphragm (see Section 21.12.3.4 of ACI 318M).
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Section 1604
General Design Requirements
The following design requirements prescribe
minimum strength and serviceability:
 General  In-place load tests
Section 1604.1 Section 1604.6

 Strength  Preconstruction load tests


Section 1604.2 Section 1604.7

 Serviceability  Anchorage requirements


Section 1604.3 Section 1604.8

 Structural analysis  Counteracting structural actions


Section 1604.4 Section 1604.9

 Occupancy category  Wind and seismic detailing


Section 1604.5 Section 1604.10
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Section 1604
General Design Requirements

Occupancy category
All buildings must be assigned an occupancy
category in accordance with Table 1604.5.
OC I – Low hazard buildings and buildings not
intended for human occupancy.
OC II – Ordinary buildings that are not OC I, III
or IV.

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Section 1604
General Design Requirements
Occupancy category (continued)
OC III – High-occupancy assembly buildings,
schools, colleges, jails, prisons and
buildings with an occupant load great than
5,000.
OC IV – Essential facilities, emergency operations
centers, hospitals, police and fire stations;
buildings containing highly toxic materials
and buildings critical to national defense.
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Table 1604.5 Occupancy Category


of Buildings and Other Structures

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Table 1604.5 Occupancy Category


of Buildings and Other Structures

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Table 6-1, ASCE 7-05


Wind Importance Factor

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Table 11.5-1, ASCE 7-05


Seismic Importance Factor

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Types of Loads

Type Caused by… Examples


 Dead load
 Live (floor) load
Vertical Gravity  Roof live load
 Rain load
 Snow load
Soil pressure  Soil pushing against a foundation wall
Wind pressure  Wind blowing against a wall surface
Lateral
Earthquake ground  Inertial shear force caused by
motion earthquake ground motion

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Symbols

D = Dead load F = Load due to fluids with well-defined


L = Live load, except roof live load, pressures and maximum heights
including any permitted live load Fa = Flood load
reduction H = Load due to lateral earth pressures,
Lr = Roof live load including any ground water pressure, or pressure of bulk
permitted live load reduction materials
R = Rain load T = Self-straining force arising from
S = Snow load contraction or expansion resulting from
temperature change, shrinkage, moisture
W = Load to wind pressure change, creep in component materials,
E = Combined effect of horizontal and movement due to differential settlement or
vertical earthquake induced forces combinations thereof
Em = Maximum seismic load effect of
horizontal and vertical seismic forces

Note: Rain, snow, wind and earthquake


loads are environmental loads.
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Section 1607
Live Loads
Roof Live load, Lr
Roof live load reduction (Section 1607.11.2)
 Roof live load reduction applies to:
– Flat, pitched and curved roofs
– 0.96 kN/m2 basic roof live load, Lo
– Reducible from 0.96 to 0.58 kN/m2,
shall NEVER be less than 0.58 kN/m2

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Section 1607
Live Loads
Roof live load reduction (Section 1607.11.2)
 Lr = Lo R1 R2
 Reduction method is based on:
– Tributary area, At (R1 factor)
R1 = 1.0 when At ≤ 18.58 m2
R1 = 1.2 – 0.011 At when 18.58 m2 < At < 55.74 m2
R1 = 0.6 when At ≥ 55.74 m2
– Pitch of roof, F:12 (R2 factor)
R2 = 1.0 when F ≤ 4 (33.33% slope, F = 4 = 0.12 x 33.33)
R2 = 1.2 – 0.05 F when 4 < F < 12
R2 = 0.6 when F ≥ 12 (100% slope, F = 12 = 0.12 x 100)
For an arch or dome, F = 32 times ―the rise-to-span ratio‖
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Section 1607
Live Loads

Floor live load reduction (Section 1607.9)

Live load reduction methods


1. General live load reduction method of
Section 1607.9.1.
2. Alternate floor live load reduction
method in Section 1607.9.2.

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Section 1607
Live Loads
General live load reduction (Section 1607.9.1)
Members for which a value of KLLAT is 37.16 m2 or
more are permitted to be designed for a reduced live
load in accordance with Equation 16-22:

But, L ≥ 0.5 Lo for member supporting 1 floor


L ≥ 0.4 Lo for member supporting ≥ 2 floors
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Section 1607
Live Loads

Alternate (floor) live load reduction method


(Section 1607.9.2)
Live loads that do not exceed 4.79 kN/m2 may
be reduced on any structural member supporting
13.94 m2 according to Equation 16-23:
R = 0.861 (A - 13.94)
Note restrictions listed.
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Section 1607
Live Loads

R = 0.861 (A-13.94)

Reduction, R, cannot exceed the smallest of:


1. 40% for horizontal members.
2. 60% for vertical members.
3. R = 23.1(1 + D/L0) where R is in percent.

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Section 1609
Wind Load

In a nice breezy day:

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Section 1609
Wind Loads
The wind load provisions are for wind due to
thunderstorm activity and hurricanes, NOT
winds in the path of tornadoes.

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Section 1609
Wind Loads
Thunderstorms and Hurricanes

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ASCE 7-05
Wind Load Provisions

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ASCE 7-05
Wind Load Provisions

Main Wind-Force-Resisting System (MWFRS)


and Components and Cladding (C&C)

Wind design involves two separate systems


(ASCE 7, Section 6.2):
 Main Wind-Force-Resisting System (MWFRS).
 Components and Cladding (C&C).
 both MWFRS and C&C.

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.2


Wind Load Provisions

Definitions - ASCE 7-05 Section 6.2

 Main Wind-Force Resisting System (MWFRS):


An assemblage of structural elements assigned to
provide support and stability for the overall structure.
The system generally receives wind loading from
more than one surface.
 Components and Cladding: Elements of the
building envelope that do not qualify as part of
MWFRS
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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.5.7


Topographic Effects
Section 6.5.7.1 Wind Speed-Up Effects
Wind speed-up effects shall be included in the design
when:

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.5.7


Topographic Effects

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.5.7


Topographic Effects

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.5.7


Topographic Effects
Kzt spreadsheet developed by Mark Chang

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ASCE 7-05
Wind Load Provisions

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.4.2.1


Simplified Procedure for MWFRS
Main wind-force-resisting system (ASCE 7,
Section 6.4.2.1)

ps = λ Kzt I pS30
Where:
λ = Adjustment factor for building height and exposure from Figure 6-2 of
ASCE 7.
I = Importance factor from Table 6-1 of ASCE 7.
pS30 = Simplified design wind pressure for Exposure B, at h = 30 feet
and for I = 1.0 from Figure 6-2 of ASCE 7.
Kzt = Topographic factor as defined in Section 6.5.7 evaluated at mean
roof height, h.
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ASCE 7-05 Wind Load Provisions

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.5.10


Velocity Pressure

Constant Wind Speed, V (m/s)

Velocity Pressure, qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V 2 I (N/m2)

Exposure Coefficient
Topographic Factor
Directionality Factor
Importance Factor

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.5.12.2.1


MWFRS - Rigid Building of All Heights

Gust Effect Factor External Pressure Coefficient

Design Pressure, p = q G Cp - qi (G Cpi) (N/m2)

Combined Gust Effect and


Internal Pressure Coefficient

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ASCE 7-05 Wind Load Provisions

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.6


Method 3 - Wind Tunnel Procedure
Architectural Issues

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.6.2


Wind Tunnel Tests

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ASCE 7-05, Section 6.6.2


Wind Tunnel Tests

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Section 1609.1.1.2.1
Lower Limits of Wind Tunnel Tests
 Base overturning moments determined from wind
tunnel testing shall be limited to no less than 80% of the
design base overturning moment determined in accordance
with Section 6.5 of ASCE 7, unless ….
 The design pressure for
components and cladding
on walls or roofs shall be
selected as the greater of
the wind tunnel test results
or 80% of the pressure
obtained for Zone 4 for
walls and Zone 1 for roofs
as determined Section 6.5 of ASCE 7, unless….
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2009 IBC
Wind Load Provisions

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Section 1609.6 Alternate


All-Heights Wind Design Method
Basis
The basis of the alternate wind design procedure is
accomplished by combining terms in the design pressure
formulas of Method 2 - Analytical Procedure to produce a
pressure coefficient Cnet that is provided in a new Table
1609.6.2(2) in the IBC:
p = q G Cp - qi (G Cpi) qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V 2 I
pnet = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V 2 I [GCp - (GCpi)]
Let qs = 0.613 V 2
Let Cnet = Kd [GCp - (GCpi)]
Then pnet = qs Kz Cnet (IKzt) (Equation 16-34)
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2009 IBC & ASCE 7-05


Wind Load Provisions
Photo taken on
Sept. 14, 2008

Hurricane Ike:
50 m/s winds
and estimated
5-meter storm
surge.

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

Earthquake design philosophy (NEHRP) – Collapse prevention

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

To resist the effects of


earthquake motions

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

Scope (Section 1613.1)


Key elements:
 Occupancy Category – Table 1604.5.
 Seismic Importance Factor, I – ASCE 7-05,
Table 11.5-1.
 Ground motion maps – Abu Dhabi Amendments.
 Site Class (A - F).
 Seismic Design Category (SDC A - F).

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads
Spectral
response
acceleration
map, for
Ss at 0.20 sec.

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads
Spectral
response
acceleration
map, for
S1 at 1.0 sec.

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

Long-Period
Transition
Period,
TL = 8 seconds.

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

Site class definitions (Section 1613.5.2)


The good stuff:
 Site Class A – Hard rock
 Site Class B – Rock
 Site Class C – Very dense soil & soft rock
 Site Class D – Stiff soil

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

Site class definitions (Section 1613.5.2)


The not-so-good stuff:
 Site Class E – Soft soil
 Site Class F – Bad soil, possible liquifaction

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads
Site coefficients (Fa) and adjusted maximum
considered earthquake spectral response
acceleration parameters (Section 1613.5.3)

96
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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads
Site coefficients (Fv) and adjusted maximum
considered earthquake spectral response
acceleration parameters (Section 1613.5.3)

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads

MCE spectral response acceleration


parameters (Section 1613.5.3)
SMS = Fa Ss
SM1 = Fv S1
Design spectral response acceleration
parameters (Section 1613.5.4)
SDS = 2/3 SMS
SD1 = 2/3 SM1
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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads
Determine Seismic Design Category A through D
based upon SDS using Table 1613.5.6(1).

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Section 1613
Earthquake Loads
Determine Seismic Design Category A through D
based upon SD1 using Table 1613.5.6(2).

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Design Example 1 - Solution

Villas  Occupancy Category II


Site Class Mapped Spectral Response
City of Abu Dhabi D Ss = 0.59 S1 = 0.18

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2009 IBC & ASCE 7-05


Earthquake Load Provisions
Important Elements
for Determining Seismic Base Shear:
Seismic Design Category of the building site: A, B, C, D, E, F ?
Long-Period Transition Period: TL
Fundamental Period of the structure: T
Importance Factor: I
Structure Response Modification Coefficient: R
Effective Seismic Weight, W
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ASCE 7-05
Earthquake Load Provisions
―Short Stiff‖ buildings

―Taller More Flexible‖ Buildings

―Longer Period‖
(High-rise Buildings)

DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA 103


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Design Example 1 - Solution

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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.6


Analysis Procedure Selection

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ASCE 7-05
Earthquake Load Provisions

Equivalent lateral force procedure (continued)


 Maximum SS for CS (ASCE 7, Section 12.8.1.3)
– Regular structures less than 5 stories and T ≤
0.5 sec., Cs may be determined using Ss = 1.5.
 Vertical distribution of seismic forces (ASCE 7,
Section 12.8.3).
w hk k = 1 when T ≤ 0.5,
Fx  CvxV C vx  x x k k = 2 when T ≥ 2.5,
 wh
 Overturning when 0.5 < T < 2.5,
n
interpolate k btwn 1 & 2
M x   Fi hi  hx  or k = 2
ix
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ASCE 7-05
Earthquake Load Provisions

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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.3.1


Diaphragm Flexibility
Flexible vs. Rigid:
for the purpose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment.

Assume rigid
(Section 1602.1)
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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.3.2.1


Horizontal Irregularity
See Table 12.3-1

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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.3.2.2


Vertical Irregularity
See Table 12.3-2

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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.3.4


Redundancy
ASCE 7-05’s approach:
We want redundancy (multiple elements)
 Use multiple smaller baskets
or
 Make the basket stronger
Either a building is redundant or it is not, i.e.
ρ = 1.0 or 1.3
Building size doesn’t matter.
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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.4.2


Seismic Load Effect
The seismic load effect, E, shall be
determined in accordance with the following:
1. E = Eh + Ev (12.4-1)
when seismic effect and gravity loads are in
the same direction.
2. E = Eh - Ev (12.4-2)
when seismic effect and gravity loads are in
the opposite direction.
where
Eh = effect of horizontal seismic forces as defined in Section 12.4.2.1
Ev = effect of vertical seismic forces as defined in Section 12.4.2.2

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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.4.2.1


Horizontal Seismic Load Effect
The horizontal seismic load effect, Eh , shall be
determined in accordance with Eq. 12.4-3 as follows:
Eh = ρ QE (12.4-3)
where
QE = effects of horizontal seismic forces from V or Fp .
Where required in Sections 12.5.3 and 12.5.4,
such effects shall result from application of
horizontal forces simultaneously in two
directions at right angles to each other.
ρ = redundancy factor, as defined in Section 12.3.4
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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.4.2.2


Vertical Seismic Load Effect
The vertical seismic load effect, Ev , shall be
determined in accordance with Eq. 12.4-4 as follows:
Ev = 0.2 SDS D (12.4-4)
where
SDS = design spectral response acceleration parameter
at short periods obtained from Section 11.4.4
D = effect of dead load
EXCEPTIONS: The vertical seismic load effect, Ev , is permitted to
be taken as zero for either of the following conditions:
1. In Eqs. 12.4-1, 12.4-2, 12.4-5, and 12.4-6 where SDS is equal to
or less than 0.125.
2. In Eq. 12.4-2 where determining demands on the soil-structure
interface of foundations.
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Section 1604.8.2 – Wall Anchorage

Required by Section 11.7.3 of ASCE 7-05


to all types of walls, not just concrete or
masonry walls.
For concrete and masonry walls, 5% of
the portion’s weight, but not be less than
4.09 kN/m.

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ASCE 7-05, Section 12.11


Structural walls and their anchorage

5.84 SDS I kN/m of wall (concrete and masonry only)


4.09 kN/m of wall (concrete and masonry only)

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Section 1604.8.3 – Deck Anchorage

Consider ―skip loadings‖ for


cantilevered framing members

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Foundations (IBC Chapter 18)


1801 General
1802 Definitions
1803 Geotechnical Investigations
1804 Excavation, Grading and Fill
1805 Dampproofing and Waterproofing
1806 Presumptive Load-bearing
Values of Soils
1807 Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls
and Embedded Posts and Piles
1808 Foundations
1809 Shallow Foundations
1810 Deep Foundations
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Foundations (IBC Chapter 18)

The major change was in the classification


of foundations, which are now organized in
three general categories:
 Shallow foundations (footings).
 Deep foundations (piles).
 Miscellaneous foundation structures,
such as foundation walls, retaining walls
and embedded poles.
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Sections 1803.5.11 and 1803.5.12


Seismic Design Categories C through F
For structures in SDC C, a soil
investigation may be required that addresses
potential hazards resulting from earthquake
ground motions:
 Slope instability.
 Liquefaction.
 Differential settlement.
 Surface rupture due to faulting or lateral
spreading.
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Sections 1803.5.11 and 1803.5.12


Seismic Design Categories C through F
For structures in SDC D, E or F, a soil
investigation is required that addresses
potential hazards identified for SDC C
structures, as well as:
 Determination of lateral pressures on
foundation and retaining walls.
 Potential for liquefaction.
 Potential consequences of liquefaction.
 Mitigation measures.
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Section 1803.6
Reporting

The geotechnical report should include:


1. A plot plan showing the location of the soil
investigation.
2. A complete record of the soil boring,
penetration test logs and soil samples.
3. A record of the soil profile.
4. Elevation of the water table, if encountered.
5. Recommendations for foundation type and
design criteria.
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Section 1803.6
Reporting
The geotechnical report should include
(continued):
6. Expected total and differential settlement.
7. Deep foundation information.
8. Special design and construction provisions.
9. Compacted fill material properties and
testing.
10. Controlled low-strength materials
properties and testing.
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Section 1704 Special Inspections

General:
 Section 1704.1, Owner, Owner’s agent or
design professional in responsible charge
acting as owner’s agent shall employ one
or more special inspectors to provide
inspection during construction. (Contractors
cannot hire special inspector)
 All Special inspections shall be as per Tables
1704.3 -1704.9
 Special Inspections are in addition to required
inspections per section 110
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Special Inspection - Concrete

 Special Inspection per Table 1704.4


 Exceptions
1. Isolated footings for buildings 3 story or less
2. Prescriptive designed continuous concrete footings
supporting light framed construction with 3 stories or
less in height and having f’c of 2500 psi (17.2 Mpa)or
less
3. Non structural SOG, including driveways and sidewalks
4. Prescriptive designed concrete foundation walls
5. Driveways, sidewalks and patios
 Reinforcement weldability per ACI except ASTM A 706
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Special Inspection - Concrete

 Table 1704.4

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Concrete (IBC Chapter 19)


1901 General
1902 Definitions
1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials
1904 Durability Requirements
1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and
Placing
1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes
and Construction Joints
1907 Details of Reinforcement
1908 Modifications to ACI 318
1909 Structural Plain Concrete
1910 Minimum Slab Provisions
1911 Anchorage to Concrete—
Allowable Stress Design
1912 Anchorage to Concrete—Strength Design
1913 Shotcrete
1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete
1915 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns
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Section 1901
General
Plain and reinforced concrete
(Section 1901.2)
 Referenced standard for
concrete design and
construction
 ACI 318M-08, Building Code
Requirements for Structural
Concrete and Commentary
ACI Code and Commentary

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Section 1901
General

Construction provisions in Sections 1902


through 1907
 Generally reference ACI 318 Chapters 2
through 7.

Modifications (amendments) to ACI 318 are in


Section 1908
 NOTE! Section 1908.1.15 contains
amendments to use of plain concrete in
higher seismic risk areas.
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Section 1901
General

Construction documents (Section 1901.4)


 Chapter 19 contains requirements for
construction documents that are
applicable to structural concrete
construction in addition to requirements
in Sections 107 and 1603.

Special inspection required in accordance with


Section 1704.4 (Section 1901.5).
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Section 1909
Structural Plain Concrete
Limitations (Section 1909.2)

 Members continuously supported.


 Walls and pedestals.
 Member is in compression under all load
conditions.
 Not permitted in columns and piles.
 IMPORTANT!
– Section 1908.1.8 contains many
amendments to plain concrete restrictions.

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Sections 1911 and 1912


Anchorage to Concrete

Two design methods for anchorage to


concrete:
 Section 1911 – Anchorage to concrete
using allowable stress design (ASD).
 Section 1912 – Anchorage to concrete
using load and resistance factor design
(LRFD).

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ACI 318M-08 Webinar Training

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Steel (IBC Chapter 22)

2201 General
2202 Definitions
2203 Identification and Protection of
Steel for Structural Purposes
2204 Connections
2205 Structural Steel
2206 Steel Joists
2207 Steel Cable Structures
2208 Steel Storage Racks
2209 Cold-formed Steel
2210 Cold-formed Steel
Light-frame Construction

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Steel (IBC Chapter 22)

Referenced standards:
 Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings (AISC 360-05).
 Seismic Provisions for
Structural Steel Buildings,
including Supplement No. 1
(AISC 341-05).
AISC 360-05

AISC 341-05
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Section 2205
Structural Steel
Seismic requirements for steel structures
(Section 2205.2)
Seismic Design Category A, B or C
(Section 2205.2.1)
 May use AISC 341 and R-value for system
per ASCE 7 Table 12.2-1 and detail
accordingly.
 NEED NOT conform to AISC 341, but
R = 3 (high forces, no detailing).
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Section 2205
Structural Steel
Seismic requirements for steel structures
(Section 2205.2) (continued)

Seismic Design Category D, E or F


(Section 2205.2.2)
 Required to conform to AISC 341 detailing
requirements for the type of structural
system.
 R is from ASCE 7, Table 12.2-1.
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