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Inviscid hypersonic flow

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Consider a supersonic flow passing from a compression corner as shown in Fig. 7.1.

Following are the oblique shock relations for supersonic flow where β is the shock

angle.

p2 2γ

=

1+ ( M 12 Sin 2 ( β ) − 1)

p1 γ +1

ρ2 (γ + 1) M 12 sin 2 β

=

ρ 1 (γ − 1) M 12 sin 2 β + 2

Here 1 is the freestream or pre-shock condition while 2 is the post shock condition.

Since hypersonic flows have very high Mach number we can assume that M 1 >>1.

This leads to the modification as, M 2

sin 2

ß-1 ≈ M2 sin2ß. Hence the relation for

pressure ratio is,

p2 2γ

= 1+ ( M 1 sin 2 β ) (7.1)

p1 γ +1

NPTEL – Aerospace

ρ 2 (γ + 1)

= (7.2)

ρ 1 (γ − 1)

Ratio for temperature for very high freestream Mach numbers can be then expressed

as,

p2

T2 p1 2γ (γ − 1) 2

= = M 1 sin 2 β (7.3)

T1 ρ 2 (γ + 1) 2

ρ1

M 2 sin 2 β − 1

tan(θ ) = 2cot( β ) 2 1 .

M 1 (γ + cos 2 β ) + 2

For small wedge and shock angles we can write sinβ ≈ β and cos2β ≈ 1 and replacing

M1 by M we get.

2 M 2β 2 −1

θ=

β M 2 (γ + 1) + 2

At the limit of high Mach numbers the above expression reduces to,

2 β2

θ= [ ]

β γ +1

γ +1

β= θ (7.4)

2

This expression is valid for high Mach numbers and small deflection angles

NPTEL – Aerospace

p − p∞ p − p∞ p2 − p1

=cp = =

1 q∞ q1

ρ∞V∞2

2

1 γ γ 2

=

Here, dynamic pressure = q1 =ρ∞V∞ 2 =

M 2

∞ p∞ M 1 p1

2 2 2

p2 − p 1 2 p2

=cp = ( − 1)

γ 2 γ M 2

p1

M 1 p1

2

2 2γ

=cp [ ( M 12 sin 2 β − 1)]

γ M γ +1

2

2 2

=cp . ( M 12 sin 2 β − 1)

M 1 (γ + 1)

2

For high Mach number we have M>>1 we can the get the simplified expression as,

4

cp = M 12 sin 2 β

(γ + 1) M 12

We can express the shock angle using Eq. 7.4. and also assume shock angle to be

small (sinβ ≈ β). This leads to,

4 γ + 1 2

2

cp = θ (7.5)

γ + 1 2

This expression is valid for small flow deflection angles and very high Mach

numbers.

NPTEL – Aerospace

We know that supersonic flow expands if it is provided with the outward turning as

shown in Fig. 8.1

Supersonic Flow

The expression for the Prandtl-Meyer function can be used to get the post expansion

properties of the flow. The expression for this function is as,

γ +1 γ −1 2

=v( M ) [tan −1 ( M − 1)] − tan −1 M 2 − 1 (8.1)

γ −1 γ +1

γ + 1 −1 γ − 1

=v( M ) tan ( M ) − tan −1 ( M )

γ −1 γ +1

NPTEL – Aerospace

γ +1

Lets consider x =

γ −1

Therefore,

1

=v( M ) x tan −1 ( M ) − tan −1 ( M ) (8.2)

x

γ −1

Or, if we consider y =

γ +1

Therefore,

1

=v( M ) tan −1 ( yM ) − tan −1 ( M ) (8.3)

y

π 1

But we know that tan( y=

) − tan −1 ( )

2 yM

3z 3 5z5 7z7 9z9

π

So tan −1 ( y ) = − tan −1 ( 1 ) = π − [ 1 − 1 3 + .......]

2 y 2 x 3x

1 π

v( M )= [ −( 1 − 1 + ......)] − [π − ( 1 − 1 + .......)]

y 2 yM 3( yM 3 ) 2 M 3M 3

v( M ) = π − 1 (1 − 1 + .....) − π + ( 1 − 1 + .....)

2y y yM 3( yM )3 2 M 3M 3

Neglecting the tems having higher powers of Mach numbers in the denominator, we

are left with the first term

v( M ) = π − 1 −π +1 (8.4)

2y y 2M 2 M

NPTEL – Aerospace

We can use this simple expression of Prandtl-Meyer function for expressing the

deflection by the expansion corner for high Mach numbers as,

=θ v( M 2 ) − v( M 1 )

θ

= 1 ( 1 − 1 )+( 1 − 1 )

y 2 M1 M2 M2 M1

γ −1

y2 =

γ +1

γ +1

y2 =

γ −1

γ +1

θ (1

= − 1 )( 1 −=

1) ( 1 − 1 )( − 1)

γ −1

2

M1 M2 y M1 M2

2

=θ (1 M1

− 1 )

M 2 λ −1

2 1

=θ ( − 1 ) (8.5)

λ − 1 M1 M2

Since total pressure is constant across the expansion fan we can calculate the pressure

ratio for a given hypersonic expansion.

−γ

p2 γ −1

(1 + M 2 2 ) γ −1

p2 p0 2

= = −γ

p1 p1 γ − 1 2 γ −1

p0 (1 + M 1 )

2

γ

p λ − 1 2 γ −1

Where, 0= (1 − M )

p 2

γ

γ −1

(1 + M 12 ) γ −1

p2 2

= γ

p1 γ − 1 2 γ −1

(1 + M2 )

2

Since M>>1

γ

p2 M

≈ ( 1 ) γ −1 (8.6)

p1 M2

NPTEL – Aerospace

2 1

=θ [ − 1 ]

γ − 1 M1 M2

2M 1 1

=M 1θ [ − 1 ]

γ − 1 M1 M2

2 M

=M 1θ [1 − 1 ]

γ −1 M2

γ −1 M

M 1θ = 1 − 1

2 M2

M1 γ −1

= 1− M 1θ

M2 2

But we have seen in Eq. 8.6 that pressure ratio is proportional to the Mach number

ratio. Hence we can express the pressure ratio for expansion corner in terms of

deflection angle and upstream Mach number as,

p2 γ −1 2γ

= [1 − M 1θ ] γ −1 (8.7)

p1 2

It will be seen later the importance of M1θ as the similarity parameter in hypersonic

flow, moreover let’s represented it as k.

p2 γ − 1 2γ γ −1

= [1 − k]

p1 2

M 12 sin 2 β − 1

tan θ = 2 cot β 2

M 1 (γ + cos 2 β ) + 2

For small θ we have β also small and also for large Mach numbers we have M>>1

γ +1

M 12 β 2 − 1 =βθ [ M 12 ]

2

NPTEL – Aerospace

Dividing by M 2θ2

β γ +1 β

1

( )2 − = ( )

θ M θ 2

2 θ2

β γ +1 β 1

( )2 − ( )− 2 2 =

0 (8.7)

θ 2 θ M θ

Hence,

β γ +1 γ +1 2 1

= + ( ) + 2 2 (8.8)

θ 4 4 M θ

Here also we can see that β/θ is represented as the function of hypersonic similarity

parameter k. We have neglected other root since non physical.

β γ +1 γ +1 2 1

= + ( ) + 2 (8.9)

θ 4 4 k

We can also obtain the expressions across shock in terms of β/θ relation & k. Lets

consider the expression for pressure ratio across the shock, where M1 =M is the Mach

number ahead of the shock

p2 2γ 2γ

=1 + ( M 2 sin 2 β − 1) =1 + ( M 2 β 2 − 1) (8.10)

p1 γ +1 γ +1

β γ +1 γ +1 γ +1 2

2

1 1

− [ + ( ) + 2 2 ]− 2 2 =

0

θ 2 4 4 M θ M θ

β γ +1 γ +1 γ +1 2

2

1 1

= [ + ( ) + 2 2 ]+ 2 2

θ 2 4 4 M θ M θ

γ +1 γ +1 γ +1 1 1

β=

2

{ [ + ( )2 + ]+ }θ 2

2 4 4 M θ

2 2

M 2θ 2

NPTEL – Aerospace

2γ 2 γ + 1 γ + 1 γ +1

2

p2

+ 2

=

1+ + + 2 2 θ − 1

M 1 1

M θ M θ

γ + 1

2 2

p1 2 4

4

2 2 γ +1 γ +1 2γ 2γ

2

p2 1 1

1+ γ M θ

= + + 2 2 + M 2θ 2 2 2 −

p1 4 4 M θ M θ γ + 1 γ + 1

γ ( γ + 1) 2 2

γ +1 2γ 2γ

2

p2 1

1 + γ M 2θ 2

= + 2 2 + M θ + −

p1 4 M θ 4 γ +1 γ +1

p2 γ +1

2

1 γ ( γ + 1) 2 2

1 + γ M 2θ 2

= + 2 2 + M θ

p1 4 M θ 4

However,

Mθ = k

γ +1 1 k 2γ (γ + 1)

2

p2

1 γ k2

=+ + + (8.11)

4 k

2

p1 4

Now we can obtain the expression for pressure coefficient using this relation as,

p2 − p1 γ1 2

=cp = & q1 M 1 p1

q1 2

p2 − p1 2 p2

=cp = 2

− 1

γ

M 12 p1 γ M p1

2

2 2 γ +1 1 γ ( γ + 1) 2

2

=

cp 1 + γ k + + k − 1

γM2 4 k

2

4

2 θ2 γ +1 1 γ ( γ + 1) 2

2

=cp [γ k 2 + 2 + k ]

γM θ

2 2

4 k 4

2θ 2 2 γ + 1 2 γ +1

2

1

=cp γ k + + γ k

γ k2 4 k

2

4

γ +1 2 1

γ + 1

=c p 2θ +

2

+ (8.12)

4 k 4

2

Therefore any hypersonic relation can be obtained using M1 >>1 condition. We can

also obtain the relations in terms of k=Mθ

NPTEL – Aerospace

Technique)

9.1. Introduction

Hypersonic flows are nonlinear by nature. Making Mach number tends to infinity

cannot lead to any linear theory for small deflections in hypersonic region unlike in

supersonic case to evaluate the flow variables. But there are approximate local

inclination methods for hypersonic flowfield predictions (mainly pressure) where we

need not have to solve for whole flow field.

Newton proposed that force on any object offered by fluid flowing, is proportional

with square of sine angle of the flow deflection. However this proposition was made

by Newton for low speed flows but it is highly appreciated for hypersonic situations.

Consider a plate in the flowfield as shown in Fig. 8.1.

V∞

A Sin(θ)

θ

Here fluid particle looses normal momentum and conserves tangential momentum. If

V∞ is velocity of fluid approaching an inclined surface with angle θ then

Momentum lost by fluid per unit time= ρ∞V∞ A sin(θ ){V∞ sin(θ )}

NPTEL – Aerospace

= ρ∞V∞ 2 A sin 2 (θ )

This lost momentum is converted in to the forced getting applied by fluid. Hence,

F = ρ∞V∞ 2 A sin 2 (θ )

F

= ρ∞V∞ 2 sin 2 (θ )

A

Actually Newton had assumed this force is due to loss of momentum of individual

particle. Therefore no interaction among fluid particles has been considered. However

this force is the pressure force which is due to the random motion of particles.

ρ∞V∞ 2 sin 2 (θ )

p − p∞ =

The reference pressure is subtracted from the applied pressure since pressure always

act in difference while getting applied as a force. Here p∞ is considered to be the

pressure of freestream acting on back side of plate. Hence,

p − p∞

= 2sin 2 θ

1

ρ∞ v∞ 2

2

c p = 2sin 2 θ (9.1)

This equation clearly demonstrates the fact that the pressure coefficient at a point is

proportional to the sin square of the flow deflection angle. At large Mach numbers

and moderately small deflection angles, shock angle is equal to the deflection angle

where flow particle eventually hits the surface without any prior warning or

deflection. This situation matches well with the Newton’s sine squared law. This is

the reason for this law to be appreciated for hypersonic situations.

We can use flow Eq. 9.1 for estimation on force acting on any hypersonic

configuration. However the flow deflection angle between should be known for this

estimation. For the surface which is in shadow Cp should be taken as zero. Using this

principle we can calculate the lift to drag ratio for the flat plate configuration shown

in Fig. 9.1.

NPTEL – Aerospace

drag

=cd = c p sin θ

1

ρ∞ v∞ 2 A

2

= =

cd 2sin 2

θ sin θ 3sin 3 θ

lift

=cl = c p cos θ

1

ρ∞ v∞ 2 A

2

cl = 2sin 2 θ cos θ

cl cos θ L

= = cot=θ

cd sin θ D

This result is applicable to inviscid supersonic or hypersonic flow over flat plate

flow is inviscid where we are not having any shear or skin friction drag.

However this is incorrect in case of viscous flow

2) CL increases with increase in θ and becomes maximum at around θ ≈ 55

which is almost the practical condition.

3) For small θ (below 15 degree) we have nonlinear variation of Cl which is

unlikely for subsonic and supersonic flows.

From Newtonian theory or sine squared law,

For sphere

For cylinder

These results of sphere, cylinder and plate are independent of Mach number where

Mach number does not appear explicitly. Hence these results demonstrate the

validity of famous Mach number independence principle which will be discussed

in later chapter.

NPTEL – Aerospace

Newtonian Technique)

Modification to the above mentioned Newtonian theory has been proposed by Laster

Lees where,

= p max sin θ

c p c= c po sin 2 θ

2

(10.1)

2

P02 − p∞

c po =

1

ρ∞V∞2

2

Since P02 − p∞ 2 p02

= c po = 2

− 1

γ

P∞ M ∞2 γ M ∞ p∞

2

Here all the properties, upstream of the shock with subscript 1 are replaces by

freestream subscript.

γ

p02 ( γ + 1) M ∞ 2

2 γ −1

1 − γ + 2γ M ∞ 2

=

p∞ 4γ M ∞ 2 − 2 ( γ − 1) γ + 1

γ

(1 − λ )

γ −1

+ 2γ

( γ )

2

2

+ 2

c p0 =

M 1 M

∞ ∞ M ∞2

2 ( γ + 1) ( γ + 1)

M ∞ 2 4γ − 2

M ∞

NPTEL – Aerospace

c p = c p0 sin 2 θ

γ

( γ + 1)

2 γ −1

2γ 2

cp M ∞ 2 − 1 sin 2 θ

4γ γ + 1 γ M ∞

2

γ

( γ + 1)

2 γ −1

4 2 2

=c p − 2

sin θ (10.2)

4γ

γ + 1 γ M ∞

γ

( γ + 1)

2 γ −1

4 2

c p = sin θ

4γ

γ + 1

situations as well when M∞ becomes very large γ tends to 1 which in turn results in

the expected Newtonian theory arrangement. Results of modified Newtonian theory

holds good for blunt body configuration, since this theory predicts exact pressure at

stagnation point.

NPTEL – Aerospace

correction. The force or pressure predicted by Newtonian theory is appropriate for

hypersonic situations if we have slender configuration like wedge or cone. The force

balance for a fluid particle in the presence of centrifugal force is shown in Fig. 10.1.

However, if we have blunt nosed configuration then the pressure on the wall should

be lower than that of predicted by Newtonian theory by the virtue of centrifugal force

applied on the fluid particle as shown in Fig. 10.1.

Centrifugal

Force

p + dp

p

s

Fig. 10.1 Illustration of presence of centrifugal force for flow over blunt bodies [1].

NPTEL – Aerospace

Consider a hypersonic flow over a typical blunt body configuration as shown in Fig.

10.2.

C

b

V dn

∆n θa

a

V∞

V∞ cos θ

dy θ R

ya

Fig. 10.2. Schematic of blunt body flow for Newtonian-Busemann theory [1]

Let’s consider a stream tube of pre-shock height dy. This same stream tube gets

deflected by angle θ behind the shock and earns thickness dn. Suppose ‘R’ is the

radius of the curvature faced by the fluid particles passing this tube. This radius will

be much more in comparison with the shock layer thickness. Therefore we can

assume that all particles in shock layer face some curvature for calculation of the

centrifugal force as,

∂P ρV 2

=

∂η R

Here

Pressure (P)=f(S,η)

NPTEL – Aerospace

Hence,

ρV 2

dP = dη

R

We can integrate this expression along the thickness of the shock layer (line a-b-c)

while considering the complete freestream instead of a stream tube. Therefore,

∆η

c

ρV 2

∫ dP =

a

∫0

R

dη

Here ∆η is the shock layer thickness in the direction normal from point a on the blunt

body. Hence,

∆η

ρV 2

∫

pc − pa =

0

R

dη

However we know from mass conservation for the stream tube that ρ∞V∞ dy = ρVdη

Therefore,

η

V

∫ ρ∞V∞

pc − pa =

o

R

dy

We have to change the limits of this integration since integration is with respect to y.

Therefore we have to express ∆η (shock layer thickness) in terms of y co-ordinate.

Here we are considering a very thick stream tube in the freestream by increasing dy,

such that it extends from the stagnation streamline till point c. Therefore the lower

limit of integration will still be zero and upper limit will be y co-ordinate of point c.

yc

V

∫ ρ∞V∞

pc − pa =

0

R

dy

Since y=

c ya + ∆η cos θ a , so,

NPTEL – Aerospace

ya +∆η cosθ a

V

pc − pa = ∫ ρ∞V∞ dy

0

R

ya

V

∫ ρ∞V∞

pc − pa =

0

R

dy

We know that tangential component of velocity is conserved across the shock hence

this is the velocity which should be considered for balancing of centrifugal force with

pressure. Therefore lets take V = V∞ cos θ and R as constant,

cos θ

ya

∫ ρ∞V∞V∞

pc − pa =

0

R

dy

ya ρ∞V∞ 2

pc − pa = ∫ cos θ .dy . (10.3)

0 R

Here we can express the radius of curvature (R) in terms of known parameters as,

dθ

R = −1

dS

dθ

R = −1

dS a

dy

dS =

sin(θ )

−1

R=

dθ

sin θ a

dy a

NPTEL – Aerospace

dθ a y

− ρ∞V∞

pc − pa = sin θ a ∫ cos θ dy

2

dy a 0

dθ a y

2

a

dy a 0

dθ a y

2

dy a 0

dθ

y a

pa − p∞ pc − p∞ dy a

= + 0

1 ρ V 2 1 ρ V 2 1 ρ V 2

2 ∞ ∞ 2 ∞ ∞ 2 ∞ ∞

dθ a y

c=

pa c pc + 2 sin θ a ∫ cos θ dy (10.4)

dy a 0

This is the final expression for pressure coefficient using Newtonian-Bwemann theory

which is valid for 2D objects.

2. It assumes small shock layer thickness as compared with body radius

3. It does not predict the pressure well, hence not advisable in general.

4. It is not truly local indication method since depends on upstream angles (in

integration)

c pc = 2sin 2 θ a

1 Direct Newton’s method is more suitable for slender bodies like wedged or cones

NPTEL – Aerospace

It is another local inclination method for 2D objects with attached shock condition.

Hence this method if suitable for sharp nosed bodies with sufficiently high Mach

numbers to maintain the shock attached to the nose. We can evaluate the pressure at

any point on the object using this method. This calculation is strictly based on the

local surface inclination or flow deflection angle. This theory is based on intuition

rather on particular scientific derivation. Moreover the prediction made by this theory

is encouraging at high Mach number.

Consider the 2D object shown in Fig. 11.1 for demonstration of process of this

method.

Body Shock

Wedge Shock

pi

Local Flow

M∞ deflection

θi

2D object

Following procedure should be adopted for calculation of pressure at any point ‘i’.

1. Draw tangent at the nose of the wedge and find out of the angle made by the

tangent in reference with the freestream velocity vector.

2. Using this angle and freestream Mach number and then calculate the probable

oblique shock angle.

NPTEL – Aerospace

3. If this shock angle is less than the maximum shock angle for that freestream

Mach number then use Tangent Wedge method for calculation of pressure at

any point on the 2D object.

3a. Select any point ‘i’ on the surface of the 2D object and draw tangent to the 2D

surface at that point. Here we assume that the give 2D object is locally

replaced

3b. From the known wedge angle and freestream Mach number use oblique shock

4. Follow this procedure at all points on the wedge surface and calculate the

pressure on it.

This method is the obvious extension of tangent wedge method for 3D objects with

attached shock condition. In this technique same procedure is to be followed however

for 3D objects. Instead of the assumption of wedge, we have to assume presence of an

equivalent cone at all the points on the surface of the 3D object. The simple difference

exits due to the fact that there exists no analytical technique for evaluation of pressure

using oblique shock relation for cone and we have to solve for the Taylor Maccoll

equation to arrive at the shock angle for a given cone angle. Though this procedure is

time consuming, it is simple to implement for estimation of wall pressure.

NPTEL – Aerospace

It is also a local surface inclination method like tangent wedge, cone and the

Newton’s methods. It is applicable for only attached shock conditions like in tangent

wedge and cone method. For implementation of this procedure consider 2D body with

attached shock condition as shown in Fig 11.2.

i

θi

M∞ θn

method

2. Calculate Mach number and pressure at the nose using oblique shock relations

for the known wedge angle (angle of flow deflection at nose) and freestream

Mach number.

3. Here onwards use Prandtl Mayer relation for prediction of Mach number at

any point on the surface.

4. Select a point just downstream of the nose and calculate flow deflection angle

at that point using slope of the tangent at the same point.

5. Assume the flow to be expanding between nose to the selected point and

calculate the Mach number at the chosen point using,

γ + 1 −1 γ − 1 γ −1

θ n − θi =∆θ =

γ −1

tan

γ +1

( M n 2 − 1) − tan −1 ( M 2 − 1) − tan −1 M n 2 − 1 − tan −1 M i 2 − 1

γ +1 i

NPTEL – Aerospace

Here Mn is the Mach number at nose, θn is deflection angle at nose and θi & Mi are

flow deflection & Mach number at any point just down stream of nose

6. Thus obtained Mi can be used to evaluate the rest of properties of the flow

using isentropic relations.

7. Thus obtain properties at all the points on the surface. We can as well use the

properties of point ‘i’ to calculate the properties at a point just downstream of

it instead of nose properties.

This methodology can also, be used for axi-symmetric configurations also by using

freestream Mach number and semi apex angle of cone. This theory does not consider

any reflection of expansion fan from body shock to alter the pressure on body. Hence

it creates approximations for low Mach number flows where interaction becomes

inevitable. However results from this theory for hypersonic flow are encouraging

since wave angle decreases with increase in Mach number for same deflection angle

and interaction gets avoided as shown in Fig. 11.3.

M∞

M∞

(b)

(a)

Fig. 11.3. Illustration for interaction of waves for (a) supersonic flows and (b) hypersonic flows [1].

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