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www.elsevier.com/locate/cep

cracking unit

Mircea V. Cristea a,*, Şerban P. Agachi a, Vasile Marinoiu b,1

a

Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ‘‘Babeş-Bolyai’’ University, 11 Arany Janos Street, 3400 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

b

Control and Computers Department, ‘‘Petrol-Gaze’’ University, 39 Bucuresti Blvd., 2000 Ploiesti, Romania

Received 14 March 2001; received in revised form 9 March 2002; accepted 9 March 2002

Abstract

Based on a newly developed mathematical model, the complex dynamic simulator of an industrial Universal Oil Products (UOP)

fluid catalytic cracking unit was used to implement the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. The simulator revealed the

multivariable, nonlinear and strong interacting feature of the process. Combined with equipment and operating constraints they put

severe limits on control performance. Different MPC schemes for the reactor and regenerator’s most important process variables

were tested and the most favorable have been presented. The constrained MPC approach using scheduled linearization to account

for non-linear behavior and a larger number of manipulated than controlled variables proved successful. Comparison with

traditional control using decentralized PID controllers revealed incentives for the multivariable model based predictive control in

maintaining controlled variables very close to their constrained limits where usually the optimum is situated.

# 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: FCCU dynamic simulator; Complex nonlinear behavior; PID control; Model predictive control

the riser. Two zones frequently describe regenerator

Over 60 years catalytic cracking has been one of the model: a dense bed zone (with dense phase as a CSTR

main processes in petroleum refining supporting a model but gaseous phase as a plug flow reactor model)

spectacular development [1]. The fluid catalytic cracking and an entrained catalyst zone (plug flow model) [5].

unit (FCCU) became in the last decades the testing The control system design and implementation have

bench of every advanced control method. Both acade- to solve challenging tasks. The multivariable character

mia and industry are interested in developing new of the process presenting strong interactions, the non-

control algorithms and their efficient industrial FCC linear behavior leading to the need for nonlinear control

implementation, as successful results are usually of large and the demand to operate the unit in the presence of

economic benefits [2]. The catalytic cracking process is material and operating constraints, are the main ones.

complex both from the modeling and from the control Additionally, the control system has to cope with both

point of view [3,4]. large and short time constants and to face the changing

The dynamic mathematical model development im- operating conditions, in the presence of usually unmea-

plies some assumptions taking into account specific sured disturbances. As a consequence, model predictive

aspects of the process. The complex nature of the feed control (MPC) proves to be a good candidate for

oil assumes a lumped kinetic mechanism for the treat- implementing FCCU advanced control due to its multi-

ment of the cracking process. Both reactor and regen- variable structure, direct approach of constraints and

erator mass and heat transfer are complex. The optimal character [6,7].

Based on these preliminary aspects the paper presents

* Corresponding author. Fax: /40-64-193-833.

the development of a mathematical model for a UOP

E-mail address: mcristea@chem.ubbcluj.ro (M.V. Cristea). type FCCU and the associated dynamic simulator.

1

Fax: /40-44-175-847. Different MPC schemes are investigated and tested by

0255-2701/02/$ - see front matter # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 5 5 - 2 7 0 1 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 1 7 - X

68 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

dynamic simulation revealing interesting aspects from complex succeeding to capture the major dynamic

the perspective of the industrial implementation. behavior of UOP type FCCU [8]. The model includes

the main reactor/regenerator subsystems: feed and

preheat system, reactor, regenerator, air blower, wet

2. FCCU dynamic model gas compressor and catalyst circulation lines.

Main aspects of the new model are outlined in the

The FCCU, for which the mathematical model has following.

been developed and then performed the MPC study, is

presented in Fig. 1.

The newly developed mathematical model for the 2.1. Reactor model

UOP type FCCU is based on the mechanistic Amoco

Model IV FCCU [5]. Compared with Amoco Model IV Developing the new mathematical model for the

the new mathematical model describes a different reactor implied a thorough survey, selection and then

FCCU type, both from the operation and from the synthesis, based on a large variety of models presented

construction point of view. The main new model in literature. The three-lump model has been considered

characteristics are related to the following aspects: to be adequate for the global description of the

phenomena taking place in the reactor. Reactor is

. Different geometric dimensions and relative position

divided in two parts: riser and stripper. The riser model

define the reactor and regenerator, compared with

the Model IV case. is built on the following assumptions: ideal plug flow

. The reactor model uses a Weekman kinetic scheme [9] and very short transient time (the residence time in the

for describing the cracking process. riser is very short compared with other time constants,

. The regenerator of the UOP FCCU operates in especially with the regenerator time constants [1,5,8,10]).

partial combustion mode. It is modeled by mass balance describing the gasoline

. Catalyst circulation is described including spent and and coke/gases production based on Weekman’s

catalyst valves on catalyst circulation lines. These triangular kinetic model [9]. The mixed nonlinear

valves are used as main manipulated variables for differential and algebraic system of equations also

FCCU control. accounts for the amount of coke deposited on catalyst

and for the cracking temperature dynamics [13]. The

The FCCU dynamic model has been developed on the reactor is presented in Fig. 2.

basis of reference construction and operation data from Detailed description of the reactor model is presented

an industrial unit. The described model is rather in the following.

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 69

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

tc Ecf

C cat K c exp : (8)

CrgcN RTr

The fraction of coke on the spent catalyst leaving the

riser is:

Csc1 Crgc Ccat : (9)

The constant values m * and N have been used to

perform a good fit of the mathematical model with

operating data from the industrial unit.

du DHf Ff dyf

: (10)

dza T0 (Fsc Cpc Ff Cpf lFf Cpd ) dza

Fig. 2. Scheme of the FCCU reactor. The amount of gases produced by cracking is

described by the equation:

2.1.1. Mass balance for the riser Fwg (F3 F4 )[C1 C2 (Tr Tref )]: (11)

Mass balance for the feed is described by the equation

Constants C1and C2 have been fitted based on data

dy f from the industrial unit.

K1 y2f [COR]F tc : (1)

dz a The stripper model is of CSTR type (mass and heat

balance) evaluating the temperature in the stripper and

Mass balance for the gasoline is described by the the fraction of coke on spent catalyst.

equation

dyg

(a2 K 1 y 2f K3 yg )[COR]F tc ; (2) 2.1.3. Mass and heat balance for the stripper

dza

where: dTs Frgc

(Tr Ts ); (12)

dt Wr

Ef

K1 (u) kr1 exp ; (3) dCsc dWr 1

RT0 (1 u) Frgc (Crgc Ccat )Fsc Csc Csc ; (13)

dt dt Wr

Eg

K3 (u) kr3 exp ; u (T T0 )=T; (4) dWr

RT0 (1 u) Frgc Fsc : (14)

dt

F f0 exp(atc [COR]za ); (5)

f0 1mCrgc : (6)

Inlet temperature in the riser T0 is determined by the 2.1.4. Pressure balance for riser bottom pressure

heat balance equation [3] determination

Frgc Cpc Treg Ff Cpf T2 DHevp Ff

T0 : (7) rris hris

Frgc Cpc Ff Cpfv Prb P4 ; (15)

144

The term K 1y2f [COR]

represents the kinetics of the

feed, K3yg[COR] the kinetics of the gasoline; F is a F3 F4 Frgc

rris ; (16)

function of catalyst deactivation due to coke deposition; nris

f0 the reduction of catalyst activity due to the coke

F3 F4 Frgc

resident on the catalyst after regeneration; tc residence nris : (17)

time in the riser; and a2 /k1/k2 fraction of feed oil that rv rpart

cracks to gasoline. This model develops the models The amount of catalyst in the riser is determined by

presented by Lee and Groves [24], Shah et al. [25] and the equation

Hovd and Skogestad [13]. The amount of coke produced

is described by the following correlation taken from Frgc Aris hris

Wris : (18)

Voorhies and Kurihara [26]: nris

70 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

2.1.5. Momentum balance for reactor and main The operating conditions are corresponding to CO

fractionator pressure determination partial combustion mode.

The regenerator model consists in mass and heat

dP5 balance equations for O2, CO, CO2 and coke, but also in

0:833(Fwg FV11 FV12 FV13 ) (19) heat balance equations for solid and gaseous phase.

dt

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ These balance equations are correlated with equations

FV12 k12 V12 P5 Patm : (20) describing entrained catalyst (bed characteristics) in the

zone above dense bed, catalyst flow and pressure in the

A constant pressure drop, DPfrac, between reactor and

regenerator.

main fractionator is considered; according to this, the

reactor pressure is computed by the equation

2.3. Model of the catalyst circulation lines

P4 P5 DPfrac : (21)

For the catalyst flow in the spent and regenerated

catalyst circulation lines (piping), a steady state behavior

is assumed. It is considered that dynamics of the lines

are very fast compared to the time constants of other

2.2. Regenerator model subsystems of the FCCU.

Spent and regenerated catalyst circulation considers a

The mathematical model for the regenerator presents single-phase flow, based on force balance [14]. For the

a higher complexity due to the importance of this system regenerated catalyst line the equation is:

in determining the time constant for the entire FCCU.

The regenerator is considered divided in two zones: a 144(P 6 P rb )zbed rc (Etap Eoil )rc DPsv;rgc

dense bed zone and a zone of entrained catalyst (the Frgc Lrgc Frgc

DPelb;rgc 0; (22)

disengaging zone) (Fig. 3). A2rgc rc

The dense bed zone consists of two phases: a bubble

phase of gaseous reactants and products moving up the and for the spent catalyst line the force balance is given

bed in plug flow and a perfectly mixed dense phase by:

containing gases and solid catalyst. Wr

Mass transfer occurs between the two phases but at 144(P 4 P 6 )(Estr Elift )rc

Astr

regenerator temperatures the reaction rates are control-

ling, rather than mass transfer between the two phases. F L F

DPsv;sc DPelb;sc sc sc sc 0: (23)

Since the dense phase is considered perfectly mixed, the A2sc rc

temperature is assumed uniform in the bed and the

The pressure drop on the slide valves is described by

gaseous phase in equilibrium with dense phase. Catalyst

the following equation:

is present in the zone above dense bed due to entrain-

ment. The amount of catalyst decreases with the 50Fcat 2 144

DPsv : (24)

regenerator height. In the entrained catalyst zone the KAsv sv rc

CO combustion is dominant (the amount of catalyst is

diminished) having an important heat contribution. Pressure drop on other pipe restrictions are given by

equations of the type:

1

DPelb Nrc v 2 : (25)

2

Detailed presentation of models for the feed and

preheat system, regenerator, air blower, and wet gas

compressor are presented in Appendix B.

performed and studied as response to different upsets

in manipulated variables and disturbances. From this

Fig. 3. Scheme of the FCCU regenerator. set, the dynamic response to the coking rate disturbance

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 71

KC is presented. A step coking rate disturbance KC a diminished amount of CO2 production (Fig. 4(n)).

(3.2% step increase) has been applied at time t /500 s Taking into account the fact that heat generated by CO

from the beginning of the simulation. This type of formation is about three times less than CO2 heat

disturbance simulates changes in properties of the feed formation, the global effect is the reduction of net heat

oil residing in the increase of the amount of coke contribution in the regenerator with direct consequence

deposited on the catalyst. For the industrial unit, this on temperature decrease (Fig. 4(c)). The cyclone tem-

kind of coking rate change is possible to appear due to perature follows this decrease (Fig. 4(i)). New equili-

the fresh feed composition change or to the recycle brium is reached at lower reactor and regenerator

flowrate upset. The evolutions of the most representa- temperatures compared to temperature values before

tive process variables are presented in Fig. 4. The disturbance occurrence (Fig. 4(c,e)). Catalyst flowrates

dynamic responses are interpreted over two periods and coke fraction on spent and regenerated catalyst are

corresponding to the time sequence of the phenomena. also increased (Fig. 4(f,g)). The CO fraction is increased

(Fig. 4(m)), but CO2 and O2 fractions are decreased.

3.1.1. First period Results obtained by dynamic simulation present a

The increase of coke amount deposited on spent good fit with industrial operating data, simulated

catalyst evacuated from the reactor is rapid (Fig. 4(j)). variables being situated in a range corresponding to

The increased amount of coke entered in the regenerator industrial unit behavior (Table 1). Comparison between

induces, in the first time sequence, the small temperature industrial operating data and dynamic simulation results

rise in the regenerator (Fig. 4(c)), and then in the reactor has been performed for a set of data (1 month period),

(Fig. 4(e)), leading to the intensification of cracking confirming the main trends of the dynamic behavior

reactions, with direct effect on reactor pressure rise (Fig. both on short and large time scales. Obtaining a better

4(b)). As a consequence of the reactor pressure rise, the fit is still possible by increasing the complexity of the

flowrate of spent catalyst increases (Fig. 4(f)). As spent model, but also necessary, as properties of the raw

catalyst flowrate becomes higher than regenerated material is subject to changes.

catalyst flowrate (Fig. 4(g)), the reactor catalyst inven- Dynamic simulations reveal the multivariable and

tory decreases (Fig. 4(a)). The small increase in regen- nonlinear behavior of the process presenting strong

erator pressure and then in regenerator catalyst interactions. Inverse response has been noticed denoting

inventory determines a small decrease in the air entering multiple paths with opposing effect transmission. Single

the regenerator (due to the increased counter-pressure) loop decentralized control has to face strong impedi-

(Fig. 4(l)). The regenerator temperature begins to ments for such challenging interacting behavior.

decline (after a first low-amplitude peak), as a conse- The newly developed dynamic simulator offers the

quence of the increased contribution of spent catalyst possibility to study different operating regimes induced

(with lower temperature) entering the regenerator. both by design changes and by changing operation

strategies. It also proves to be a valuable tool for

3.1.2. Second period investigating the way that different control strategies

The regenerator temperature decrease induces the may be implemented and predict their results. Advanced

temperature decrease in the reactor followed by a control systems, as MPC algorithms, are based on

pressure decrease in the reactor (Fig. 4(b)). The reactor mathematical models and rely on the dynamic simula-

pressure reduction determines the decrease of spent tor.

catalyst flowrate (Fig. 4(f)), and the increase of regen-

erated catalyst flowrate (Fig. 4(g)). For the reactor, the 3.2. Model predictive control results and interpretations

consequence is the increase in catalyst inventory (Fig.

4(a)). The regenerator temperature decrease continues 3.2.1. Control scheme selection

due to the fact that net coke contribution is increased MPC, also referred as moving (receding) horizon

(the combustion air flowrate has a negligible increase). control, has become an attractive control strategy

The explanation of this net coke contribution increase is especially for linear but also for nonlinear systems

the following: both spent and regenerated catalyst subject to input, state and output constraints.

flowrates increase (small growth), but mainly, the There are some features that individualize MPC in the

fraction of coke on spent (Fig. 4(j)) and on regenerated field of control design, making it attractive. In contrast

catalyst (Fig. 4(k)), are also increasing. As a result, the to other feedback controllers that calculate the control

difference of these two fractions increases. For this action based on present or past information, MPC

reason, combustion in the regenerator is performed in a determines the control action based on the prediction of

diminished excess of oxygen (Fig. 4(h)), with direct future dynamics of the system. Due to the future

implication on the heat balance of the regenerator. The prediction, early control action can be taken accounting

equilibrium of carbon combustion is shifted to an for future behavior. In practice, most of the systems

increased amount of CO formation (Fig. 4(m)), and to have to satisfy input, state or output constraints,

72 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

Fig. 4. Simulation of FCCU dynamic behavior in the presence of a coking rate KC disturbance (3.2% step increase). (a) Reactor catalyst inventory

Wr [t], (b) reactor pressure P4 [bar], (c) regenerator temperature Treg [8C], (d) regenerator pressure P6 [bar], (e) reactor temperature Tr [8C], (f) spent

catalyst flowrate [kg/s], (g) regenerated catalyst flowrate frgc [kg/s], (h) oxygen to air molar fraction in stack gas x O2sg, (i) cyclone stack gas

temperature Tcyc [8C], (j) mass fraction of coke on spent catalyst csc [kg coke/kg catalyst], (k) mass fraction of coke on regenerated catalyst crgc [kg

coke/kg catalyst], (l) regenerator inlet air flowrate Ft [Nm3/h], (m) CO to air molar fraction in stack gas x COsg, (n) CO to air molar fraction in stack

gas x CO2sg.

resulting in limitations on achievable control perfor- by constraints that are predicted to become active in the

mance (in the extreme case affecting the stability). MPC future. The objective function specifying the desired

is able to obtain better control performance in the control performance is optimized (minimized) on-line at

presence of constraints since it is able to determine the each time step. The number of computed values in the

current control action for minimizing the errors caused manipulated variable sequence is finite (finite input

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 73

Fig. 4 (Continued)

horizon) and discrete in time , accounting for the fact cases. For the present study the Dynamic Matrix

that the involved optimization problem can be solved Control form of MPC has been employed.

with numerical methods. A time-continuous approach Based on literature survey and analysis of the current

can lead to extremely demanding numerical problems. industrial FCCU operation, a set of process variables

Multivariable controllers are often the only solution able has been selected and considered to have first role

to provide desired control performance in the presence importance in efficient and safe operation of the unit

of interactions and MPC can successfully handle such [11 /15].

74 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

Fig. 4 (Continued)

The controlled variables have been selected to provide, thermal operation for the regenerator and for the

through control, a safe and economic operation. Con- downstream units (piping and CO boiler).

trol of reactor catalyst inventory (reactor level) Wr, The manipulated variables have been chosen from the

provides stabilization of catalyst circulation. It also sets set of independent variables possible to be changed from

up a buffer for diminishing upsets in coke concentration a practical point of view. The main manipulated

deposited on the catalyst and for temperature change variables are the spent and regenerated catalyst flow-

progressing from the reactor toward the regenerator. rates that may be changed by regenerated svrgc and

Regenerator temperature, Treg, has to be maintained at spent svsc slide valve position. The preheating furnace

a certain value to allow a stable removal of coke from fuel flow, F5, is an important manipulated variable with

the catalyst. Overriding a high temperature limit pro- effective action on the thermal balance of the entire unit.

duces a permanent catalyst deactivation; a reduction The stack gas flowrate from the regenerator, changed by

under a lower limit leads to coke accumulation on the stack gas valve position V14 and the air vent flowrate,

regenerated catalyst. The reactor temperature, Tr, has to changed by air vent valve position V7, are other two

be maintained at a certain level to provide a desired manipulated variables. The wet gas suction flowrate,

maximum conversion of the feed oil. The stack gas changed by suction valve position V11, is another

oxygen concentration, x O2sg, has to be controlled in manipulated variable considered in the control schemes.

order to provide a desired coke combustion, preventing The selected disturbances reflect main upsets possible

both a thermal increase and an inefficient load of the to affect the normal operation of the unit: main

combustion air blower. Maintaining the cyclone tem- fractionator pressure upset, feed oil coking character-

perature, Tcyc, under a maximum limit, provides safe istics (coking rate) upset and ambient temperature upset

Table 1

Typical operating conditions and values obtained with the simulator

Process variable Measuring unit Minimum value Maximum value Nominal value Value in the simulator

Air flowrate entering regenerator Nm3/h 85 00 147 000 98 500 102 514

Air vent flowrate Nm3/h 0 5500 2500 2510

Regenerator temperature 8C 650 700 682 685.06

Cyclone temperature 8C 677 710 705 708.5

Reactor temperature 8C 490 525 515 516.99

Reactor pressure Bar 1.2 1.9 1.3 1.279

Regenerator pressure Bar 1.2 2.8 1.5 1.495

Coke on spent catalyst Mass fraction 0.009 0.014 0.012 0.01165

Coke on regenerated catalyst Mass fraction 0.002 0.0045 0.0035 0.00393

CO2 concentration in flue gas Volume fraction 0.08 0.16 0.13 0.141

O2 concentration in flue gas Volume fraction 0.001 0.008 0.0035 0.00288

CO concentration in flue gas Volume fraction 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.042

Catalyst inventory in the reactor Tons 30 60 50 55.7

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 75

[5,13]. The main fractionator pressure disturbance has 3.2.2. Different MPC control schemes results

been included in the simulation by the term DPfrac, Following the results obtained by dynamic simula-

representing the reactor/main fractionator pressure tion, the most favorable MPC control schemes, from

drop. This disturbance reveals the effect of upsets in each category, are: S1: 3/3, S5: 4 /4, S10: 5 /5. From

main fractionator operation, acting on reactor/regen- this large set of MPC dynamic simulations of FCCU,

erator system. Such main fractionator pressure upsets the representative S5: 4 /4 control scheme results are

may appear when: vapor flow is changed as a result of presented in Figs. 5 and 6.

suction flowrate change of wet gas compressor, internal As can be noticed, the S5: 4 /4 control scheme

liquid/vapor traffic of the main fractionator is changed succeeds to counteract the disturbance effects, present-

due to reboiler and condenser load upset or by pressure ing small overshoot and short settling time. This

changes induced from downstream gas recovery unit. behavior demonstrates good setpoint following capa-

city.

An increasing step disturbance has been selected (having

The superior behavior of S5: 4/4 control scheme,

/37% amplitude increase and applied at time t/500 s).

predicted by the controllability analysis based on RGA

The coking characteristic of the feed oil, coking rate KC,

values presented in Table 3, has been confirmed by the

was included as a disturbance to study the effect of

dynamic simulation results.

changes in raw material properties. It was noticed that Compared to S5: 4 /4, the S6: 4 /4 control scheme

this unmeasured disturbance has a strong effect on the has inferior control performance showing higher over-

heat balance of the entire unit. A positive step change shoot and longer response time (especially for the case

has been selected for this disturbance (having /3.2% of KC disturbance). The S7: 4/4 control scheme

amplitude increase and applied at time t/500 s). The presented unsatisfactory control performance (offset)

ambient temperature change is a continuous disturbance for all controlled variables in the case of KC disturbance.

affecting FCCU on a day-time basis. It consists in For the case of the other investigated disturbances the

combustion air flowrate change, introducing low ampli- control performances of S6: 4/4 and S7: 4 /4 control

tude upsets in the unit. This disturbance was included as schemes are not essentially affected.

a descending ramp, with negative slope (/16 8C/8 h), Compared to S1: 3/3 control scheme, S5: 4/4

applied for 1 hour between t/300 s and t/3900 s. scheme has an unimportant increase of the overshoot

The MPC of the FCCU was designed in a two-level (for the case of KC performance), but a small decrease of

control structure, acting at the top level of the hierarchic the response time can be noticed. The ability to maintain

control system by cascading the low-level regulatory the stack gas oxygen concentration at a predefined value

control loops (usually flowrate control loops). allows a more efficient FCCU operation due to better

A controllability study, based on relative gain array use of air blower capacity and to safer operation by the

(RGA), has been performed for selecting both the most control of ‘‘afterburning’’ phenomenon. Having an

efficient manipulated variables for changing the con- additional variable, compared to the 3 /3 control

trolled variables but also for determining the best MPC schemes, it may be concluded that S5: 4 /4 scheme is

control scheme, among a set of schemes of the same preferable.

dimensions. The RGA is a measure of interaction Compared to lower dimension schemes presented

between controlled variables, each of the RGA elements before, the 5/5 control schemes are characterized by

denoting the ratio between open loop and closed loop the existence of higher overshoot and a longer response

time, possibly coupled with small offset, but the control

gain in decentralized control. This controllability in-

performances are not considerably affected.

dicator, as a first filter for selecting the best control

S12: 5 /6 MPC scheme did not reveal improvements

scheme, proved to be useful not only for decen-

compared to S10: 5/5 scheme. The advantage of using

tralized control but also for the multivariable approach

a control scheme with a higher number of manipulated

[13,17]. than controlled variables will become operative when

Based on this approach, a set of control schemes has constraints on manipulated variables are imposed. The

been investigated [16,17]. They have a different number number of manipulated variable surplus may serve as a

of controlled/manipulated variables: 3 /3, 4 /4, 5/5, supply for the case of operating conditions when one or

5 /6 schemes, presented briefly in Table 2. The set of more of the manipulated variables become restricted.

MPC schemes presented in Table 2 have been tested in

the presence of the three typical described disturbances. 3.2.3. Considerations on MPC tuning

Different values have been investigated for the error It is a well-known fact that model predictive con-

diagonal weighting matrix, ywt (Gy ), and for the troller tuning, especially for the MIMO case, is difficult

manipulated-variable move diagonal weighting matrix, [18,19,21]. This aspect is unexpected if taking into

uwt (Gu ), from the MPC quadratic optimization objec- consideration the relatively large number of parameters

tive. possible to be tuned for obtaining desired control

76 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

Table 2

Tested control schemes

Control scheme (name/dimension) Controlled variables Manipulated variables MPC tuning parameters uwt and ywt

S1 3 /3 Wr Treg Tr svrgc svsc F5 uwt /[120 120 0.8], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1]

S2: 3 /3 Wr Treg Tr svrgc svsc V14 uwt /[120120480], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1]

S3: 3 /3 Wr Treg Tr svrgc svsc V7 uwt /[120120600], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1]

S4: 3 /3 Wr Treg Tr svrgc svsc V7 uwt /[7575300], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1]

S5: 4 /4 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg svrgc svsc V14 V7 uwt /[3030120120], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1 0.5]

S6: 4 /4 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg svrgc svsc F5 V7 uwt /[1501501600], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1 0.5]

S7: 4 /4 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg svrg, svsc V11 V7 uwt /[150150300600], ywt /[0.1 0.2 1 0.5]

S8: 5 /5 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg Tcyc svrgc svsc F5 V7 V11 uwt /[1501501600300], ywt /[0.1 0.2 1 0.5 0.5]

S9: 5 /5 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg Tcyc svrgc svsc F5 V7 V11 uwt /[30 30 0.2 120 60], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1 0.5 0.5]

S10: 5 /5 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg Tcyc svrgc svsc F5 V7 V14 uwt /[1501501600600], ywt /[0.1 0.2 1 0.5 0.5]

S11: 5 /5 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg Tcyc svrgc svsc V11 V7 V14 uwt /[150150300600600], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1 0.5 0.5]

S12: 5 /6 Wr Treg Tr x O2sg Tcyc svrgc svsc F5 V7 V11 V14 uwt /[1501501600300600], ywt/[0.1 0.2 1 0.5 0.5]

performance. These possible tuning parameters are: Due to these aspects, the model predictive controller

sampling time T , model horizon n , prediction horizon tuning has an iterative character and the control

p , input horizon m , error weighting matrix ywt (Gy ) and performance enhancement may be performed, in a great

manipulated variable move weighting matrix uwt (Gu ). extent, by recursive simulations. A set of recommenda-

The tuning difficulties are tied to the MIMO character- tions for MPC tuning has been specified and may be

istics of the problem and to the insufficient control of regarded as a tuning MPC guide [7,19,20]. The sampling

the tuning effect of parameter changes on the control time T is established as a trade-off between losing

performance. These difficulties become more important important dynamic information and overloading the

when nonlinear behavior of the model is present [20]. computing system; a value of T /100 s has been chosen.

Fig. 5. MPC simulation results (solid) in the presence of KC disturbance (step increase of coking rate), for S5: 4 /4 control scheme; disturbed process

without control (dashed).

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 77

Fig. 6. MPC simulation results (solid) in the presence of DPfrac disturbance (step increase of reactor /main fractionator pressure drop), for S5: 4/4

control scheme; disturbed process without control (dashed).

RGA for S5: 4/4 control scheme horizon p is not established very long (relative to open

loop settling time) in order to prevent sluggish control

svrgc svsc V14 V7

action (having in fact a stabilization effect) and raising

Wr 0.3634 1.3981 /0.8004 0.0390 the computational load. For the control horizon the

Treg 2.0118 /0.6095 /0.2298 /0.1725 value of m /10 has been taken. The control horizon m

Tr 0.3946 0.3969 /0.9546 1.1631 is established not too long, to prevent aggressive control

x O2sg /1.7698 /0.1855 2.9848 /0.0296

action, but also not too short, to determine an inefficient

control and to provide a sufficient number of degrees of

The model horizon n is established such as Tn should freedom.

extend over the open loop response time (smaller values The diagonal error weighting matrix ywt (Gy ) was

can lead to undesired peaks appearing at Tn time determined such as the elements on the main diagonal be

horizon, when the model error first becomes significant); equal to the inverse of the maximum allowed offset of

a value of n/400 has been taken. the particular controlled variable; these values are

Both prediction horizon p and control horizon m weighted again after dynamic simulation tests (Table

have been established based on the assumptions that 2). The diagonal manipulated variable move weighting

large values lead to increased computational effort and matrix uwt (Gu ) was determined such as the elements on

short values produce ‘‘short-sighted’’ control policy. the main diagonal be equal to the inverse of the

The value of p/100, i.e. one fourth of the settling time, maximum allowed variation of the manipulated vari-

was selected for the prediction horizon. The choice of a able; these values are weighted again after dynamic

smaller p leads to short-sighted control associated with simulation tests (Table 2).

more aggressive control action. An additional conse- It is meaningful to mention that tuning was per-

quence of reducing p is that the constraint violations are formed to obtain good control performance for all cases

only checked over a short horizon, leading to a dead- of the three applied disturbances resulting in a more

78 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

conservative tuning than would have been necessary for them are strong, a multivariable control strategy can be

each of them considered individually. successful and MPC proves to be an effective one.

3.2.4. MPC versus decentralized PID control 3.2.5. MPC using model scheduling approach

To make a comparison between MPC and traditional The model used for computation of manipulated

decentralized PID control, simulations have been per- variables is a linear one, obtained by the linearization

formed involving the set of controlled and manipulated of the nonlinear model around the operating point [23].

variables of S5: 4/4 control scheme. The pairing of Results presented in previous paragraphs use such a

controlled and manipulated variables used for the PID unique model. For the elimination of errors caused by

decentralized control have been suggested by the RGA nonlinearities the authors proposed and investigated the

(Table 3): Wr /svsc, Treg /svrgc, Tr /V7 and x O2sg /V14. behavior of a control scheme using scheduled lineariza-

Anti-windup PID digital controllers have been applied tion. The FCCU linearized model is periodically up-

[22]. dated at time moments multiple of 3000 s, starting from

Tuning of the PID controllers has been made by t /1500 s. The changing model case has a roughly better

repeated simulations using an ‘‘experimental’’ type control performance, particularly for Wr controlled

method based on bringing first the system at the stability variable (affected by the lowest value in the error-

limit. Again, the tuning has been made in a way to weighting matrix) (Fig. 8). The scheduled linearization

obtain good control performance for all of the three test using a higher frequency did not reveal significant

disturbances taken into consideration. Comparative improvement for the cases of MPC control in the

results of MPC and PID control are presented in Fig. presence of the investigated disturbances. This may be

7. Results presented in Fig. 7 reveal the superior determined by keeping the operating point relatively

behavior for the case of MPC, both with respect to close to the setpoint values. As disturbance effects are

overshoot and response time. Following the performed more important, the updating of the linearized model, at

simulations it may be concluded that, as the number of higher and possibly variable frequency, may become

controlled variables is high and the interactions between necessary. Further results are under investigations.

Fig. 7. Comparative results between MPC, S5: 4/4 (solid) and PID control (dash /dotted) in the presence of KC disturbance; disturbed process

without control (dashed).

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 79

Fig. 8. MPC comparative representation for: MPC adaptive model case (dashed /dotted), MPC with unique linearized model case (solid) and case of

disturbed process without control (dashed); S10: 5 /5 control scheme in the presence of KC disturbance.

3.2.6. Constrained MPC ing to this aspect, the interest and success MPC

Among the most attractive MPC characteristics is the algorithm has gained in a large number of reported

possibility of considering constraints in a direct way. industrial applications may be explained [24]. The case

This attribute offers, while specifying FCCU operating of MPC with constraints on manipulated variables is

and material constraints, the best (in an optimal sense) investigated.

solution for the control problem. For the SISO case, To test this ability, the following potential FCCU

requiring and conforming to constraints is frequently malfunction event is simulated. One of the slide valves,

not very difficult. But for the MIMO case, where the spent catalyst slide valve svsc, presents a malfunc-

interactions are present, the aim of obtaining desired tion consisting in the impossibility of opening it over the

control performance is usually a difficult task. Accord- upper limit specified by the value svrgcsup /0.4 and

80 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

closing it under the lower limit specified by svrgcinf /0.3 Based on the present study it may be considered that

value. The position of the slide valve during nominal this way of MPC application is revealing and sustaining

operation is given by svrgc /0.35 value. This accidental the incentives of MPC algorithm from the perspective of

situation raises special problems for the operating its industrial implementation.

personnel in an industrial unit having traditional

(classical) control system. For the case of MPC system

it is sufficient to specify this constraint and keep closed

the feedback control loops until the normal operation 4. Conclusions

regime is restored.

The simulation of MPC behavior for this special The paper presents a new model and dynamic

operating condition is presented in Fig. 9, but only for simulator for the FCCU aggregate systems: reactor,

reactor catalyst inventory Wr, controlled variable; other regenerator, catalyst circulation lines, preheating sys-

tem, air blower and wet gas compressor. The nonlinear,

variables exhibit similar behavior with the uncon-

dynamic and multivariable model has been fitted and

strained case. The coking rate disturbance KC has been

then verified with a set of representative operating data

applied and the MPC with adaptive model has been

originating from an industrial FCCU, showing its

simulated. The investigated control scheme is S12: 5/6.

complex behavior as response to typical disturbances.

Vector of constraint limits imposed to the manipulated It may be observed that the disturbance most difficult to

variables is given by ulim /[0 0.3 0 0 0 0 1 0.4 1.98 0.5 1 reject proved to be the coking rate factor, KC, although

0.8]. The first six values fix the minimum limits and the disturbance considered with the highest amplitude

the last six the maximum limits allowed for the change was the reactor/main fractionator pressure

manipulated variables (in the order they are specified drop, DPfrac.

in Table 2). Investigations have been performed by simulation to

As may be observed in Fig. 9, the control perfor- reveal incentives and limitations for implementing MPC.

mance with MPC is not substantially affected by the The most favorable MPC control schemes, for each

occurred constraint. Two of the manipulated variables investigated category, are: S1: 3/3, S5: 4/4, S10: 5/

(svsc and V7) reached the lower limit values. These 5. The last one is the most profitable, due to the large

limitations do not seem to have a negative impact on the number of controlled variables. It is interesting to notice

controlled variables due to the fact that optimal strategy that S12: 5/6 control scheme (containing an extra-

succeeds to change the other manipulated variables in a manipulated variable), in its unconstrained form, does

way to provide good control performance. not bring additional quality to MPC. But when con-

The possibility may also be observed to involve a straints on manipulated variables are present, this

higher number of manipulated variables than controlled approach proves real improvements due to the ‘‘sur-

variables and the potential use of this ‘‘excess’’ of plus’’ of command able to compensate for those

command for the cases when constraints on manipu- manipulated variables limited by constraints. Compared

lated variables are present. with the traditional decentralized PID control, MPC

presents better control performance based on its multi-

variable feature, inherent prediction ability and capacity

to directly handle constraints using an even larger

number of manipulated than controlled variables. A

nonlinear MPC method has been proposed and inves-

tigated to account for process non-linearity based on

periodic updating of the linearized model used for

control action computation. This nonlinear MPC im-

plementation may lead to potential improvement by the

use of dynamic sensitivity analysis.

In practice, the MPC implementation is intended to

be performed in a two-layer structure: the layer of

decentralized PID loops stabilizing the main process

variables and the MPC layer adjusting the setpoints of

the underlying regulatory loops.

Benefits of better control performance in FCCU

operation mainly consist in the achievement of safe-

Fig. 9. Controlled variables for constrained MPC (svscinf /0.3,

svscsup /0.4), scheme S12: 5/6 in the presence of KC disturbance; keeping the controlled variables very close to the

unconstrained MPC (solid), constrained MPC (dashed /dotted), dis- constrained limits, where optimum operating conditions

turbed process without control (dashed). usually lie.

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 81

Detailed mathematical model of the UOP FCCU may Ft air flowrate into regenerator (Nm3/h)

be found in Appendix B. F3 fresh feed flowrate (lb/s, kg/s)

F4 slurry recycle flowrate (lb/s, kg/s)

hris height of the riser (ft, m)

Appendix A: Nomenclature K flow coefficient for the slide valve (0.7)

Kc reaction rate constant for coke production

Argc cross sectional area of regenerated catalyst (s 1)

pipe (ft2) kr1 reaction rate constant for the total rate of

Aris cross sectional area of reactor riser (ft2) cracking of the feed oil (s 1)

Asc cross sectional area of spent catalyst pipe kr3 reaction rate constant for the rate of

(ft2) cracking gasoline to light gases and coke

Astr cross sectional area of reactor stripper (ft2) (s 1)

Asv cross sectional area of regenerated/spent k12 wet gas V12 valve flow rating (mol/s psia1/2,

catalyst slide valve at completely open kg/s (N/m2)1/2)

position (in2) Lrgc length of regenerated catalyst pipe (ft, m)

[COR] catalyst to oil ratio Lsc length of spent catalyst pipe (ft, m)

Ccat mass fraction of coke produces in the riser m manipulated variable (input) horizon

Cpc heat capacity of catalyst (Btu/lb/F, J/kg/K) m* factor for the dependence of the initial

Cpd heat capacity of steam (Btu/lb/F, J/kg/K) catalyst activity on Crgc

Cpf heat capacity of the feed (Btu/lb/F, J/kg/K) n model horizon

Cpfv heat capacity of feed vapor (Btu/lb/F, J/kg/ N exponent for the dependence of Ccat on Crgc

K) N* integer value representing a constant for

Crgc coke fraction on regenerated catalyst (lb pressure drop on catalyst pipes

(crgc) coke/lb catalyst, kg coke/kg catalyst) p prediction horizon

Csc (csc) coke fraction on spent catalyst in the stripper Patm atmospheric pressure (psia, N/m2)

(lb coke/lb catalyst, kg coke/kg catalyst) Prb pressure at the bottom of the riser (psia, N/

Csc1 coke fraction on spent catalyst at riser outlet m 2)

(lb coke/lb catalyst, kg coke/kg catalyst) P4 reactor pressure (psia, N/m2)

C1 wet gas production constant (mol/lb feed, P5 main fractionator pressure (psia, N/m2)

mol/kg feed) P6 regenerator pressure (psia, N/m2)

C2 wet gas production constant (mol/lb feed/F, R universal gas constant (ft3 psia/lb mol/R, J/

mol/kg feed/K) mol/K)

Ecf activation energy for coke formation (Btu/ sv spent/regenerated catalyst slide valve posi-

mol, kJ/mol) tion (0 /1)

Ef activation energy for cracking the feed (Btu/ svsc spent catalyst slide valve position (0 /1)

mol, kJ/mol) svscinf spent catalyst slide valve lower limit con-

Eg activation energy for cracking gasoline (Btu/ straint (0.3)

mol, kJ/mol) svscsup spent catalyst slide valve higher limit con-

Elift elevation of the pipe for spent catalyst, inlet straint (0.4)

in the regenerator (ft, m) svrgc regenerated catalyst slide valve position

Eoil elevation of feed inlet in the riser (ft, m) (0 /1)

Estr elevation of the pipe for spent catalyst outlet t time (s)

from the reactor (ft, m) tc catalyst residence time in the riser (s)

Etap elevation of the pipe for regenerated catalyst, T sampling time (s)

outlet from the regenerator (ft, m) Tcyc regenerator stack gas temperature at cyclone

Fcat flowrate of spent or regenerated catalyst (F, K)

(t/min) Tr temperature of reactor riser outlet (F, K)

Ff total feed flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) Tref base temperature for energy balance (F, K)

Frgc (frgc) regenerated catalyst flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) Treg temperature of regenerator bed (F, K)

Fsc (fsc) spent catalyst flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) Ts temperature of stripper outlet (F, K)

FV11 flow through wet gas compressor suction T0 temperature of the feed entering the riser

valve V11 (mol/s, molg/s) after mixing with the catalyst (F, K)

FV12 flow through valve V12 (mol/s, molg/s) T2 furnace outlet temperature of the feed (F, K)

FV13 flow through valve V13 (mol/s, molg/s) ulim vector of constraints imposed to the manip-

Fwg wet gas production in the reactor (mol/s, ulated variables ([0 0.3 0 0 0 0 1 0.4 1.98 0.5 1

molg/s) 0.8])

82 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

uwt (Gu ) diagonal weighting matrix for the manipu- Appendix B: FCCU model description

lated variable move, in the optimization

index The newly developed mathematical model for the

v catalyst velocity in spent/regenerated pipe (ft/ UOP type FCCU is based on the mechanistic Amoco

s, m/s) Model IV FCCU [5]. Compared with Amoco Model IV,

vris volumetric flowrate in the riser the new mathematical model describes a different

(ft3/s, m3/s) FCCU type, both from the operation and from the

V14 position of the stack gas valve (0 /1) construction point of view. Different geometric dimen-

V7 position of the air vent valve (0 /1) sions and relative position define the reactor and

V11 position of the wet gas compressor suction regenerator in this case, compared with the Model IV

valve (0 /1) case. The regenerator of the presented UOP FCCU

V12 position of the flare valve (0 /1) operates in partial combustion mode. The reactor model

Wr inventory of catalyst in the reactor (stripper) uses a Weekman kinetic model [9]. Catalyst circulation

(lb, kg) is described including spent and catalyst valves on

Wris inventory of catalyst in the riser (lb, kg) catalyst circulation lines. These valves are used as

x O2,sg molar ratio of O2 to air in stack gas (mol O2/ main manipulated variables for FCCU control.

mol air) The FCCU dynamic model has been developed on the

x COsg molar ratio of CO to air in stack gas (mol basis of reference construction and operation data from

CO/mol air) an industrial unit. The described model is rather

x CO2,sg molar ratio of CO2 to air in stack gas (mol complex succeeding to capture the major dynamic

CO2/mol air) behavior of UOP type FCCU [8]. The unit consists of

yf mass fraction of feed oil the following parts: feed and preheat system, reactor,

yg mass fraction of gasoline regenerator, air blower, wet gas compressor and catalyst

ywt (Gy ) diagonal weighting matrix for the error, in circulation lines [5,14].

the optimization index

za dimensionless distance along riser

B.1. Feed and preheat system

zbed dense bed height (ft, m)

a catalyst deactivation constant (s 1)

The feed and preheat system is presented in Fig. A1.

DHevp heat of vaporizing the feed oil (Btu/lb,

The total feed flow F3 enters the preheat furnace at T1

kJ/kg)

temperature and is heated by means of the gaseous fuel

DHf heat of cracking (Btu/lb, kJ/kg)

having F5 flowrate. The feed preheat dynamic behavior

DPelb,sc pressure drop on different elements of spent

is described by the following mass and energy balance

catalyst pipe (psia, N/m2)

equations:

DPelb,rgc pressure drop on different elements

of regenerated catalyst pipe (psia, dT3 1

N/m2) (F5 DHfu UAf Tlm Qloss ) ; (A1)

dt tfb

DPfrac pressure drop across reactor main fractio-

nator (psi, N/m2) (T3 T1 ) (T3 T2 )

Tlm ; (A2)

DPsv pressure drop on regenerated/spent catalyst T T1

ln 3

slide valve (psi) T3 T2

DPsv,sc pressure drop on spent catalyst slide valve

Qloss a1 F5 T3 a2 ; (A3)

(psia, N/m2)

DPsv,rgc pressure drop on regenerated catalyst slide

valve (psia, N/m2)

f0 initial catalyst activity at riser inlet

l ratio of mass flowrate of dispersion steam to

mass flowrate of feed oil

rc density of catalyst in the dense phase (lb/ft3,

kg/m3)

rpart settled density of catalyst (lb/ft3, kg/m3)

rris average density of material in the riser (lb/ft3,

kg/m3)

rv vapor density at riser conditions (lb/ft3, kg/

m 3)

u dimensionless temperature in the riser

Fig. A1. Feed and preheat system.

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 83

dT2 1

(T2;ss T2 ) ; (A4)

dt tfo

UAf Tlm

T2;ss T1 : (A5)

F3 Cpf

reactor implied a thorough survey, selection and then

synthesis, based on a large variety of models presented

in literature. The three-lump model has been considered

to be adequate for the global description of the

phenomena taking place in the reactor. Reactor is

divided in two parts: riser and stripper. The riser model

is built on the following assumptions: ideal plug flow

and very short transient time (the residence time in the

riser is very short compared with other time constants,

especially with the regenerator time constants Fig. A2. FCCU reactor.

[1,5,8,10].). It is modeled by mass balance describing

the gasoline and coke/gases production based on The term K 1y2f [COR] represents the kinetics of the

Weekman’s triangular kinetic model [9]. The mixed feed, K3yg[COR] the kinetics of the gasoline; F is a

nonlinear differential and algebraic system of equations function of catalyst deactivation due to coke deposition;

also accounts for the amount of coke deposited on f0 the reduction of catalyst activity due to the coke

catalyst and for the cracking temperature dynamics [13]. resident on the catalyst after regeneration; tc residence

The reactor is presented in Fig. A2. time in the riser; a2 /k1/k2 fraction of feed oil that

cracks to gasoline. This model develops the models

presented by Lee and Groves [24], Shah et al. [25] and

B.2.1. Mass balance for the riser

Hovd and Skogestad [13]. The amount of coke produced

Mass balance for the feed is described by the equation

is described by the following correlation taken from

dy f Voorhies and Kurihara [26]:

K1 y2f [COR]Ftc : (A6) sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

dz a tc Ecf

C cat K c exp : (A13)

Mass balance for the gasoline is described by the CrgcN RTr

equation

The fraction of coke on the spent catalyst leaving the

dy g riser is:

(a2 K1 y2f K3 yg )[COR]Ftc (A7)

dz a Csc1 Crgc Ccat : (A14)

where: The constant values m * and N have been used to

Ef perform a good fit of the mathematical model with

K1 (u) kr1 exp ; (A8) operating data from the industrial unit.

RT0 (1 u)

Eg

K3 (u) kr3 exp ; (A9)

RT0 (1 u) B.2.2. Heat balance for the riser

u (T T0 )=T0 ;

du DHf Ff dyf

F f0 exp(atc [COR]za ); (A10) : (A15)

dza T0 (Fsc Cpc Ff Cpf lFf Cpd ) dza

f0 1mCrgc : (A11)

The amount of gases produced by cracking is

Inlet temperature in the riser T0 is determined by the described by the equation:

heat balance equation [3]

Fwg (F3 F4 )[C1 C2 (Tr Tref )]:: (A16)

F C T Ff Cpf T2 DHevp Ff

T0 rgc pc reg : (A12) Constants C1and C2 have been fitted based on data

Frgc Cpc Ff Cpfv from the industrial unit.

84 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

The stripper model is of CSTR type (mass and heat The regenerator is considered divided in two zones: a

balance) evaluating the temperature in the stripper and dense bed zone and a zone of entrained catalyst (the

the fraction of coke on spent catalyst. disengaging zone) (Fig. A3).

The dense bed zone consists of two phases: a bubble

phase of gaseous reactants and products moving up the

B.2.3. Mass and heat balance for the stripper

bed in plug flow and a perfectly mixed dense phase

containing gases and solid catalyst.

dTs Frgc

(Tr Ts ); (A17) Mass transfer occurs between the two phases but at

dt Wr regenerator temperatures the reaction rates are control-

ling, rather than mass transfer between the two phases.

dCsc dWr 1

Frgc (Crgc Ccat )Fsc Csc Csc ; (A18) Since the dense phase is considered perfectly mixed, the

dt dt Wr

temperature is assumed uniform in the bed and the

dWr gaseous phase in equilibrium with dense phase. Catalyst

Frgc Fsc : (A19)

dt is present in the zone above dense bed due to entrain-

ment. The amount of catalyst decreases with the

regenerator height. In the entrained catalyst zone the

CO combustion is dominant (the amount of catalyst is

B.2.4. Pressure balance for riser bottom pressure diminished) having an important heat contribution. The

determination operating conditions are corresponding to CO partial

combustion mode.

rris hris The model consists in mass and heat balance equa-

Prb P4 ; (A20) tions for O2, CO, CO2 and coke, but also in heat balance

144

equations for solid and gaseous phase. These balance

F3 F4 Frgc equations are correlated with equations describing

rris ; (A21)

nris entrained catalyst (bed characteristics) in the zone above

dense bed, catalyst flow and pressure in the regenerator.

F3 F4 Frgc

nris : (A22)

rv rpart

The amount of catalyst in the riser is determined by B.3.1. Heat balance

the equation The dense phase of the bed is assumed perfectly mixed

due to the intense circulation of the catalyst. It is also

Frgc Aris hris considered that the entire amount of hydrogen deposited

Wris : (A23)

nris on the catalyst is burned in the regenerator. Partial

combustion mode is considered compared to Model IV

FCCU [5].

fractionator pressure determination

dP5

0:833(Fwg FV11 FV12 FV13 ) (A24)

dt

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

FV12 k12 V12 P5 Patm : (A25)

A constant pressure drop, DPfrac, between reactor and

main fractionator is considered; according to this, the

reactor pressure is computed by the equation

P4 P5 DPfrac : (A26)

a higher complexity due to the importance of this system

in determining the time constant for the entire FCCU. Fig. A3. FCCU regenerator.

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 85

[100(0:5k1 k2 )rB (z)Crgc k3 XCO (z)]

equations: dz

dTreg XO2 (z)

[Wreg Cpc M1 ] Qin Qout ; (A28) ; (A41)

dt ns

Qin Qair QH QC Qsc

(A29) dXCO (z) X (z)

Qout Qfg Qrgc Qe ; [100k1 rB (z)Crgc 2k3 XCO (z)] O2 ; (A42)

dz ns

Qair Fair Cpair (Tair Tbase ); QH FH DHH ; (A30)

QC Fair (XCO;sg DH1 XCO2 ;sg DH2 ); (A31) dXCO2 (z) dXO2 (z) dXCO (z)

0:5 ; (A43)

Qsc Fsc Cpc (Tsc Tbase ); (A32) dz dz dz

Qfg [Fair (XO2 ;sg CpO2 XCO;sg CpCO XCO2 ;sg CpCO2 XCO2 (z)XO2 (0)XO2 (z)0:5XCO (z); (A44)

0:79CpN2 )0:5FH CpH2 O ](Tcyc Tbase ); (A33)

1

Qrgc Frgc Cpc (Treg Tbase ); (A34) XO2 (0) (0:21Fair 0:25FH ); (A45)

Fair

FH Fsc (Csc Crgc )CH : (A35)

100Fair XO2

The heat balance in the disengaging zone is described CO2 ;sg ; (A46)

by: Fsg

dTreg (z)

0 05z5 zbed ;

dz

(A36)

dTreg (z) dX (z) dX (z) 1

DH1 CO DH2 CO2 zbed Bz 5zcyc ;

dz dz dz Cp(z)

10 6 × 28XCO

Cp(z)0:79CpN2 XCO (z)CpCO XCO2 (z)CpCO2 CCO;sg : (A47)

28XCO 44XCO2 32XO2 22:12

XO2 (z)CpO2 [0:5CpH2 O FH dz Cpc Me ] Volume fraction of catalyst is given by the following

equations:

1

; dz 0 z]zcyc ; drB (z)

Fair 0; rB (z)1o e 05z 5zbed ; (A48)

dz

dz 1 zBzcyc : (A37) drB (z) 1000Fair rB (z)

zbed Bz5 zcyc ; (A49)

Carbon balance: dz Areg ns rc;dilute

o e min 1; max o f ; o f

dCrgc 1 dWc dWreg

Crgc ; (A38)

dt Wreg dt dt

1:904 0:363ns 0:048n 2s

; (A50)

dWreg zbed

Fsc Frgc ; (A39)

dt o f 0:3320:06ns : (A51)

(Fsc Csc FH ) bed is described empirically by the following equations:

dt

[Frgc Crgc 12Fair (XCO;sg XCO2 ;sg )]: (A40) Me Areg ns rc;dilute (A52)

where:

Mass balance on oxygen, carbon monoxide and

carbon dioxide are given by: rc;dilute 10:582ns ; (A53)

86 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

ns ; (A54) qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 rg Areg

1:58110 9 1:24910 6 P 2base ; (A62)

520P6

rg : (A55) 14:7P2

379 × 14:7(Treg 459:6) Pbase ; (A63)

P1

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

F7 kcomb P2 Prgb Fair ; (A64)

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

B.3.2. Pressure balance FV6 k6 fpp (V6 ) Patm P1 ; (A65)

It is assumed an ideal gas behavior for regenerator pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

gases. The regenerator pressure is described by the FV7 k7 fpp (V7 ) P2 Patm : (A66)

equations given below:

dP6 R dT dn

n reg (Treg 459:6) ; (A56)

dt Vreg;g dt dt

dn B.5. Wet gas compressor

Fair Fsg ; (A57)

dt Wet gas compressor is of centrifugal type (Fig. A5). It

Vreg;g Areg zcyc Areg zbed (1o e ); (A58) is driven by an electric motor. It is assumed that the wet

gas compressor is pumping against a constant pressure

Wreg in the downstream vapor recovery unit.

Prgb P6 ; (A59)

144Areg Wet gas compressor equation is described below:

DPRR P6 P4 : (A60) qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Fsucn;wg 4353:5 1:36610 8 0:1057H 2wg ; (A67)

The bed height is described by the empirical equation

Hwg 182:922(C 0:0942

rw 1) ; (A68)

W rc;dilute Areg zcyc

zbed min zcyc ; 2:850:8ns reg

Areg rc;dense Pvru

Crw : (A69)

P7

rc;dense

;

rc;dense rc;dilute The suction pressure of the wet gas compressor is

rc;dense rpart (1o f ): (61) described by the equations:

dP7

5(FV11 F11 ); (A70)

dt

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

FV11 k11 fpp (V11 ) P5 P7 ; (A71)

B.4. Air blower model

fpp (x)e 2ln[(0:15)(1x)] x 0:5

The air blower is a centrifugal compressor driven by a ; (A72)

fpp (x)0:3x x 50:5

steam turbine (Fig. A4). A head-capacity performance

equation describes suction flowrate as a function of FV13 k13 V13 Pvru : (A73)

discharge pressure with suction at normal atmospheric

pressure:

Fig. A4. Regenerator combustion air blower. Fig. A5. Wet gas compressor.

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 87

B.6. Model of the catalyst circulation lines a2 furnace heat lost parameter (Btu/

s, J/s)

For the catalyst flow in the spent and regenerated Ccat mass fraction of coke produces in

catalyst circulation lines (piping), a steady state behavior the riser

is assumed. It is considered that dynamics of the lines is CCO,sg concentration of carbon monox-

very fast compared to the time constants of other ide in stack gas (ppm)

subsystems of the FCCU. Equations such as Eq. (A77) CH mass fraction of hydrogen in coke

have been used to fit the pressure drops in the model [COR] catalyst to oil ratio

with data from the industrial unit. CO2,sg concentration of oxygen in stack

Spent and regenerated catalyst circulation considers a gas (% mol)

single-phase flow, based on force balance [14]. For the Cp (z ) average heat capacity (Btu/mol/F,

regenerated catalyst line the equation is: J/mol/K)

144(P 6 P rb )zbed rc (Etap Eoil )rc DPsv;rgc Cpair heat capacity of air (Btu/mol/F, J/

mol/K)

Frgc Lrgc frgc Cpc heat capacity of catalyst (Btu/lb/

DPelb;rgc 0; (A74)

A2rgc rc F, J/kg/K)

CpCO heat capacity of carbon monoxide

and for the spent catalyst line the force balance is given

(Btu/mol/F, J/mol/K)

by:

CpCO2 heat capacity of carbon dioxide

Wr (Btu/mol/F, J/mol/K)

144(P 4 P 6 )(Estr Elift )rc

Astr Cpf heat capacity of the feed (Btu/lb/

F, J/kg/K)

F L f

DPsv;sc DPelb;sc sc sc sc 0: (A75) Cpfv heat capacity of feed vapor (Btu/

A2sc rc lb/F, J/kg/K)

The pressure drop on the slide valves is described by Cpd heat capacity of steam (Btu/lb/F,

the following equation: J/kg/K)

CpN heat capacity of nitrogen (Btu/

50Fcat 2 144 mol/F, J/mol/K)

DPsv : (A76)

KAsv sv rc CpO2 heat capacity of oxygen (Btu/mol/

F, J/mol/K)

Pressure drop on other pipe restrictions are given by

Csc coke fraction on spent catalyst in

equations of the type:

the stripper (lb coke/lb catalyst,

1 kg coke/kg catalyst)

DPelb Nrc v 2 : (A77)

2 Csc1 coke fraction on spent catalyst at

riser outlet (lb coke/lb catalyst, kg

coke/kg catalyst)

Crgc coke fraction on regenerated cat-

alyst (lb coke/lb catalyst, kg coke/

kg catalyst)

Appendix C: Nomenclature Crw wet gas compressor compression

ratio

Areg cross sectional area of regenerator C1 wet gas production constant (

(ft2, m2) mol/lb feed, mol/kg feed)

Aris cross sectional area of reactor C2 wet gas production constant

riser (ft2, m2) (mol/lb feed/F, mol/kg feed/K)

Astr cross sectional area of reactor Ecf activation energy for coke for-

stripper (ft2, m2) mation (Btu/mol, KJ/mol)

Argc cross sectional area of regener- Ef activation energy for cracking the

ated catalyst pipe (ft2, m2) feed (Btu/mol, KJ/mol)

Asc cross sectional area of spent Eg activation energy for cracking

catalyst pipe (ft2, m2) gasoline (Btu/mol, KJ/mol)

Asv cross sectional area of regener- Elift elevation of the pipe for spent

ated/spent catalyst slide valve at catalyst, inlet in the regenerator

completely open position (in2/m2) (ft, m)

a1 furnace heat lost parameter (Btu/ Eoil elevation of feed inlet in the riser

ft3/F, J/m3/K) (ft, m)

88 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

Estr elevation of the pipe for spent Kc reaction rate constant for coke

catalyst outlet from the reactor production (s1)

(ft, m) k1 reaction rate constant (s1)

Etap elevation of the pipe for regener- kr1 reaction rate constant for the

ated catalyst, outlet from the total rate of cracking of the feed

regenerator (ft, m) oil (s1)

Fair air flowrate into regenerator k2 reaction rate constant (s1)

(mol/s, molg/s) kr2 reaction rate constant for the rate

Fcat flowrate of spent or regenerated of cracking of feed oil to gasoline

catalyst (lb/s, kg/s) (s1)

Fcoke production of coke in the riser (lb/ k3 reaction rate constant (mol air/s

s, kg/s) mol CO)

Ff total feed flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) kr3 reaction rate constant for the rate

FH burning rate of hydrogen (lb/s, of cracking gasoline to light gases

kg/s) and coke (s1)

fpp(x) nonlinear valve flowrate function k6 combustion air blower suction

Frgc regenerated catalyst flowrate (lb/ valve flow rating (lb/s psia1/2, kg/s

s, kg/s) (N/m2)1/2)

Fsc spent catalyst flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) k7 combustion air blower vent valve

Fsg stack gas flowrate (mol/s, molg/s) flow rating (lb/s psia1/2, kg/s (N/

Fsucn,comb combustion air blower suction m2)1/2)

flow (ICFM, m3/s) k11 wet gas compressor suction valve

Fsucn,wg wet gas compressor inlet suction flow rating (mol/s psia1/2, kg/s (N/

flow (ICFM, m3/s) m2)1/2)

ffrgc friction constant for pipe-regen- k12 wet gas V12 valve flow rating

erated catalyst flow (lbf s/ft2, N s/ (mol/s psia1/2, kg/s (N/m2)1/2)

m 2) k13 wet gas V13 valve flow rating

ffsc friction constant for pipe-spent (mol/s psia1/2, kg/s (N/m2)1/2)

catalyst flow (lbf s/ft2, N s/m2) k14 regenerator stack gas valve flow

FV6 flow through combustion air rating (mol/s psia1/2, kg/s (N/

blower suction valve V6 (lb/s, kg/ m2)1/2)

s) Lrgc length of regenerated catalyst

FV7 flow through combustion air pipe (ft, m)

blower vent valve V7 (lb/s, kg/s) Lsc length of spent catalyst pipe (ft,

FV11 flow through wet gas compressor m)

suction valve V11 (mol/s, molg/s) M polytropic exponent

FV12 flow through valve V12 (mol/s, m* factor for the dependence of

molg/s) the initial catalyst activity on Crgc

FV13 flow through valve V13 (mol/s, MI effective heat capacity of regen-

molg/s) erator mass (Btu/F, KJ/K)

Fwg wet gas production in the reactor Me flowrate of entrained catalyst

(mol/s, molg/s) from dense bed (lb/s, Kg/s)

F1 oil flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) N exponent for the dependence of

F2 oil flow rate (lb/s, kg/s) Ccat on Crgc

F3 fresh feed flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) N* integer value representing a con-

F4 slurry recycle flowrate (lb/s, kg/s) stant for pressure drop on cata-

F5 furnace fuel flowrate (scf/s, m3/s) lyst pipes

F6 combustion air blower through- n quantity of gas (mol)

put (lb/s, kg/s) Patm atmospheric pressure (psia, N/m2)

F7 combustion air flow to the re- Prb pressure at the bottom of the riser

generator (lb/s, kg/s) (psia, N/m2)

F11 wet gas flow to vapor recovery Prgb pressure at the bottom of the

unit (mol/s, molg/s) regenerator (psia, N/m2)

hris height of the riser (ft, m) Pvru discharge pressure of wet gas

K flow coefficient for the slide valve compressor in vapor recovery

(0.7) unit (psia, N/m2)

M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91 89

pressure (psia, N/m2) K)

P2 combustion air blower discharge Tsc temperature of spent catalyst en-

pressure (psia, N/m2) tering regenerator (F, K)

P4 reactor pressure (psia, N/m2) T0 temperature of the feed entering

P5 main fractionator pressure (psia, the riser after mixing with the

N/m2) catalyst (F, K)

P6 regenerator pressure (psia, T1 temperature of the fresh feed

N/m2) entering the furnace (F, K)

P7 wet gas compressor suction pres- T2 furnace outlet temperature of the

sure (psia, N/m2) feed (F, K)

Qair enthalpy of air to regenerator T2,ss steady state furnace outlet tem-

(Btu/s, J/s) perature of the feed (F, K)

QC total heat of burning coke (Btu/s, T3 furnace firebox temperature (F,

J/s) K)

Qcatout enthalpy of catalyst out of the tc catalyst residence time in the riser

riser (Btu/s, J/s) (s)

Qe total heat lost from regenerator to UAf furnace overall heat transfer

environment (Btu/s, KJ/s) coefficient (Btu/s/F, J/s/K)

Qfg enthalpy of stack gas exiting the Vcomb,d combustion air blower discharge

regenerator (Btu/s, J/s) system volume (ft3, m3)

QH enthalpy of hydrogen to regen- Vcomb,s combustion air blower suction

erator (Btu/s, J/s) system volume (ft3, m3)

Qin enthalpy into regenerator, reac- Vreg,g regenerator volume occupied by

tor(Btu/s, J/s) gas (ft3, m3)

Qout enthalpy out of regenerator, re- v catalyst velocity in spent/regener-

actor(Btu/s, J/s) ated pipe (ft/s, m/s)

Qloss heat loss from furnace (Btu/s, J/s) vrgc velocity of regenerated catalyst

Qrgc enthalpy of regenerated catalyst (ft/s, m/s)

(Btu/s, J/s) vris volumetric flowrate in the riser

Qsc enthalpy of spent catalyst (Btu/s, (ft3/s, m3/s)

J/s) vs superficial velocity in the regen-

R universal gas constant (ft3 psia/lb erator (ft/s, m/s)

mol 8R, J/mol 0K) vsc velocity of spent catalyst (ft/s, m/

svsc spent catalyst slide valve position s)

svrgc regenerated catalyst slide valve vslip slip velocity (ft/s, m/s)

position V6, V7, V8, V9, V11, position of the corresponding

Tair temperature of air entering re- V12, V13, V14 valves (0 /1)

generator (F, K) Wc inventory of carbon in the regen-

Tatm atmospheric temperature (F, K) erator (lb, kg)

Tbase base temperature (F, K) Wr inventory of catalyst in the reac-

Tcomb,d combustion air blower discharge tor (stripper) (lb, kg)

temperature (F, K) Wreg inventory of catalyst in the re-

Tcyc regenerator stack gas temperature generator (lb, kg)

at cyclone (F, K) Wris inventory of catalyst in the riser

Tdiff temperature difference between (lb, kg)

cyclone and regenerator bed XCO molar ratio of CO to air (mol CO/

temperature (F, K) mol air)

Tlm furnace logarithmic mean tem- XCO,sg molar ratio of CO to air in stack

perature (F, K) gas (mol CO/ mol air)

Tr temperature of reactor riser outlet XCO2 molar ratio of CO 2 to air (mol

(F, K) CO2/mol air)

Tref base temperature for energy bal- XCO2,sg molar ratio of CO2 to air in stack

ance (F, K) gas (mol CO2/ mol air)

Treg temperature of regenerator bed XN molar ratio of N2 to air (mol N2/

(F, K) mol air)

90 M.V. Cristea et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 42 (2003) 67 /91

mol air) kg/m3)

XO2,sg molar ratio of O2 to air in stack rc,dilute density of catalyst in the dilute

gas (mol O2/ mol air) (disengaging) phase (lb/ft3, kg/m3)

yf mass fraction of feed oil rc,dense density of catalyst in the dense

yg mass fraction of gasoline phase (lb/ft3, kg/m3)

z distance along riser (ft, m) rg density of exit gas (lb/ft3,

za dimensionless distance along kg/m3)

riser rpart settled density of catalyst (lb/ft3,

zbed dense bed height (ft, m) kg/m3)

zcyc height of cyclone inlet (ft, m) rris average density of material in the

ztop height of O2 and CO measure- riser (lb/ft3, kg/m3)

ment point (ft, m) rv vapor density at riser conditions

a catalyst deactivation constant (lb/ft3, kg/m3)

(s 1) tfb furnace firebox constant (Btu/F,

DHf heat of cracking (Btu/lb, KJ/kg) J/K)

DHevp heat of vaporizing the feed oil tfo furnace time constant (s)

(Btu/lb, KJ/kg)

DHfu heat of combustion of furnace

fuel (Btu/SCF, KJ/m3)

DHH heat of combustion of hydrogen

(Btu/lb, KJ/kg)

DH1 heat of formation of CO (Btu/ References

mol, J/mol)

DH2 heat of formation of CO2 (Btu/ [1] A.A. Avidan, R. Shinnar, Development of catalytic cracking

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feed oil On-line FCCU advanced control and optimization, Hydrocarbon

Processing, 1989, June.

hp polytropic efficiency [12] G. McDonald, B. Harkins, Maximizing Profits by Process

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