CLASSIFICATION OF
SHIPS
NEWBUILDINGS
PART 3 CHAPTER 1
CONTENTS
Sec. 1 General Requirements ................................................................................................................ 7
Sec. 2 Materials ................................................................................................................................... 11
Sec. 3 Design Principles...................................................................................................................... 15
Sec. 4 Design Loads ............................................................................................................................ 28
Sec. 5 Longitudinal Strength............................................................................................................... 36
Sec. 6 Bottom Structures..................................................................................................................... 48
Sec. 7 Side Structures.......................................................................................................................... 56
Sec. 8 Deck Structures ........................................................................................................................ 66
Sec. 9 Bulkhead Structures ................................................................................................................. 72
Sec. 10 Superstructure Ends, Deckhouse Sides and Ends, Bulwarks ................................................... 78
Sec. 11 Welding and Weld Connections............................................................................................... 81
Sec. 12 Direct Strength Calculations ................................................................................................... 86
Sec. 13 Buckling Control ...................................................................................................................... 91
Sec. 14 Structures for High Temperature Cargo ................................................................................... 97
Sec. 15 Special Requirements  Additional Class ............................................................................... 100
Sec. 16 Fatigue Control ...................................................................................................................... 106
App. A Elastic Buckling and Ultimate Strength ................................................................................. 107
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Rules for Ships, January 2007
Pt.3 Ch.1 Contents – Page 3
CONTENTS
D. Cargo Hold or Tank Analysis ............................................89 C. Class Notation PLUS1 and PLUS2 .............................. 100
D 100 General ............................................................................89 C 100 General..........................................................................100
D 200 Loading conditions and load application ........................90 C 200 Application....................................................................100
D 300 Acceptance criteria..........................................................90 C 300 Documentation..............................................................100
C 400 Requirements for fatigue life ........................................101
E. Frame and Girder Analysis................................................90
E 100 General ............................................................................90 D. Class Notation COAT1 and COAT2 ............................. 101
E 200 Loading conditions and load application ........................90 D 100 General..........................................................................101
E 300 Acceptance criteria..........................................................90 D 200 Application....................................................................101
D 300 Documentation..............................................................101
F. Local Structure Analysis ....................................................90 D 400 Requirements for corrosion prevention ........................101
F 100 General ............................................................................90 D 500 Survey and testing.........................................................102
F 200 Loading conditions and load application ........................90
F 300 Acceptance criteria..........................................................90 E. Class Notation CSA2 ...................................................... 102
E 100 General..........................................................................102
SEC. 13 BUCKLING CONTROL ................................... 91 E 200 Selection of loading conditions.....................................102
E 300 Wave load analysis .......................................................102
A. General.................................................................................91 E 400 Finite element analysis..................................................103
A 100 Introduction.....................................................................91 E 500 Acceptance criteria........................................................103
A 200 Definitions.......................................................................91 E 600 Hull girder capacity.......................................................104
E 700 Fatigue strength assessment..........................................104
B. Plating ..................................................................................91
B 100 General ............................................................................91 SEC. 16 FATIGUE CONTROL ................................... 106
B 200 Plate panel in uniaxial compression ..............................91
B 300 Plate panel in shear .........................................................93 A. General .............................................................................. 106
B 400 Plate panel in biaxial compression ................................94 A 100 Introduction...................................................................106
B 500 Plate panel in biaxial compression and shear ................94 A 200 Application....................................................................106
A 300 Loads.............................................................................106
C. Stiffeners and Pillars...........................................................94 A 400 Design criteria...............................................................106
C 100 General ............................................................................94 A 500 Calculation methods......................................................106
C 200 Lateral buckling mode ....................................................94
C 300 Torsional buckling mode ................................................95 B. Basic Requirements.......................................................... 106
C 400 Web and flange buckling ................................................96 B 100 Longitudinals ................................................................106
C 500 Transverse beams and girders .........................................96
APP. A ELASTIC BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE
SEC. 14 STRUCTURES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE STRENGTH ..................................................... 107
CARGO................................................................ 97
A. Introduction ...................................................................... 107
A. General.................................................................................97 A 100 Scope and description ...................................................107
A 100 Introduction.....................................................................97
A 200 Special features notations................................................97 B. Calculation Procedure ..................................................... 107
A 300 Documentation ................................................................97 B 100 Estimation of ultimate stress.........................................107
A 400 Survey and testing...........................................................97 B 200 Calculation of effective width.......................................107
SECTION 1
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
SIDE TANK
DECK TRANSVERSE fx(x)
SIDE VERTICAL
SENTRE TANK
DECK TRANSVERSE
DECK CENTRE
LINE GIRDER
DECK SIDE exceedance
GIRDER
probability
LONG. BULKHEAD cumulative
VERTICAL probability p 1p
CROSS TIE
xp x
CENTRE TANK
BOTTOM TRANSVERSE
BOTTOM CENTRE (p quantile of X = Upper p quantile of X
LINE GIRDER
= Lower (1– p) quantile of X)
BOTTOM SIDE
GIRDER Fig. 3
SIDE TANK Probability density function
BOTTOM TRANSVERSE
Fig. 2
Tank girders C. Documentation
C 100 Plans and particulars
216 Probability density function f(x). The probability that a 101 The following plans are normally to be submitted for ap
realisation of a continuous random variable x falls in the inter proval:
val (x, x+dx) is f(x)dx. f(x) is the derivative of the cumulative
probability function F(x). — midship section including main particulars (L, B, D, T,
CB), maximum service speed V
217 Cumulative probability F(x) is defined as: — deck and double bottom plans including openings
— longitudinal section
x — shell expansion and framing including openings and ex
F( x) = ∫– ∞ f ( x ) d x tent of flat part of bottom forward
— watertight bulkheads including openings
218 Exceedance probability Q(x) is defined as: — cargo tank structures
— deep tank structures
— engine room structures including tanks and foundations
Q(x) = 1 – F(x) for heavy machinery components
219 Probability of exceedance, or exceedance probability — afterpeak structures
may be illustrated by the following example: x shall be taken — forepeak structures
— superstructures and deckhouses including openings,
at a probability of exceedance of q, means that the variable, x, — hatchways, hatch covers, doors in the ship's sides and ends
shall be taken as the value, xq, defined as the upper q quantile — supporting structures for containers and container secur
in the long term distribution of x. ing equipment
220 Quantile. The p quantile may be defined as the value, xp, — arrangement of cathodic protection.
of a random variable x, which correspond to a fraction p of the Identical or similar structures in various positions should pref
outcomes of the variable. erably be covered by the same plan.
xp 102 Plans and particulars for closing appliances (doors,
hatches, windows etc.) to be submitted for approval are speci
F ( xp ) = ∫–∞ f ( x ) dx = p fied in Ch.3 Sec.6.
103 Loading guidance information (loading manual and
I.e. xp is the p quantile of the variable x. One may denote xp as loading computer system) shall be approved and certified in
the lower p quantile of x, or alternatively as the upper 1– p accordance with Sec.5 F.
quantile of x. 104 The following plans shall be submitted for information:
B 300 Ship types — general arrangement
301 A passenger ship is a ship which carries more than 12 — engine room arrangement
— tank arrangement
passengers. — capacity plan
302 A cargo ship is any ship which is not a passenger ship. — body plan, hydrostatic curves or tables.
303 A tanker is a cargo ship constructed or adapted for the 105 For instrumentation and automation, including compu
carriage in bulk of liquid cargoes. ter based control and monitoring, see Pt.4 Ch.9 Sec.1.
C 200 Specifications and calculations mitted for approval, and once approved these drawings shall be
201 All longitudinal strength calculations shall be submitted available onboard:
with relevant information: — markings of side and bottom
— maximum stillwater bending moments and shear forces as — arrangement of openings in sides and bottom below the
defined in Sec.5 B102 deepest load waterline, bottom plugs, echo sounder and
— still water bending moment limits any other underwater equipment
— mass of light ship and its longitudinal distribution — details showing how rudder bearing clearances can be
— buoyancy data measured
— cargo capacity in t — arrangement of any impressed current system.
— cargo, ballast and bunker distribution, including maxi
mum mass of cargo (t) in each compartment. Guidance note:
Means should be provided to enable the diver to confirm that the
202 Information which may be necessary for local strength sea suction openings are clear.
calculations: Hinged sea suction grids will facilitate this operation, preferably
with revolving weight balance or with a counter weight, and se
— minimum and maximum ballast draught and correspond cured with bolts practical for dismantling and fitting while the
ing trim ship is afloat.
— load on deck, hatch covers and inner bottom
— stowage rate and angle of repose of dry bulk cargo endofGuidancenote
— maximum density of intended tank contents
— height of air pipes D 300 Markings of ship’s sides and bottom
— mass of heavy machinery components
— design forces for securing devices on hatch covers and ex 301 The underwater body shall be marked in such a way that
ternal doors the surveyor can identify the location of any observations
— design forces for cargo securing and container supports made. Transverse and longitudinal reference lines of approxi
— any other local loads or forces which will affect the hull mate length 300 mm and width 25 mm shall be applied as
structure. marking. The marks shall be made permanent welding or sim
ilar and painted in a contrasting colour.
203 Specifications for corrosion prevention systems for wa Marking shall normally be placed as follows:
ter ballast tanks, comprising selection, application and mainte
nance, shall be submitted for as defined in Ch.3 Sec.7. — at flat bottom in way of intersections of tank bulkheads or
watertight floors and girders
C 300 Specific purpose documentation — at ship’s sides in way of the positions of transverse bulk
301 For hull equipment and appendages, see Ch.3. heads (the marking need not be extended more than 1 m
302 For additional class notations, see Pt.5 and Pt.6. above bilge plating)
— the intersection between tank top and watertight floors in
303 For installations for which no notation is available or re way of ship’s sides
quested, all relevant information or documentation affecting — all openings for sea suctions and discharge
hull structures or ship safety shall be submitted.
— letter and number codes shall be applied on the shell for
identification of tanks, sea suctions and discharges.
SECTION 2
MATERIALS
Secondary
A1 Longitudinal bulkhead strakes, other than that belonging to the Primary category. II I
A2 Deck plating exposed to weather, other than that belonging to the Primary or Special category.
A3 Side plating.
Primary
B1 Bottom plating including keel plate.
B2 Strength deck plating, excluding that belonging to the Special category. III I
B3 Continuous longitudinal members above strength deck excluding hatch coamings.
B4 Uppermost strake in longitudinal bulkhead.
B5 Vertical strake (hatch side girder) and uppermost strake in top wing tank.
Special
C1 Sheer strake at strength deck. 1), 8)
C2 Stringer plate in strength deck. 1), 8)
C3 Deck strake at longitudinal bulkhead. 2), 8) III
C4 Strength deck plating at outboard corners of cargo hatch openings in container carriers and other IV (II outside 0.6 L
ships with similar hatch opening configuration. 3) amidships)
C5 Strength deck plating at corners of cargo hatch openings in bulk carriers, ore carriers, combination
carriers and other ships with similar hatch opening configuration. 4)
C6 Bilge strake. 5), 6), 8)
C7 Longitudinal hatch coamings of length greater than 0.15 L. 7)
C8 End brackets and deck house transition of longitudinal cargo hatch coamings.7)
1) Not to be less than grade E/EH within 0.4 L amidships in ships with length exceeding 250 m.
2) Excluding deck plating in way of inner skin bulkhead of double hull ships.
3) Not to be less than class IV within the length of the cargo region.
4) Not to be less than class IV within 0.6 L amidships and class III within the remaining length of the cargo region.
5) May be class III in ships with a double bottom over the full breadth and with length less than 150 m.
6) Not to be less than grade D/DH within 0.4 L amidships in ships with length exceeding 250 m.
7) Not to be less than grade D/DH.
8) Single strakes required to be of class IV or of grade E/EH and within 0.4 L amidships shall have breadths not less than 800 + 5 L mm, need not be greater
than 1800 mm, unless limited by the geometry of the ship's design.
(IACS UR S6) dry items, provided the strength of the aluminium structure is
303 For materials in: equivalent to that required for a steel structure.
102 For rolled products taking part in the longitudinal
— hull equipment and appendages (sternframes and rudders, strength, alloys marked A shall be used. The alloy shall be cho
anchoring and mooring equipment, masts and rigging, sen considering the stress level concerned.
crane pedestals etc.), see Ch.3
— structure and equipment related to additional class nota 103 In weld zones of rolled or extruded products (heat affect
tions, see Pt.5 and Pt.6 ed zones) the mechanical properties given for extruded prod
— hull structures related to installations for which no nota ucts may in general be used as basis for the scantling
tion is available or requested, these will be considered and requirements.
notation requirements usually maintained. Note that for the alloy NVA1MgSil the most unfavourable
properties corresponding to T4 condition shall be used.
B 400 Requirements for low air temperatures
104 Welding consumables giving a deposit weld metal with
401 In ships intended to operate for longer periods in areas mechanical properties not less than those specified for the weld
with low air temperatures (i.e. regular service during winter to zones of the parent material shall be chosen.
Arctic or Antarctic waters), the materials in exposed structures
will be specially considered. Applicable rule requirements are 105 The various formulae and expressions involving the fac
found in Pt.5 Ch.1 Sec.7. tor f1 may normally also be applied for aluminium alloys
where:
B 500 Material at crossjoints σ f
f 1 = 
501 In important structural crossjoints where high tensile 235
stresses are acting perpendicular to the plane of the plate, spe
cial consideration will be given to the ability of the plate mate σ f = yield stress in N/mm2 at 0.2% offset, σf shall not be
rial to resist lamellar tearing. For a special test, see Pt.2 Ch.2 taken greater than 70% of the ultimate tensile strength.
Sec.1.
For minimum thickness requirements not involving the factor
f1 the equivalent minimum value for aluminium alloys may
normally be obtained when the requirement is divided by f 1 .
C. Alternative Structural Materials 106 For aluminium structures earthing to steel hull shall be
in accordance with Pt.4 Ch.8.
C 100 Aluminium
101 Aluminium alloy for marine use may be applied in su C 200 Stainless steel
perstructures, deckhouses, hatch covers, hatch beams and sun 201 For clad steel and solid stainless steel due attention shall
be given to the reduction of strength of stainless steel with in D. Corrosion Additions for Steel Ships
creasing temperature.
For austenitic stainless steel and steel with clad layer of auste D 100 General
nitic stainless steel the material factor f1 included in the vari 101 In tanks for cargo oil and or water ballast the scantlings
ous formulae for scantlings and in expressions giving of the steel structures shall be increased by corrosion additions
allowable stresses is given in 202 and 203. as specified in 200. In the following the term “cargo oil” will
202 For austenitic stainless steel the material factor f1 can be be used as a collective term for liquid cargoes which may be
taken as: carried by oil carriers (see list of cargoes in appendix to Pt.5
Ch.3).
t – 20 ⎞
⎛ 3.9 +  –3
f1 =  σ – 4.15 ( t – 20 ) + 220 10 D 200 Corrosion additions
⎝ 650 ⎠ f
201 Plates, stiffeners and girders in tanks for water ballast
σf = yield stress in N/mm2 at 0.2% offset and temperature and or cargo oil and of holds in dry bulk cargo carriers shall be
+20°C (σ0.2). given a corrosion addition tk as stated in Table D1.
t = cargo temperature in °C. 202 The requirements given in this item apply to vessels
with the additional class notation ESP. Strength deck plates
For end connections of corrugations, girders and stiffeners the
and stiffeners exposed to weather in the cargo area, not cov
factor is due to fatigue not to be taken greater than:
ered by 201, i.e. weather deck plate over void space and exter
f1 = 1.21 – 3.2 (t – 20) 10–3 nal stiffeners, should be given a corrosion addition tk = 1.5
203 For clad steel the material factor f1 can be taken as: mm.
203 For members within or being part of the boundary of
1.67 σ f – 1.37t – 0.7 tanks for ballast water only, for which a corrosion protection
f 1 =  – 41.5 σ f b + 1.6
1000 system according to 204 is not fitted, the magnitude of the cor
rosion addition tk is subject to special consideration.
σf = yield stress in N/mm2 at 0.2% offset of material in
clad layer and temperature +20°C (σ0.2). 204 It is assumed that tanks for ballast water only are protect
σ fb = yield strength in N/mm2 of base material. ed by an effective coating or an equivalent protection system.
t = cargo temperature in °C. D 300 Class notation ICM (Increased Corrosion Mar
f1 is in no case to be taken greater than that given for the base gin)
material in B203. 301 For the main class a corrosion addition tk in mm as given
The calculated factor may be used for the total plate thickness. in Table D1 is added to the reduced scantlings in ballast tanks,
204 For ferriticaustenitic stainless steel the material factor cargo oil tanks and cargo holds in bulk cargo carriers as spec
will be specially considered in each case. ified in 200.
Guidance note: For an additional class notation ICM a further corrosion addi
tion tc in mm will be added in ballast tanks, cargo oil tanks and
For ferriticaustenitic stainless steels with yield stress 450 N/
mm2, the following material factor will normally be accepted: cargo holds in bulk cargo carriers. The following class nota
tions may be chosen:
f1 = 1.6 at + 20°C
ICM(BT), ICM(BTu), ICM(BTs) for ballast tanks
= 1.36 at + 85°C
ICM(CT), ICM(CTu), ICM(CTs) for cargo oil tanks
For end connection of corrugations, girders and stiffeners the for cargo holds in bulk
factor should due to fatigue not be taken greater than: ICM(CH), ICM(CHu), ICM(CHs) carriers
SECTION 3
DESIGN PRINCIPLES
MP
certificate.
RA
604 Openings in the collision bulkhead above the freeboard
2,3 M xk deck shall have weathertight doors or an equivalent arrange
FREEBOARD DK ment. The number of openings in the bulkhead shall be re
duced to the minimum compatible with the design and normal
operation of the ship.
0,85 DF 605 No door, manhole or ventilation duct or any other open
ing will be accepted in the collision bulkhead below the free
board deck.
The collision bulkhead may, however, be pierced by necessary
Fig. 2
Bow visor or door pipes to deal with fluids in the forepeak tank, provided the
pipes are fitted with valves capable of being operated from
above the freeboard deck. The valves are generally to be fitted
on the collision bulkhead inside the forepeak. The valves may
be fitted on the after side of the bulkhead provided that the
The ramp shall be arranged for weathertight closing over its valves are readily accessible under all service conditions and
complete length. the space in which they are located is not a cargo space. See
The distance xk in Fig.2 shall not be less than the minimum also Pt.4 Ch.6 Sec.3 A300.
value of xc as given in 401.
A 700 Cofferdams and tank contents
406 For barges the position of the collision bulkhead shall
satisfy the minimum requirement to xc as given in 401. 701 The following dedicated tank types shall be separated
from each other by cofferdams:
A 500 Height of watertight bulkheads
— tanks for mineral oil
501 The watertight bulkheads are in general to extend to the — tanks for vegetable oil
freeboard deck. Afterpeak bulkheads may, however, terminate — tanks for fresh water
at the first watertight deck above the waterline at draught T.
For an afterpeak bulkhead also being a machinery bulkhead, Furthermore, cofferdams shall be arranged separating tanks
see 503. carrying fresh water for human consumption from other tanks
containing substances hazardous to human health.
502 For ships having complete or long forward superstruc
tures, the collision bulkhead shall extend weathertight to the Guidance note:
next deck above the freeboard deck. The extension need not be Normally tanks for fresh water and water ballast are considered
fitted directly over the bulkhead below, provided the require nonhazardous.
ments for distances from PF are complied with, and the part of endofGuidancenote
the freeboard deck forming the step is made weathertight.
503 Bulkheads shall be fitted separating the machinery space A 800 Forward compartment contents
from cargo and passenger spaces forward and aft and made wa 801 In ships of 400 gross tonnage and above, compartments
tertight up to the freeboard deck. Afterpeak/machinery space forward of the collision bulkhead shall not be arranged for car
bulkheads may terminate as given in 501 when the aft space is riage of oil or other liquid substances which are flammable.
not utilised for cargo or passengers.
For ships without a long forward superstructure and for which A 900 Minimum bow height
the collision bulkhead has not been extended to the next deck 901 Minimum bow height requirements are:
above the freeboard deck, any openings within the forward su
perstructure giving access to spaces below the freeboard deck, 1) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the for
shall be made weathertight. ward perpendicular between the waterline corresponding
504 For ships with a continuous deck below the freeboard to the assigned summer freeboard and the designed trim
deck and where the draught is less than the depth to this second and the top of the exposed deck at side shall be not less
deck, all bulkheads except the collision bulkhead may termi than:
nate at the second deck. In such cases the engine casing be for ships below 250 m in length,
tween second and upper deck shall be arranged as a watertight
structure, and the second deck shall be watertight outside the
L 1.36
casing above the engine room. 56 L ⎛ 1 – ⎞  (mm)
⎝ 500⎠ C b + 0.68
505 In ships with a raised quarter deck, the watertight bulk
heads within the quarter deck region shall extend to this deck. for ships of 250 m and above in length,
A 600 Opening and closing appliances.
601 Openings may be accepted in watertight bulkheads, ex 1.36
cept in that part of the collision bulkhead which is situated be 7000  (mm)
C b + 0.68
low the freeboard deck. However, See also 605.
602 Openings situated below the freeboard deck and which L = the length of the ship in m,
are intended for use when the ship is at sea, shall have water Cb = the block coefficient which shall be taken as not
tight doors, which shall be closeable from the freeboard deck less than 0.68
CREDITED BOW
a) for ships not over 100 m in length it shall be enclosed
as defined in Regulation 3(10), and
HEIGHT
0.15 L 0.07 L
b) for ships over 100 m in length it need not comply with
Regulation 3(10), but shall be fitted with closing ap
pliances.
F.T.
For superstructure ends, see Ch.3 Sec.6 B.
3) Ships which, to suit exceptional operational requirements, Fig. 4
cannot meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) of Forecastle, procedure 2
this Regulation may be given special consideration.
(ICLL 39) hf = half standard height of superstructure as defined in
902 Interpretations Regulation 33
On ships to which timber freeboards are assigned Regulation 0.15L 2
39 should relate to the summer load waterline and not to the ht = Z b ⎛⎝ ⎞⎠ – Z t
timber summer load waterline. x b
(IACS LL43)
When calculating the bow height, the sheer of the forecastle A 1000 Access to and within narrow ballast tanks
deck may be taken into account, even if the length of the fore 1001 Vessels, except those exclusively intended for the car
castle is less than 0.15 L, but greater than 0.07 L, provided that
the forecastle height is not less than one half of standard height riage of containers, shall comply with 1002.
of superstructure as defined in Regulation 33 between 0.07 L 1002 Narrow ballast tanks (such as doubleskin construc
and the forward terminal. tion) shall be provided with permanent means of access, such
Where the forecastle height is less than one half of standard as fixed platforms, climbing/foothold rails, ladders etc., sup
height of superstructure, as defined in Regulation 33 , the cred plemented by limited portable equipment to give safe and prac
ited bow height may be determined as follows (Figs. 3 and 4 tical access to the internal structure for adequate inspection,
illustrate the intention of 1 and 2 respectively): including closeup survey as defined in Pt.7 Ch.1 Sec.3 B and
Pt.7 Ch.1 Sec.4 B.
1) When the freeboard deck has sheer extending from abaft
0.15 L, by a parabolic curve having its origin at 0.15 L Guidance note:
abaft the forward terminal at a height equal to the midship In order to obtain a practical arrangement it is recommended to
depth of the ship, extended through the point of intersec provide for a fixed platform spacing of 3 to 5 metres.
tion of forecastle bulkhead and deck, and up to a point at
the forward terminal not higher than the level of the fore endofGuidancenote
castle deck. However, if the value of the height denoted ht
on Fig.3 is smaller than the value of the height denoted hb, A 1100 Steering gear compartment
then ht may be replaced by hb in the available bow height.
1101 The steering gear compartment shall be readily acces
2) When the freeboard deck has sheer extending for less than
0.15 L or has no sheer, by a line from the forecastle deck sible and separated from machinery spaces.
at side at 0.07 L extended parallel to the base line to the (SOLAS Ch. II1/29.13.1)
forward terminal.
A 1200 Navigation bridge design
(IACS LL38)
Guidance note:
It should be noted that the navigation bridge design is affected by
requirements for navigation bridge visibility. Reference is made
to SOLAS Ch.V Reg.22.
hf endofGuidancenote
CREDITED BOW
hf D
AR
ND LA ht
hb STA ABO
R
PA
HEIGHT
zb zt
xb B. Structural Design Principles
0.15 L 0.07 L
B 100 Design procedure
101 Hull scantlings are in general based on the two design
F.T.
aspects, load (demand) and strength (capability). The probabil
Fig. 3 ity distribution for the load and the strength of a given structure
Forecastle, procedure 1 may be as illustrated in Fig.5.
PROBABILITY DENSITY
LOAD STRENGTH
Fig. 5
Probability distribution
Fig. 6
Rule design procedure for ships
B 400 Local bending and shear strength ary conditions and nominal allowable shear stress.
401 For plating exposed to lateral pressure the thickness re The boundary conditions are included in a shear force factor,
quirement is given as function of nominal allowable bending defined as ks in the following expression:
stress as follows: Q = ks P
C ka s p Q is the expected shear force.
t =  + t k ( mm ) P is the total load force on the member.
σ
ksvalues normally to be applied are given separately for each
C = factor depending on boundary conditions of plate field, of the local structures.
normally taken as 15.8 for panels with equally spaced In Table B1 ksvalues are given for some defined load and
stiffeners. boundary conditions.
ka = correction factor for aspect ratio of plate field 403 Direct strength formulae for girders are limited to simple
= (1.1 – 0.25 s/ l)2 girders. The boundary conditions and the nominal allowable
= maximum 1.0 for s/ l = 0.4 stresses are given in a similar way as for stiffeners.
= minimum 0.72 for s/ l = 1.0
s = stiffener spacing in m. For girder systems the stress pattern is assumed to be derived
l = stiffener span in m. by direct computerised calculations. Allowable stresses corre
p = design lateral pressure in kN/m2. sponding to specified pressure combinations and indicated
model fineness are given for the most common structural ar
The nominal allowable bending stressσ (in N/mm2) shall be rangements.
chosen so that the equivalent stress at the middle of the plate
field will not exceed specified limits corresponding to the de Table B1 Values of m and ks
sign pressure. Load and boundary Bending moment and
The equivalent stress is defined as: conditions shear force factors
Positions 1 2 3
2 2 2 1 2 3 m1 m2 m3
σe = σ1 + σ2 – σ1 σ2 + 3 τ Support Field Support ks1  ks3
q = pb
p = as specified in 401 7.5
b = effective load breadth of stiffener in m, for uniform 0.20 16.8 0.80
pressure equal to stiffener spacing s
l = the length of the member in m.
mvalues normally to be applied are given separately for each
of the local structures. 0.33 7.8 0.67
For elastic deflections the mvalue is derived directly from
general elastic bending theory. In Table B1 mvalues are given
for some defined load and boundary conditions. B 500 Buckling strength
For plasticelastic deflections the mvalue is derived according 501 Requirements for structural stability are given to prevent
to the following procedure: buckling or tripping of structural elements when subjected to
compressive stresses and shear stresses.
— the pressure is increased until first yield occurs at one or The critical buckling stress shall be checked for the various
both ends strength members based on general elastic buckling formulae,
— the pressure is further increased, considering yielding ends corrected in the plastic range. For plate elements subject to ex
as simple supports. treme loading conditions, compressive stresses above the elas
This procedure involves a builtin safety in that the bending tic buckling strength may be allowed. For calculation of elastic
moment at a yielding support is not increased beyond the value and ultimate compressive strength, see Sec.13.
corresponding to first yield. B 600 Impact strength
The nominal allowable bending stress is combined with possi 601 Ships designed for a small draught at F.P. may have to
ble axial stresses so that the maximum normal stress will not be strengthened to resist slamming. Requirements are given for
exceed specified limits corresponding to the design pressure. bottom structures forward in a general form taking various
The sectional area requirement is given as a function of bound structural arrangements into account, see Sec.6 H200. The
draught upon which the slamming strength is based, will be — special case design problems
stated in the the appendix to the classification certificate. If the — calibration of level I methods to account for improved
bottom scantlings are based on full ballast tanks in the fore knowledge. (Level I methods are deterministic analysis
body, this will also be stated. methods that use only one characteristic value to describe
In some cases impact loads from the sea on flat areas in after each uncertain variable, i.e. the allowable stress method
bodies of special design may also have to be considered. normally applied in the rules).
602 In ships with large bow flare and or large bow radius, 1005 Reliability analyses may be updated by utilisation of
strengthening may be required in the bow region above the new information. Where such updating indicates that the as
summer load waterline. Requirements for structural arrange sumptions upon which the original analysis was based are not
ment and scantlings are given, see Sec.7 E200. valid, and the result of such nonvalidation is deemed to be es
sential to safety, the subject approval may be revoked.
603 In large tanks for liquid cargo and or ballast special re
quirements for strengthening against sloshing impact loads 1006 Target reliabilities shall be commensurate with the
will have to be considered, see Sec.4 C300. consequence of failure. The method of establishing such target
reliabilities, and the values of the target reliabilities them
B 700 Fatigue selves, shall be approved by the Society in each separate case.
701 In general the susceptibility of hull structures to fatigue To the extent possible, the minimum target reliabilities shall be
cracking has been taken care of by special requirements to de established based upon calibration against well established
tail design. However in some cases e.g. where high tensile steel cases that are known to have adequate safety.
is applied in stiffening members subjected to high frequency Where well established cases do not exist, for example in the
fluctuating loads, a special calculation evaluating dynamic case of novel and unique design solutions, the minimum target
stresses, stress concentration factors and environment may reliability values shall be based upon one (or a combination) of
have to be performed. For calculation of fatigue strength, see the following considerations:
Sec.16.
— transferable target reliabilities from "similar", existing de
B 800 Local vibrations sign solutions
801 Vibrations in the hull structural elements are not consid — decision analysis
ered in relation to the requirements for scantlings given in the — internationally recognised codes and standards.
rules. It is, however, assumed that special investigations are For further details, see Classification Note No. 30.6.
made to avoid harmful vibrations, causing structural failures
(especially in afterbody and machinery space tank structures),
malfunction of machinery and instruments or annoyance to
crew and passengers. The structural response will depend on C. Local Design
the quantity of the impulse sources and the impulse propaga
tion. For a complete vibrational analysis it is therefore impor C 100 Definition of span for stiffeners and girders
tant also to consider the lines of the afterbody and the
possibilities for propeller cavitation as well as pulsating mass 101 The effective span of a stiffener (l) or girder (S) depends
forces from propeller, propulsion and auxiliary machinery. on the design of the end connections in relation to adjacent
structures. Unless otherwise stated the span points at each end
Reference is made to the separate publication, «Guidelines for of the member, between which the span is measured, shall be
Prevention of Harmful Vibration in Ships», issued by the So determined as shown on Fig.7 and 6. It is assumed that brack
ciety. Advice on performance of vibration analysis may also be ets are effectively supported by the adjacent structure.
given by the Society.
B 900 Miscellaneous strength requirements l
R S
901 Requirements for scantlings of foundations, minimum
plate thicknesses and other requirements not relating relevant b 2 b
load and strength parameters may reflect criteria other than 3 2
those indicated by these parameters. Such requirements may 3
R
have been developed from experience or represent simplifica
tions considered appropriate by the Society.
B 1000 Reliabilitybased analysis of hull structures
1001 This item gives requirements for structural reliability l
analysis undertaken in order to document rule compliance, see
Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 B200.
1002 The method and procedures for evaluation of reliability S
are subject to the acceptance by the Society in each individual
case. Acceptable procedures for reliability analyses are docu
mented in the Classification Note No. 30.6 «Structural Relia b
2
bility Analysis of Marine Structures». 3
b
l
1003 Reliability analyses shall be based on level III reliabil
ity methods. These are methods that utilise probability of fail
ure as a measure, and which therefore require a knowledge of
the distribution of all uncertain parameters.
1004 For the purpose of these rules, level III reliability meth
ods are mainly considered applicable to: STIFFENERS GIRDERS
3+k Z 2
t b =  + t k (mm) 3
h
f h
1
1 a1
f1
tb need not be taken less than 6 mm, and not greater than 13.5
204 Stiffeners with sniped ends may be allowed where dy
mm. namic loads are small and where vibrations are considered to
tk need not be taken greater than 1.5 mm. be of small importance, provided the thickness of plating sup
ported by the stiffener is not less than:
f1 = material factor for bracket.
f11 = material factor for stiffener. ( l – 0.5s ) s p
t = 1.25  + t k (mm)
Arm length: f1
The general requirement for arm length is given by:
l = stiffener span in m
s = stiffener spacing in m
a = c
Z
 (mm) p = pressure on stiffener in kN/m2.
tb
C 300 End connections of girders
Z as given above. 301 Normally ends of single girders or connections between
girders forming ring systems shall be provided with brackets.
tb = thickness of bracket, with tk deducted Brackets are generally to be radiused or well rounded at their
c = 70 for flanged brackets toes. The free edge of the brackets shall be stiffened. Scant
lings and details are given below.
= 75 for unflanged brackets.
Bracketless connections may be applied provided adequate
The arm length a is in no case to be taken less than 2 times the support of the adjoining face plates is arranged for.
depth of the stiffener web. In case of different arm lengths a1 302 The thickness of brackets on girders shall not be less
and a2 (see Fig.8), the sum shall not be less than 2a and each than that of the girder web plate.
arm not less than 0.75 a. Flange or edge stiffener shall be fitted
when the edge length exceeds 50 tb. The flange width is nor Flanges on girder brackets are normally to have a cross sec
mally not to be taken less than: tional area not less than:
A = l t (cm2)
Z
W = 45 ⎛ 1 +  ⎞ (mm), minimum 50 mm. l = length of free edge of brackets in m. If l exceeds 1.5 m,
⎝ 2000 ⎠
40% of the flange area shall be in a stiffener fitted par
allel to the free edge and maximum 0.15 m from the
The connection between stiffener and bracket shall be so de edge
signed that the section modulus in way of the connection is not t = thickness of brackets in mm.
reduced to a value less than required for the stiffener.
Where flanges are continuous, there shall be a smooth taper be
203 Bracketless end connections may be applied for longitu tween bracket flange and girder face plate. If the flange is dis
dinals and other stiffeners running continuously through gird continuous, the face plate of the girder shall extend well
ers (web frames, transverses, stringers, bulkheads etc.), beyond the toe of the bracket.
provided sufficient connection area is arranged for.
303 The arm length including depth of girder web may nor
For longitudinals, see special requirements in Sec.6 and 8. mally be taken as:
Z
a = c  (mm)
tb
ALT. I
AT 3h

 = 
AK 1000
and
AK = 3.3 t (cm2)
At
width of curved flanges (alt. III) to be used in calculation, see
407.
At
es may occur.
The thickness of the web plate at the cross joint of bracketless
Fig. 9 connection (between girder 1 and 2) is normally given by the
Bracket toe area greater of (see Fig.11):
Table C2 Values of C
t2 a/b 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ≥7
h2
t3
τ2 C (r ≥ 6) 0.00 0.38 0.67 0.84 0.93 0.97 0.99 1.00
C (r = 5) 0.00 0.33 0.58 0.73 0.84 0.89 0.92 0.93
C (r = 4) 0.00 0.27 0.49 0.63 0.74 0.81 0.85 0.87
C (r ≤ 3) 0.00 0.22 0.40 0.52 0.65 0.73 0.78 0.80
A2 2
t1 a = distance between points of zero bending moments
= S for simply supported girders
A1 = 0.6 S for girders fixed at both ends
τ1 r = number of point loads.
403 For plate flanges having corrugations parallel to the
girder, the effective width is as given in 402. If the corruga
1 tions are perpendicular to the direction of the girder, the effec
tive width shall not be taken greater than 10% of the value
derived from 402.
h1 404 For effective width of plate flanges subject to elastic
buckling, see Sec.13 and Appendix A.
Fig. 11
Bracketless joint 405 The effective plate area shall not be less than the effec
tive area of the face plate within the following regions:
— ordinary girders: total span
σ1 A1 τ2 1 — continuous hatch side coamings and hatch end beams:
t3 =  – t 2   (mm) length and breadth of the hatch, respectively, and an addi
h2 100 f 1t
tional length of 1 m at each end of the hatch corners.
or 406 The effective area of curved face plates is given by:
σ2 A2 τ1 1 Ae = k tf bf (mm2)
t 3 =  – t 1   (mm)
h1 100 f 1t bf = total face plate breadth in mm
minimum required flange area in cm2 of girder 1 k = flange efficiency coefficient, see also Fig.12
A1 , A 2 =
and 2 r tf
h1, h2 = height in mm of girder 1 and 2 = k 1 
t1, t2 = minimum required thickness (outside the cross b
joint) in mm of girder 1 and 2 = 1.0 maximum
τ 1, τ 2 = shear stress in N/mm2 in girder 1 and 2
σ1,σ2 = bending stress in N/mm2 in girder 1 and 2 0.643 ( sinh β cosh β + sin β cos β )
f1t = material factor for corner web plate. k1 = 
sinh2 β + sin2 β
C 400 Effective flange of girders for symmetrical and unsymmetrical free flanges
401 The section modulus of the girder shall be taken in ac
cordance with particulars as given in the following. Structural 0.78 ( sinh β + sin β ) ( cosh β – cos β )
= 
modelling in connection with direct stress analysis shall be sinh2 β + sin2 β
based on the same particulars when applicable. Note that such
structural modelling will not reflect the stress distribution at lo for box girder flange with two webs
cal flange cutouts or at supports with variable stiffness over
the flange width. The local effective flange which may be ap 1.56 ( cosh β – cos β )
plied in stress analysis is indicated for construction details in = 
sinh β + sin β
various Classification Notes on “Strength Analysis of Hull
Structures”.
for box girder flange with multiple webs
402 The effective plate flange area is defined as the cross
sectional area of plating within the effective flange width. 1.285 b
Continuous stiffeners within the effective flange may be in β =  (rad)
cluded. The effective flange width be is determined by the fol r tf
lowing formula: b = 0.5 (bf – tw) for symmetrical free flanges
be = C b (m) = bf for unsymmetrical free flanges
= s – tw for box girder flanges
C = as given in Table C2 for various numbers of evenly s = spacing of supporting webs for box girder (mm)
spaced point loads (r) on the span tf = face plate thickness in general (mm)
b = sum of plate flange width on each side of girder, nor = tw (maximum) for unsymmetrical free flanges
mally taken to half the distance from nearest girder or tw = web plate thickness (mm)
bulkhead r = radius of curved face plate (mm).
0.2
hn1
0
0 1 2 3 b 4 5 6
√rtf
Fig. 12 hn
Effective width of curved face plates for alternative boundary a<hw/3
ls
conditions hw
2 tw
3 r t f + ks r 2
A e =  t f b f (mm )
2
3 r tf + sr
AFI
θ
Fig. 13
Curved shell panel
or
6.0
s h =  ( t w – t k ) (m)
τ
sv = spacing of stiffeners in m perpendicular to the girder
flange
sh = spacing of stiffeners in m parallel to the girder flange
tw = web thickness in mm
τ = 90 f1 N/mm2 in general within 20% of the span from
each end of the girder
= 60 f1 N/mm2 elsewhere.
— the spacing between the plate flange and the nearest stiff 607 The spacing st of tripping brackets is normally not to ex
ener shall not exceed: ceed the values given in Table C3 valid for girders with sym
sh = 0.055 (tw – tk) (m) metrical face plates. For girders with unsymmetrical face
plates the spacing will be specially considered.
For each successive stiffener spacing away from the plate
flange sh may be increased by 10%. Table C3 Spacing between tripping brackets
— below the transverse bulkhead verticals with adjoining Girder type 1) st (m)
brackets, the bottom girders shall have more closely Bottom transverse 0.02 bf,
spaced horizontal stiffeners or additional vertical stiffen maximum 6
ers. The spacing of the stiffeners shall not exceed: Side and longitudinal bulkhead vertical 2) 0.012 bf
sh = 0.045 (tw – tk) (m) Longitudinal girder, bottom 3) 0.014 bf
or Longitudinal girder, deck 0.014 bf,
maximum S
sv = 0.060 (tw – tk) (m)
Deck transverse 0.02 bf,
maximum 6
— stiffening arrangement will be specially considered with Transverse wash bulkhead vertical 0.009 bf
respect to docking. Transverse tight bulkhead vertical 0.012 bf
604 The web plate of transverses shall be effectively stiff Stringer 0.02 bf,
maximum 6
ened. If the web plate is connected to the bottom longitudinals
bf = flange breadth in mm
on one side only, vertical stiffeners shall be applied, or the free
edge of the scallop shall be stiffened. S = distance between transverse girders in m.
605 If the web stiffeners are in line with the intersecting lon 1) For girders in tanks in the afterbody and machinery spaces st shall not
exceed 0.012 bf.
gitudinals, frames or stiffeners, they shall be connected to the
2) If the web of a strength member forms an angle with the perpendicular
intersecting member. to the ship's side of more than 10°, st shall not exceed 0.007 bf.
Stiffeners on the web plate perpendicular to the flange may be 3) In general, tripping brackets shall be fitted at all transverses. For centre
sniped towards side, deck or bulkhead plating. girder, tripping brackets are also to be fitted at halfway between trans
verses.
606 The web plate shall be specially stiffened at openings
when the mean shear stress exceeds 60 N/mm2. Stiffeners shall 608 Tripping brackets on girders shall be stiffened by a
be fitted along the free edges of the openings parallel to the flange or stiffener along the free edge if the length of the edge
vertical and horizontal axis of the opening. Stiffeners may be exceeds:
omitted in one direction if the shortest axis is less than 400 0.06 tt (m)
mm, and in both directions if length of both axes is less than
300 mm. Edge reinforcement may be used as an alternative to tt = thickness in mm of tripping bracket.
stiffeners, see Fig.16. Scallops for longitudinals, frames or
stiffeners deeper than 500 mm shall be stiffened along their The area of the stiffening shall not be less than:
free edge. 10 lt (cm2)
SECTION 4
DESIGN LOADS
ay = 0.3 g0 a0 (m/s2)
a0 2
a z = 0.7 g 0  (m/s )
CB
2k r
T R =  (s)
GM
— service area notation R0: No reduction 403 The tangential roll acceleration (gravity component not
— service area notation R1: 10% included) is generally given by:
— service area notation R2: 20%
2π 2
a r = φ ⎛  ⎞ R R
2
— service area notation R3: 30% (m/s )
⎝ TR ⎠
— service area notation R4: 40%
— service area notation RE: 50%.
RR = distance in m from the centre of mass to the axis of ro
203 A common acceleration parameter is given by: tation.
3C W The roll axis of rotation may be taken at a height z m above the
a 0 =  + C V C V1 baseline.
L
D
 + T
D
L z = the smaller of  and 
CV =  , maximum 0,2 4 2 2
50
V 404 The radial roll acceleration may normally be neglected.
C V1 =  , minimum 0,8
L B 500 Pitch motion and acceleration
501 The pitch angle is given by:
Values of a0 according to the above formula may also be found
from Fig.2. a
θ = 0.25 0
(rad)
B 300 Surge, sway /yaw and heave accelerations CB
301 The surge acceleration is given by: 502 The period of pitch may normally be taken as:
a x = 0.2 g 0 a 0 C B
2
(m/s ) L
T P = 1.8  (s)
g0
302 The combined sway/yaw acceleration is given by: 503 The tangential pitch acceleration (gravity component
— for load point above summer load waterline : 100% filling of specified tanks with a heavier liquid will be
given the notation HL(ρ), indicating the highest cargo density
p2 = a ( pdp – (4 + 0.2 ks) h0 ) 1) (kN/m2) applied as basis for approval. The density upon which the
= minimum 6.25 + 0.025 L1 for sides scantling of individual tanks are based, will be given in the ap
= minimum 5 for weather decks. pendix to the classification certificate.
The pressure pdp is taken as: 302 The pressure in full tanks shall be taken as the greater of:
(3) (3)
(2) (2) (2)
(5)
(4)
(1) (1)
Fig. 6
Fig. 4 Section in engine room
Section in cargo tanks
For strength members located less than 0.25 bb away from lon
gitudinal wash bulkheads and tank sides the pressure shall not
be taken less than:
(3)
(5)
B 2
(2) p = ρ 3 –  b b (kN/m )
100
The sloshing pressures (p) given in 306 and 309 shall be con ( 1 + nl α l ) ( 1 + β l n4 ) b
sidered together with the normal strength formulae given in =  for tank sides
Sec.7, Sec.8 and Sec.9. ( 1 + nl ) ( 1 + n4 )
The impact pressures (pi) given in 307, 308, 309, and 310 shall [ 1 + αl ( nl – 1 ) ] ( 1 + βl n4 ) b
be used together with impact strength formulae given in Sec.9 =  for wash bulkhead
E400. ( 1 + nl ) ( 1 + n4 )
bs and ls as given in 306. l = tank length in m
b = tank breadth in m
0 .2 5 b s 0 .3 b s 0 .1 5 b s nt = number of transverse wash bulkheads in the tank
0 .3 l s 0 .1 5 l s
with αt < 0.5
0 .2 5 l s
αt = ratio between openings in transverse wash bulkhead
and total transverse area in the tank below consid
Pi
ered filling height, see Fig.8.
S lo s h in g Im p a c t
p re s s u re p re s s u re
H
Ps
h
Pi
0 .2 b s
o 0,25 0,5
or
0 .2 l s
αt
ls Fig. 8
Wash bulkhead coefficient
bs
βt
h⎞
⎛ 
 = 1
⎝ H ⎠ max Fig. 9
Webframe coefficient
h = filling height (m)
H = tank height (m) within 0.15 ls or 0.15 bs
GM = maximum GM including correction for free surface If no restriction to filling height, h is taken as 0.7 H.
effect. GMminimum = 0.12 B (m) nl = number of longitudinal wash bulkheads in the tank
with αl < 0.5
ls = effective sloshing length in m given as: αl = similar to αt but taken for longitudinal wash bulkhead
n4 = number of longitudinal ringgirders in the tank be
( 1 + nt αt ) ( 1 + βt n2 ) l tween the breadth
= 
 for end bulkheads
( 1 + nt ) ( 1 + n2 ) b

( 1 + nl )
[ 1 + αt ( nt – 1 ) ] ( 1 + βt n2 ) l βl = similar to βt taken for longitudinal ringgirders.
=  for wash bulkheads
( 1 + nt ) ( 1 + n2 ) 307 Impact pressure in upper part of tanks.
bs = effective sloshing breadth in m given as: Tanks with free sloshing length 0.13 L < ls < 0.16 L or with
free sloshing breadth bs > 0.56 B will generate an impact pres height h < 0.2 ls or h < 0.2 bs a reflected impact pressure of the
sure on horizontal and inclined surfaces adjacent to vertical same magnitude as on adjacent transverse or longitudinal bulk
surfaces in upper part of the tank due to high liquid velocities head shall be used on the under side of the stringer panel.
meeting these surfaces. For horizontal or inclined panels
(deck, horizontal stringers etc.) the impact pressure on upper ls and bs are free sloshing length and breadth in m at height
parts of the tank may be taken as: considered, as given in 306.
Within 0.15 ls from transverse wash or end bulkheads: k = 1 for L < 200
220 l s = 1.4 – 0.002L for L > 200
p i = ρ g 0 k f ⎛  – 7.5 ⎞ sin2 γ δ
2 = angle between the lower boundary panel and the hori
(kN/m )
⎝ L ⎠ zontal.
l 350 + L 309 For tanks with upper panels higher than L/20 m above
for s <  lowest seagoing waterline the sloshing and impact pressures
L 3550 given in 306 and 307 shall be multiplied by the following mag
ls nification factors:
L
= ρ g 0 k f ⎛ 25 + ⎞ ⎛ 0.5 +  ⎞ sin2 γ
2
(kN/m )
⎝ 13 ⎠ ⎝ L⎠
1 + 6 ze/L for longitudinal sloshing
ls 350 + L
for  > 
L 3550 1 + 7.5 ze GM/B2 for transverse sloshing
Within 0.15 bs from longitudinal wash bulkheads and tank 1 + 18 ze/L for longitudinal impact
sides:
240 ρ g 0 k f b s 1 + 17.5 ze GM/B2 for transverse impact
p i =  ⎛  – 0.3 ⎞ GM sin2 γ
1.5
B ⎝B ⎠ ze = zt – Ts – L/20 (m)
Outside 0.15 ls and 0.15 bs the pressure may be reduced to zero zt = distance from baseline to panel consider (m)
at 0.3 ls and 0.3bs, respectively, see Fig.7. TS = lowest seagoing draught (m)
In tank corners within 0.15 ls and 0.15 bs the impact pressure = 0.50 T may normally be used.
shall not be taken smaller than pi (transversely) or pi (longitu
dinally) + 0.4 pi (transversely). 310 For tanks with smooth boundaries (no internal structural
The reflected impact pressure on vertical surfaces adjacent to members) with tank bottom higher than the D/2, the low filling
horizontal or inclined surfaces above will have an impact pres impact pressure as given in 308 shall be multiplied by the fol
sure linearly reduced to 50% of the pressure above, 0.1 ls or 0.1 lowing magnification factor:
bs m below. 2 zi θ 2
⎛ 1 + 
 ⎞ in longitudinal direction
ls, bs and GM are as given in 306. ⎝ ls ⎠
h 2 2 zi φ 2
kf = 1 – 4 ⎛ 0.6 –  ⎞ , maximum =1, ⎛ 1 + 
 ⎞ in transverse direction
⎝ H⎠ ⎝ bs ⎠
h ⎞
⎛  θ and φ = pitch and rolling angle given in B400 and B500
= 1
⎝ H ⎠ max zi = distance from panel considered to D/2 in m.
h = maximum allowable filling height (m)
C 400 Dry cargoes, stores, equipment and accommoda
H = tank height (m) within 0.15 ls or 0.15 bs tion
γ = angle between considered panel and the vertical.
401 The pressure on inner bottom, decks or hatch covers
308 Impact pressure in lower part of smooth tanks shall be taken as:
In larger tanks ( ls > 0.13 L or bs > 0.56 B) with double bottom p = ρ (g0 + 0.5 av) H (kN/m2)
and which have no internal transverse or longitudinal girders
restraining the liquid movement at low minimum filling av = as given in B600
heights (2 < h < 0.2 ls or 2 < h < 0.2 bs) the impact pressure on H = stowage height in m.
vertical and inclined tank surfaces shall not be taken less than:
Standard values of ρ and H are given in Table C1.
pi = 1.42 ρ g0 k l s sin2 δ (kN/m2)
If decks (excluding inner bottom) or hatch covers are designed
on transverse bulkheads up to a height of 0.2 l s for cargo loads heavier than the standard loads given in Table
pi = 1.5 ρ g0 bs sin2 δ (kN/m2) C1 the notation DK(+) or HA(+) respectively, will be as
signed. The design cargo load in t/m2 will be given for each in
on longitudinal bulkheads up to a height of 0.2 bs dividual cargo space in the appendix to the classification
The impact pressure may be reduced to zero 1 metre above the certificate.
heights given, see Fig.7. 402 When the weather deck or weather deck hatch covers are
In tank corners at outermost side of transverse bulkheads the designed to carry deck cargo the pressure is in general to be
impact pressure within 0.15 bs shall not be taken smaller than: taken as the greater of p according to 201 and 401.
pi (longitudinally) + 0.4 pi (transversely) In case the design stowage height of weather deck cargo is
smaller than 2.3 m, combination of loads may be required after
If the tank is arranged with a horizontal stringer within the special consideration.
SECTION 5
LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH
for design cargo and ballast loading conditions as specified in rection from the aft end of L. The sign conventions of QS and
102. MS are as shown in Fig.1.
For these calculations, downward loads are assumed to be tak (IACS UR S11.2.1.1 Rev.5)
en as positive values, and shall be integrated in the forward di
( + )
Q S:
AFT FORE
( + )
M S:
Fig. 1
Sign Conventions of QS and MS
102 In general, the following design cargo and ballast load Liquefied gas carriers:
ing conditions, based on amount of bunker, fresh water and
stores at departure and arrival, shall be considered for the MS — homogenous loading conditions for all approved cargoes
and QS calculations. Where the amount and disposition of con — ballast conditions
sumables at any intermediate stage of the voyage are consid — cargo condition where one or more tanks are empty or par
ered more severe, calculations for such intermediate tially filled or where more than one type of cargo having
conditions shall be submitted in addition to those for departure significantly different densities is carried
and arrival conditions. Also, where any ballasting and or de — harbour condition for which an increased vapour pressure
ballasting is intended during voyage, calculations of the inter has been approved
mediate condition just before and just after ballasting and or — docking condition afloat.
deballasting any ballast tank shall be submitted and where ap
proved included in the loading manual for guidance. Combination carriers:
Cargo ships, container carriers, rollon/rolloff and refriger — conditions as specified for oil tankers and cargo ships.
ated carriers, ore carriers and bulk carriers:
For smaller ships the stillwater bending moments and shear
— homogenous loading conditions at maximum draught forces may have to be calculated for ballast and particular non
— ballast conditions homogeneous load conditions after special considerations.
— special loading conditions, e.g. container or light load con Also short voyage or harbour conditions including loading and un
ditions at less than the maximum draught, heavy cargo, loading transitory conditions shall be checked where applicable.
empty holds or nonhomogenous cargo conditions, deck Guidance note:
cargo conditions, etc. where applicable
It is advised that the ballast conditions determining the scantlings
— docking condition afloat are based on the filling of ballast in as few cargo tanks as practi
— for vessels with BCA, BCB, BCC or BCB* notation, cable, and it is important that the conditions will allow cleaning
loading conditions as specified in Pt.5 Ch.2 Sec.5 A107 to of all cargo tanks with the least possible shifting.
A110 and A112 to A114.
endofGuidancenote
Oil tankers: (IACS UR S11.2.1.2 Rev.5).
— homogenous loading conditions (excluding dry and clean 103 Ballast loading conditions involving partially filled peak
ballast tanks) and ballast or partloaded conditions and or other ballast tanks at departure, arrival or during inter
— any specified nonuniform distribution of loading mediate conditions are not permitted to be used as design con
— midvoyage conditions relating to tank cleaning or other ditions unless:
operations where these differ significantly from the ballast
conditions — design stress limits are satisfied for all filling levels be
tween empty and full and
— docking condition afloat — for bulk carriers, Pt.5 Ch.2 Sec.8 C, as applicable, is com
— for oil carriers complying with the requirements for the plied with for all filling levels between empty and full.
segregated ballast tanks as stipulated in Pt.5 Ch.3 Sec.3 B,
the ballast conditions shall in addition to the segregated To demonstrate compliance with all filling levels between
ballast condition include one or more relevant conditions empty and full, it will be acceptable if, in each condition at de
with additional ballast in cargo tanks. parture, arrival and where required by 102 any intermediate
condition, the tanks intended to be partially filled are assumed
Chemical and product tankers: to be:
— conditions as specified for oil tankers — empty
— conditions for high density or segregated cargo where — full
these are included in the approved cargo list. — partially filled at intended level.
Where multiple tanks are intended to be partially filled, all buckling control, the stillwater bending moments at arbitrary
combinations of empty, full or partially filled at intended level positions along the length of the ship are normally not to be
for those tanks shall be investigated. taken less than:
However, for conventional Ore Carriers with large wing water MS = ksm MSO (kNm)
ballast tanks in cargo area, where empty or full ballast water
filling levels of one or maximum two pairs of these tanks lead M SO = as given in 106
to the ship's trim exceeding one of the following conditions, it ksm = 1.0 within 0.4 L amidships
is sufficient to demonstrate compliance with maximum, mini = 0.15 at 0.1 L from A.P. or F.P.
mum and intended partial filling levels of these one or maxi = 0.0 at A.P. and F.P.
mum two pairs of ballast tanks such that the ship's condition Between specified positions ksm shall be varied linearly.
does not exceed any of these trim limits. Filling levels of all
other wing ballast tanks shall be considered between empty Values of ksm may also be obtained from Fig.3.
and full. The trim conditions mentioned above are:
— trim by stern of 3% of the ship's length, or
— trim by bow of 1.5% of ship's length, or
— any trim that cannot maintain propeller immersion (I/D)
not less than 25%
where:
I = the distance from propeller centreline to the waterline
D = propeller diameter.
See Fig.2.
The maximum and minimum filling levels of the above men
tioned pairs of side ballast tanks shall be indicated in the load
ing manual.
(IACS UR S11.2.1.3 Rev.5)
Fig. 3
Stillwater bending moment
= 0.19 α CW L2 B C B (kNm) in hogging 203 The rule values of vertical wave shear forces along the
α = 1.0 for seagoing conditions length of the ship are given by:
= 0.5 for harbour and sheltered water conditions (en Positive shear force, to be used when positive still water shear
closed fjords, lakes, rivers). force:
CB is not be taken less than 0.6. Q WP = 0.3 β kwqp CW L B (C B + 0.7) (kN)
202 When required in connection with stress analysis or Negative shear force, to be used when negative still water
buckling control, the wave bending moments at arbitrary posi shear force:
tions along the length of the ship are normally not to be taken
less than: Q WN = – 0.3 β kwqn CW L B (C B + 0.7) (kN)
MW = kwm MWO (kNm) Positive shear force when there is a surplus of buoyancy for
ward of section considered, see also Fig.1.
M WO = as given in 201 Negative shear force when there is a surplus of weight forward
k wm = 1.0 between 0.40 L and 0.65 L from A.P. of section considered.
= 0.0 at A.P. and F.P.
β = 1.0 for seagoing conditions
For ships with high speed and or large flare in the forebody the = 0.5 for harbour and sheltered water conditions (en
adjustments to kwm as given in Table B1, limited to the control closed fjords, lakes, rivers)
for buckling as given in Sec.13, apply. kwqp = 0 at A.P. and F.P.
= 1.59 CB/(CB + 0.7) between 0.2 L and 0.3 L from
Table B1 Adjustments to kwm A.P.
Load Sagging and hogging Sagging only
= 0.7 between 0.4 L and 0.6 L from A.P.
condition = 1.0 between 0.7 L and 0.85 L from A.P.
CAV ≤ 0.28 ≥ 0.32 1 ) kwqn = 0 at A.P. and F.P.
CAF ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.50 = 0.92 between 0.2 L and 0.3 L from A.P.
= 0.7 between 0.4 L and 0.6 L from A.P.
1.2 between 1.2 between
0.48 L and 0.48 L and = 1.73 CB/(CB + 0.7) between 0.7 L and 0.85 L from
kwm No No A.P.
0.65 L 0.65 L
adjust adjust CW = as given in 201.
from A.P. from A.P.
ment ment
0.0 at F.P. 0.0 at F.P. For ships with high speed and or large flare in the forebody, the
and A.P. and A.P. adjustments given in Table B2 apply.
1) Adjustment for CAV not to be applied when CAF ≥ 0.50.
Table B2 Adjustments to kwq
cv V Load
C AV =  Sagging and hogging Sagging only
L condition
CAV ≤ 0.28 ≥ 0.32 1 )
c v V A DK – A WP CAF ≤ 0.40 ≥ 0.50
C AF =  + 
Lz f 1.0 aft of 1.0 aft of
L 0.6 L from 0.6 L from
Multiply A.P. A.P.
L 1.0 1.2 between 1.0 1.2 between
cv =  , maximum 0.2 kwq by
0.7 L and 0.7 L and
50
0.85 L 0.85 L
A DK = projected area in the horizontal plane of upper deck from A.P. from A.P.
(including any forecastle deck) forward of 0.2 L 1) Adjustment for CAV not to be applied whenCAF ≥ 0.50.
from F.P.
C AV = as defined in 202
A WP = area of waterplane forward of 0.2 L from F.P. at C AF = as defined in 202.
draught T
zf = vertical distance from summer load waterline to Between specified positions kwq shall be varied linearly. Val
deckline measured at F.P. ues of kwq may also be obtained from Fig.5.
Between specified CAvalues and positions k wm shall be var
ied linearly. Values of k wm may also be obtained from Fig.4.
kwm
1.2
1.0
0
0.0 0.4 0.48 0.65 1,0
A.P. F.P.
Fig. 4
Wave bending moment distribution
STEEL WITH
RE
NEUTRAL AXIS
C. Bending Strength and Stiffness
C 100 Midship section particulars
Fig. 6
101 When calculating the moment of inertia and section Vertical extent of HSsteel
modulus, the effective sectional area of continuous longitudi
nal strength members is in general the net area after deduction
for openings as given in E. For narrow beam ships the vertical extent of HSsteel may
have to be increased after special consideration.
The effective sectional area of strength members between
hatch openings in ships with twin or triple hatchways shall be 202 The longitudinal extent of HSsteel used in deck or bot
taken as the net area multiplied by a factor 0.6 unless a higher tom shall not be less than xhs as indicated in Fig.7.
C WO = 10.75 – [ (300 – L) /100 ] 3/2 for L < 300  for scallops in bottom
= 10.75 for 300 ≤ L ≤ 350
= 10.75 – [ (L – 350) /150 ] 3/2 for L > 350 σ d Z bottom
K ga = 
Values of CWO are also given in Table C1. 240 ( M W, hog – M W, sag )
= 1.15 for fully coated tanks and fuel tanks sible longitudinal bulkhead are given by:
= 1.28 for dry cargo holds and void spaces
Zdeck = midship section modulus in cm3 at deck as built Φ ( Q S + Q W ) ± 0.5∆Q S S N 2
Zbottom = midship section modulus in cm3 at bottom as t =   10 (mm)
τ IN
built
MW, hog = the rule vertical wave hogging bending moment Φ = shear force distribution factor as given in Table D1
amidship, as defined in B201
MW, sag = the rule vertical wave sagging bending moment Table D1 Shear force distribution factor
amidship, as defined in B201.
AS
Stress concentration factors for scallops are given in Table C2. Φ S = 0 . 109 + 0 . 0911 
AL
Table C2 Stress concentration factors Kga for scallops
AS
Structure Point A Point B Φ L = 0 . 391 – 0 . 0911 
AL
AS
Φ S = 0 . 338 + 0 . 0167 
AC
1.67 1.2
AS
Φ C = 0 . 324 – 0 . 0334 
AC
ΦS = 0.5
1.13 1.2
ΦS = 0.5
∆Q SL = C p ( P H + ∑ ( KN PN ) ) – CD T1 (kN) 202 For shell plates completely within a top wing tank or a
hopper tank, the thickness requirements calculated from the
formula in 103 may be divided by 1.2.
PH = cargo or ballast in t for the hold in question
PN = bunker or ballast (t) in double bottom tank no. N (port D 300 Ships with two effective longitudinal bulkheads
and starboard) situated below considered hold 301 Between fore bulkhead in after cargo tank/hold and after
T1 = draught in m at the middle of hold bulkhead in fore cargo tank/hold, the sum of thickness at 0.5 D
CP = load correction factor in kN/t of ship's sides and longitudinal bulkheads is normally not to be
CD = buoyancy correction factor in kN/m less than:
1⁄3
VH AN ′ 2. 7 ( LB )
KN =  to be calculated for each filled tank Σ t =  + Σt k (mm)
H AN AB ′ f1
s ⎞
⎛ 1 –  r
∆Q SL = 0.5 P C  ( 1 – C T )  – 2Φ S (kN) Table D2 Shear force correction for longitudinal bulkhead
⎝ lc ⎠ r+1 The ship has The centre Inclination
over the tank has over of the shear
— for the longitudinal bulkhead: length: the length: force curve:
( 1 – CT ) excess
s
⎛ 1 –  ⎞  excess in buoyancy increases
∆Q SL = 0.5 P C   – 2Φ L (kN) in buoyancy
⎝ lc ⎠ r+1 excess excess in weight decreases
in buoyancy
CT = fraction of the centre tank load going through longi excess excess in weight increases
tudinal girders directly to the transverse bulkhead in weight
found by a direct calculation. A value of NL/ excess excess in buoyancy decreases
(NL+NB) may otherwise be used in weight
PC = resulting force in kN due to difference between tank
contents and buoyancy along the centre tank length For the side shell the change in inclination is contrary to that
lc. PC is always to be taken positive. If the loading given in Table D2.
PC is variable along the length, the PC term shall be At the middle point of l the shear force curve is supposed to re
calculated specially for each part loading main unchanged.
lc = distance in m between oiltight transverse bulkheads If the turning of the shear force curve leads to an increased
in the centre tank shear force, plus sign shall be used, otherwise minus sign. An
l = distance in m between oiltight transverse bulkheads example where the slope increases for the longitudinal bulk
in the side tank head and decreases for the side shell, is shown in Fig.9.
s = distance in m between floors in the centre tank
NL = number of longitudinal girders in centre tank
RESULTING SHEAR FORCE CURVE
NB = number of transverse floors in centre tank
{
FOR THE SIDE SHELL
ΦS = as given in 103
ΦL = as given in 103. + ∆QS
{
r expresses the ratio between the part of loading from the wash
bulkheads and the transverses in the centre tank which is car − ∆ QS
ried to the ship's side, and the part which remains in the longi
tudinal bulkhead. For preliminary calculations, r may be taken
}
as 0.5.
r may be derived from the following formula: + ∆QS
}
1
r = 
A L 2 ( N s + 1 )bA L − ∆QS
 + 
AS l ( Ns AT + R ) RESULTING SHEAR FORCE CURVE
FOR THE LONGITUDINAL BULKHEAD
b = mean span of transverses in the side tank in m (includ
ing length of brackets)
AT = shear area of a transverse wash bulkhead in the side L
tank in cm2, taken as the smallest area in a vertical sec
tion Fig. 9
NS = number of wash bulkheads in the side tank along the Shear force correction
length l.
R is an expression for the total efficiency of the girder frames D 400 Ships with number of effective longitudinal bulk
in the side tank, given by the formula: heads different from two
n AR 401 The sum of thicknesses at 0.5 D of ship's sides and lon
R = ⎛  – 1⎞ 
2
(cm ) gitudinal bulkhead(s) shall not be less than:
⎝2 ⎠ γ
1⁄3
2.6 ( LB )
n = number of girder frames along the tank length l Σt =  ( 0.8 + 0.1n ) + Σt k (mm)
f1
AR = shear area in cm2 of a transverse girder frame in the
side tank, taken as the sum of the shear areas of trans n = number of longitudinal bulkheads.
verses and cross ties
2 Above 0.5 D the thickness of the longitudinal bulkhead plating
300b A R may be linearly reduced to 90% at deck.
γ = 1 + 
IR The requirement applies to the region between fore bulkhead
in after cargo tank and after bulkhead in fore cargo tank. Out
IR = moment of inertia in cm4 of a transverse girder frame side this region, the sum of thicknesses may be varied linearly
in the side tank, taken as the sum of the moment of in to give the shear area required by 103 at fore end of machinery
ertia of transverses and cross ties. spaces and after end of fore peak or adjacent deep tank.
Plus or minus sign before the ∆ QSterm in the expressions for 402 For ships with double sides and a centre line bulkhead
plate thickness depends on whether inclination of the shear the thickness of centre line bulkhead and the double side shall
force curve increases or decreases due to the loading in the not be less than given by the formula in 103. Above 0.5 D the
centre tank. For the longitudinal bulkheads this relation is in thickness of the plating may be linearly reduced to 90% at
dicated in Table D2. deck.
When QS = QSL, the shear force correction due to load distri E 200 Deductionfree openings
bution is given by: 201 When calculating the midship section modulus openings
exceeding 2.5 m in length or 1.2 m in breadth and scallops,
— for the double side: where scallop welding is applied, shall be deducted from the
∆ QSL = CT PC (kN) sectional areas of longitudinal members.
PC = resulting force in kN due to difference between tank 202 Smaller openings (manholes, lightening holes, single
contents and buoyancy along the the centre tank scallops in way of seams etc.) need not to be deducted provided
length lc. PC is always to be taken positive. If the that the sum of their breadths or shadow area breadths in one
loading PC is variable along the length, the term PC transverse section does not reduce the section modulus at deck
shall be calculated specially for each part loading or bottom by more than 3% and provided that the height of
CT = fraction of the centre tank load going to the trans lightening holes, draining holes and single scallops in longitu
verse bulkhead found by a direct calculation. A dinals or longitudinal girders does not exceed 25% of the web
value of 0.5 b /(b + lc) may otherwise be used depth, for scallops maximum 75 mm.
b = breadth in m of the inner bottom between the inner 203 In longitudinals, the longitudinal distance between sin
sides gle openings or group of openings shall not be less than 10
times the height of opening. ships (for «open» ships within the total cargo hold region), cir
204 A deductionfree sum of smaller openings breadths in cular openings with diameter equal to or greater than 0.325 m
one transverse section in the bottom or deck area equal to shall have edge reinforcement. The crosssectional area of
edge reinforcements shall not be less than:
0.06 (B – Σ b)
2.5 b t (cm2)
may be considered equivalent to the above reduction in section
modulus. b = diameter of opening in m
t = plating thickness in mm.
B = breadth of ship
Σ b = sum of breadths of large openings. The reinforcement is normally to be a vertical ring welded to
the plate edge. Alternative arrangements may be accepted but
205 When calculating deductionfree openings, the openings the distance from plating edge to reinforcement is in no case to
are assumed to have longitudinal extensions as shown by the exceed 0.05 b.
shaded areas in Fig.10, i.e. inside tangents at an angle of 30° to
each other. 402 In areas specified in 401 elliptical openings with breadth
greater than 0.5 m shall have edge reinforcement if their
length/breadth ratio is less than 2. The reinforcement shall be
as required in 401 for circular openings, taking b as the breadth
of the opening.
403 In areas specified in 401 rectangular and approximately
b'
rectangular openings shall have a breadth not less than 0.4 m.
b1 For corners of circular shape the radius shall not be less than:
R = 0.2 b
b = breadth of opening.
b''
The edges of such rectangular openings shall be reinforced as
30o
required in 401.
b2 For corners of streamlined shape, as given by Fig.11 and Table
E1, the transverse extension of the curvature shall not be less
than:
a = 0.15 b (m)
Edge reinforcement will then generally not be required. For
large hatch openings, see 500.
404 Openings in side shell in areas subjected to large shear
b3 stresses shall be of circular shape and shall have edge rein
forcement as given in 401 irrespective of size of opening.
b'''
E 500 Hatchway corners
I II III 501 For corners with rounded shape, the radius is within 0.6
Fig. 10 L amidships generally not to be less than:
Deductionfree openings
l
r = 0.03 ⎛ 1.5 +  ⎞ ( B – b ) (m)
⎝ b⎠
Example for transverse section III: b = breadth of hatchway in m
Σ bIII = bl + bll + blll l = longitudinal distance in m between adjacent hatch
ways.
206 It is assumed that the deductionfree openings are ar
ranged approximately symmetric about the ship's centre line, l
 need not be taken greater than 1.0.
and that the openings do not cut any longitudinal or girder in b
cluded in the midship section area. Openings in longitudinals
are normally to be of elliptical shape or equivalent design and (B – b) shall not be taken less than 7.5 m, and need not be taken
are normally to be kept clear of the connecting weld. When greater than 15 m.
flush openings are necessary for drainage purposes, the weld
connections shall end in soft toes. For local reinforcement of deck plating at circular corners, see
Sec.8 A405.
E 300 Compensations When a corner with double curvature is adopted, further reduc
301 Compensation for not deductionfree openings may be tion in radius will be considered.
provided by increased sectional area of longitudinals or gird For corners of streamlined shape, as given by Fig.10 and Table
ers, or other suitable structure. The area of any reinforcement E1, the transverse extension of the curvature shall not be less
as required in 400 shall not be included in the sectional area of than:
the compensation.
l
E 400 Reinforcement and shape of smaller openings a = 0.025 ⎛ 1.5 +  ⎞ ( B – b ) (m)
⎝ b⎠
401 In strength deck and outer bottom within 0.6 L amid
SECTION 6
BOTTOM STRUCTURES
ble. The total area of the air holes shall be greater than the area tion with the drainage arrangements of holds, shall not extend
of the filling pipes. in depth more than necessary. A well extending to the outer
407 The access opening to pipe tunnel shall be visible above bottom may, however, be permitted at the after end of the shaft
the floor plates and shall be fitted with a rigid, watertight clo tunnel of the ship. Other wells may be permitted if the arrange
sure. ment gives protection equivalent to that afforded by a double
bottom complying with this regulation.
A notice plate shall be fitted stating that the access opening to 504 A double bottom need not be fitted in way of watertight
the pipe tunnel shall be kept closed. The opening shall be re compartments used exclusively for the carriage of liquids, pro
garded as an opening in watertight bulkhead. vided the safety of the ship in the event of a bottom damage is
408 The bilge keel and the flat bar to which it is attached, not thereby impaired.
shall not terminate abruptly. Ends shall be tapered, and internal For oil tankers, see Pt.5 Ch.3 Sec.3, for chemical carriers, see
stiffening shall be provided. Butts in the bilge keel and the flat Pt.5 Ch.4 Sec.3, and for liquefied gas carriers, see Pt.5 Ch.5
bar shall be well clear of each other and of butts in the shell Sec.3.
plating. The flat bar shall be of the same material strength as
the bilge strake to which it is attached and of the steel grade ac (SOLAS Ch. II1/121).
cording to Sec.2 Tables B1 and B2 as a bilge strake. The bilge
keel shall be of the same material strength as the bilge strake to
which it is attached.
B. Design Loads
409 Weld connections shall satisfy the general requirements
given in Sec.11. B 100 Local loads on bottom structures
410 For end connections of stiffeners and girders, see Sec.3 C. 101 All generally applicable local loads on bottom structures
are given in Table B1, based upon the general loads given in
A 500 Bottom arrangement Sec.4. In connection with the various local structures, refer
501 A double bottom is normally to be fitted, extending ence is made to this table, indicating the relevant loads in each
from the collision bulkhead to the afterpeak bulkhead, as far as case.
is practicable and compatible with the design and proper work
ing of the ship. B 200 Total loads on double bottom
201 In connection with direct stress calculations on double
502 The depth of the double bottom is given in D100. The in bottom structures, total loads shall be taken as differences be
ner bottom shall be continued out to the ship's side in such a tween internal and external pressures.
manner as to protect the bottom to the turn of the bilge.
These loads are specified in Sec.12.
503 Small wells constructed in the double bottom, in connec
Inner bottom
p 8 = 10h s + p 0
p 9 = ρ ( g 0 + 0.5a v ) h s
2)
Liquid cargo in tank above p 10 = ρ g 0 [ 0.67 ( h s + φ b ) – 0.12 H φ b t ]
p 11 = 0.67 ( ρ g 0 h p + ∆p dyn )
p 12 = ρ g 0 h s + p 0
point considered, minimum B/4 = 160 f1 within 0.1 L from the perpendiculars.
CW = wave coefficient as given in Sec.4 B200 Between specified regions the σvalue may be varied linearly.
av = vertical acceleration as given in Sec.4 B600
φ = roll angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B400 f2b = stress factor as given in A 200
hs = vertical distance in m from load point to top of tank 303 The longitudinal and combined buckling strength shall
hp = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top be checked according to Sec.13.
of air pipe
H = height in m of tank 304 The thickness shall not be less than:
HC = stowage height in m of dry cargo. Normally the 0.04L 1
height to 'tween deck or top of cargo hatchway to be t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm)
used in combination with a standard cargo density f1
ρc = 0.7 t/m3
ρc = dry cargo density in t/m3, if not otherwise specified 305 Between the midship region and the end regions there
to be taken as 0.7 shall be a gradual transition in plate thickness.
ρ = density of liquid cargo in t/m, normally not to be 306 The thickness of the bilge plate shall not be less than that
taken less than 1.025 t/m2 (i.e. ρ g0 ≈ 10) of the adjacent bottom and side plates, whichever is the greater.
b = the largest athwartship distance in m from the load
point to the corner at top of the tank/hold most dis 307 If the bilge plate is not stiffened, or has only one stiffener
tant from the load point inside the curved part, the thickness shall not be less than:
bt = breadth in m of top of tank/hold
3 2
p0 = 25 in general R lp
t =  + t k
= 15 in ballast hold of dry cargo vessels 900
= pressure valve opening pressure when exceeding
the general value. R = radius of curvature (mm)
∆pdyn = as given in Sec.4 C300. l = distance between circumferential stiffeners, i.e. bilge
brackets (mm)
p = 10 (T + B φ/2 + 0.088 CB (B/2 + 0.8 CW)) (kN/m2)
= 2 p1 – 10 T (minimum)
C. Plating and Stiffeners φ = roll angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B400.
CW = wave coefficient as given in Sec.4 B200.
C 100 General
101 In this subsection requirements to laterally loaded plat In case of longitudinal stiffening positioned outside the curva
ing and stiffeners are given, and in addition the scantlings and ture, R is substituted by:
stiffening of double bottom floors and girders. For single bot R1 = R + 0.5 (a + b)
tom and peak tank girders, see F and G.
See Fig.1.
C 200 Keel plate
The lengths a and b are normally not to be greater than s/3.
201 A keel plate shall extend over the complete length of the
ship. The breadth shall not be less than: C 400 Inner bottom plating
b = 800 + 5 L (mm). 401 The thickness requirement corresponding to lateral pres
202 The thickness shall not be less than: sure is given by:
0.05L 1 15.8k a s p
t = 7.0 +  + t k (mm) t =  + t k (mm)
f1 σ
The thickness is in no case to be less than that of the adjacent p = p4 to p15 (whichever is relevant) as given in Table B1
bottom plate. σ = 200 f1 – 110 f2b, maximum 140 f1 when transverse
frames, within 0.4 L
C 300 Bottom and bilge plating = 140 f1 when longitudinals, within 0.4 L
301 The breadth of strakes in way of longitudinal bulkhead = 160 f1 within 0.1 L from the perpendiculars.
and bilge strake, which shall be of steel grade higher than A
grade according to Ch.1 Sec.2, shall not be less than: Between specified regions the σvalue may be varied linearly.
k
t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm)
f1
Fig. 1
Not stiffened bilge plate h
=  + t k
g
102 In the after peak of single screw ships, the floors shall be of 203 The design slamming pressure shall be taken as:
such a height that their upper edge is well above the sterntube.
c1 c2 L x
p sl =  B B ⎛ 0.56 –  –  ⎞
2
G 200 Scantlings (kN/m )
T BF ⎝ 1250 L ⎠
201 The thickness of web plates, brackets and stiffeners is
generally not to be less than: c1 = L1/3 for L ≤ 150 m
k 1⁄3
t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm) c1 = ⎛ 225 – L
⎞ for L > 150 m
f1 ⎝ 2⎠
20T BF
c2 = 1675 ⎛ 1 – ⎞
k = 0.03 L1 for web plates and brackets (maximum 6) ⎝ L ⎠
= 0.01 L1 for stiffeners on web plates.
T BF = design heavy weather ballast draught in m at F.P.
The thickness of girders and floors is in addition not to be less than: BB = the breadth of the bottom in m at the height 0.15TBF
t = 12 s + tk (mm) above the baseline measured at the cross section
considered.
s = stiffener spacing in m. B B shall not be taken greater than the smaller of
1.35 TBF and 0.55 L
202 Girder flanges shall have: x = longitudinal distance in m from F.P. to cross section
considered, but need not be taken smaller than x1
— a thickness not less than 1/30 of the flange width when the
flange is symmetrical, and not less than 1/15 of the flange 1⁄3 L
x1 = ⎛ 1.2 – ( C B ) – ⎞ L
width when the flange width is asymmetrical ⎝ 2500⎠
— a width not less than 1/20 of the distance between tripping
brackets. The assumed variation in design slamming pressure is shown
in Fig.2.
G 300 Details
204 If the ship on the design ballast draught TBFpsl is intend
301 For end connections and stiffening of girders in general, ed to have full ballast tanks in the forebody and the load from
see Sec.3 C. the ballast will act on the bottom panel, the slamming pressure
302 Stiffeners on floors and girders in the after peak shall may be reduced by 14 h kN/m2 where h is the height in m of
have end connections. the ballast tank.
205 The thickness of the bottom plating below 0.05 TBF
from keel shall not be less than:
H. Special Requirements 0.9 k a k r s p sl
t =  + t k (mm)
H 100 Vertical struts f1
101 Where bottom and inner bottom longitudinals or frames kr = correction factor for curved plates with stiffening di
are supported by vertical struts, the sectional area of the strut
shall not be less than: rection at right angle to axis of curvature
s
k l sT
A = 
2 = ⎛ 1 – 0.5  ⎞
(cm ) ⎝ r ⎠
f1
c3
0.15 Tbf
2
ΣA S =  l b p sl (cm )
f1
LONGITUDINAL SECTION F. P.
A A
10 l b
c 3 = 0.05 ⎛ 1 –  ⎞ , minimum 0.025
⎝ LB ⎠
cordance with the requirement given in 302 may have the no
LB
RE
BO
W
NG
MI
12s
AM
f1
AL
RM
NO
H 400 Docking
F. P.
401 The bottom scantlings required in this section are con
Fig. 2 sidered to give ample strength for the safe docking of ships
Design slamming pressure with length less than 120 metres and of normal design.
402 For ships of special design, particularly in the afterbody,
and for large vessels (docking weight exceeding 70 t/m) the ex
208 The net connection area of continuous stiffeners at gird pected docking conditions and docking block arrangements
ers shall satisfy the following expression: shall be evaluated and checked by a special calculation. The
1.7 AF + AW = 2 AS docking arrangement plan, giving calculated forces from dock
ing blocks, shall be submitted for information.
AF = connection area at flange in cm2
AW = connection area at web in cm2 Guidance note:
AS = as given in 207, to be multiplied by f1 if HTS in stiff Size and number of docking blocks should be estimated on the
ener and MS in girder. basis of a design pressure in blocks normally not exceeding
2 N/mm2. With centre line girder the docking blocks should be
209 In the bottom below 0.05 TBF the spacing of stiffeners supported by the innermost longitudinals, which should be di
on web plates or bulkheads is near the shell plating not to ex mensioned for 1/4 of the reaction force from the blocks. With a
ceed: symmetric duct keel the distance between the duct keel girders
should be less than the expected transverse length of the docking
sw = 0.09 t (m) blocks.
SECTION 7
SIDE STRUCTURES
403 Weld connections shall satisfy the general requirements B. Design Loads
given in Sec.11.
404 For end connections of stiffeners and girders, see Sec.3 B 100 Local loads on side structures
C. 101 All generally applicable local loads on side structures
are given in Table B1, based upon the general loads given in
Sec.4. In connection with the various local structures, refer
ence is made to this table, indicating the relevant loads in each
case.
h0 = vertical distance in m from the waterline at draught = tank pressure valve opening pressure when exceed
T to the load point ing the general value
T = rule draught in m, see Sec.1 B ρ = density of ballast, bunker or liquid cargo in t/m3,
z = vertical distance from the baseline to the load point, normally not to be taken less than 1.025 t/m3
maximum T (m) (i.e.ρ g0 ≈ 10)
pdp, ks = as given in Sec.4 C201 ∆ pdyn = as given in Sec.4 C300
L1 = ship length, need not be taken greater than 300 (m) H = height in m of tank
av = vertical acceleration as given in Sec.4 B600 b = the largest athwartship distance in m from the load
hs = vertical distance in m from load point to top of tank, point to the tank corner at the top of tank/ hold most
excluding smaller hatchways. distant from the load point, see Fig.2
bt = breadth in m of top of tank/hold
hp = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top l = the largest longitudinal distance in m from the load
of air pipe point to the tank corner at top of tank most distant
hb = vertical distance in m from the load point to the min from the load point
imum design draught, which may normally be taken lt = length in m of top of tank
as 0.35 T for dry cargo vessels and 2 + 0.02 L for φ = roll angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B400
tankers. For load points above the ballast waterline θ = pitch angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B500
hb = 0 bb = distance in m between tank sides or effective longi
po = 25 in general tudinal wash bulkhead at the height at which the
= 15 in ballast holds in dry cargo vessels strength member is located.
k L1
t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm)
hs f1
l.p.
b = bt
H k = 0.04 up to 4.6 m above the summer load waterline. For
each 2.3 m above this level the kvalue may be reduced
by 0.01 (k (minimum) = 0.01)
= 0.06 for plating connected to the sternframe.
103 The thickness of the side plating between a section aft of
midships where the breadth at the load waterline exceeds 0.9 B
RECTANGULAR TANK SHAPE
and a section forward of midships where the load waterline
breadth exceeds 0.6 B, and taken from the lowest ballast wa
terline to 0.25 T (minimum 2.2 m) above the summer load line,
z bt shall not be less than:
hs 1

⎛ BT⎞ 4
l.p. H t = 31 ( s + 0.7 ) ⎜ ⎟ + t k (mm)
b y
⎝ σ f 2⎠
207 Where the sheer strake extends above the deck stringer 402 The section modulus requirement is given by:
plate, the top edge of the sheer strake shall be kept free from 2
notches and isolated welded fittings, and shall be ground C l s p wk
smooth with rounded edges. Drainage openings with smooth Z = 
f1
transition in the longitudinal direction may be allowed.
208 Bulwarks are in general not to be welded to the top of the p = p1– p8, whichever is relevant, as given in Table B1
sheer strake within 0.6 L amidships. Such weld connections C = 0.37 when external pressure (p1 – p2) is used
may, however, be accepted upon special consideration of de = 0.43 when internal pressure (p3 – p8) is used
sign (i.e. expansion joints), thickness and material grade. l = corresponding to full length of frame including brack
ets.
C 300 Longitudinals
301 The section modulus requirement is given by: 403 The thickness of web and flange shall not be less than
given in 302.
2 404 The requirement given in 402 is based on the assumption
83 l s p w k 3 3
Z =  (cm ), minimum 15 cm that effective brackets are fitted at both ends. The length of
σ brackets shall not be less than:
p = p1 – p8, whichever is relevant, as given in Table B1 — 0.12 l for the lower bracket.
σ = allowable stress (maximum 160 f1) given by: — 0.07 l for the upper bracket.
Within 0.4 L amidships: The section modulus of frame, including bracket, at frame ends
shall not be less than as given in 402 with l equal to total span
of frame including brackets and applying Cfactors as given
n a z –z below.
σ = 225 f 1 – 130 f 2 

zn Upper end:
= maximum 130 f1 for longitudinals supported C = 0.56 when external pressure (p1– p2) is used
by side verticals in single deck constructions. C = 0.64 when internal pressure (p3 – p8) is used.
Within 0.1 L from perpendiculars: Lower end:
σ = 160 f1 C = 0.74 when external pressure (p1 – p2) is used
C = 0.86 when internal pressure (p3 – p8) is used.
Between specified regions the σvalue may be varied linearly.
When the length of the free edge of the bracket is more than 40
For longitudinals σ = 160 f1 may be used in any case in com times the plate thickness, a flange shall be fitted, the width be
bination with heeled condition pressures p6 and p8. ing at least 1/15 of the length of the free edge.
f2 = stress factor f2b as given in Sec.6 A200 below the neu For single deck vessels e.g. gas carriers, the end connection of
tral axis main frames may alternatively be based on a direct calculation
= stress factor f2d as given in Sec.8 A200 above the neu where the rotation of upper and lower ends are taken into ac
tral axis. count.
302 The thickness of web and flange shall not be less than 405 Brackets may be omitted provided the frame is carried
the larger of through the supporting member and the section modulus as
given in 402 is increased by 50% and inserting total span in the
formula.
k 406 The section modulus for a main frame shall not be less
t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm)
f1 than for the 'tween deck frame above.
407 In ships without top wing tank, frames at hatch end
h beams shall be reinforced to withstand the additional bending
=  + t k
g moment from the deck structure.
k = 0.01 L1 in general 408 Main frames made of angles or bulb profiles having a
= 0.02 L1 (= 5.0 maximum) in peaks and in cargo oil span l > 5 m shall be supported by tripping brackets at the mid
dle of the span.
tanks and ballast tanks in cargo area
h = profile height in mm Forward of 0.15 L from F.P., see also E200.
g = 70 for flanged profile webs
= 20 for flat bar profiles. C 500 'Tween deck frames and vertical peak frames
303 Longitudinals supported by side verticals subject to rel 501 'Tween deck frames are frames between the lowest deck
atively large deflections shall be checked by a direct strength or the lowest stringer on the ship's side and the uppermost su
calculation, see Sec.12 C. Increased bending stresses at trans perstructure deck between the collision bulkhead and the after
verse bulkheads shall be evaluated and may be absorbed by in peak bulkhead.
creased end brackets. 502 If the lower end of 'tween deck frames is not welded to
304 The buckling strength of longitudinals shall be checked the bracket or the frame below, the lower end shall be bracket
according to Sec.13. ed above the deck. For end connections, see also Sec.3 C200.
503 The section modulus shall not be less than the greater of:
C 400 Main frames
2
401 Main frames are frames located outside the peak tanks, 0.55 l s p w k 3
connected to the floors, double bottom or hopper tanks and ex Z =  (cm )
f1
tended to the lowest deck, stringer or top wing tank on the ship
side. and
2
L 3 100 S b p w k
Z = k  (cm ) 3
f1 Z =  (cm )
σ
k = 6.5 for peak frames p = p1 – p4
= 4.0 for 'tween deck frames = 1.15 p5
p = p1 – p8, whichever is relevant, as given in Table B1. = p6 – p8, whichever is relevant, as given in Table B1.
b = loading breadth in m
504 The thickness of web and flange shall not be less than
given in 302. zn – za
σ = 190 f 1 – 130 f 2  ,
zn
D 200 Simple girders 403 Side verticals may be regarded as individual simple
girders between cross ties, provided effective cross ties, as de
201 The section modulus requirement is given by: fined in 402, are positioned as follows:
E. Special Requirements
E 100 Tripping brackets
101 Forward of 0.15 L from F.P., flanged transverse side
frames (i.e. all frame cross sections except flat bars) with web ALT. II
nonorthogonal to the perpendicular to the side shell shall be
arranged with midspan tripping brackets as shown in Fig.3, un
less the web thickness of the frame complies with the follow
ϕ
ing requirement:
0.004 b f t f h
t w =  + t k (mm)
l
Fig. 3
h = frame profile height in mm Tripping bracket
bf = flange breadth of profile in mm
tf = flange thickness of frame in mm
l = span length of frame in m F. P.
0,1 L
For bulb profiles, bf and tf may be taken as the mean breadth
and thickness of the bulb. UPPER
DECK LINE
The thickness of tripping brackets may be taken as the smaller hd
of the web thickness of the frames and 10 mm. 2
2 2
p sl = C ( 2.2 + C f ) ( 0.4V sin β + 0.6 L ) (kN/m ) F. P.
Fig. 4
Bow region
C = 0.18 (CW – 0.5 ho), maximum 1.0
CW = wave coefficient as given in Sec.4 B200
ho = vertical distance (m) from the waterline at draught T to 204 The thickness of shell plating in the bow region shall not
point considered be less than:
Cf = 1.5 tan (α + γ)
= 4.0, maximum 13.8 k a s p sl
γ = 0.4 (φ cosβ + θ sinβ) t =  + t k (mm)
φ, θ = as given in Sec.4 B σf
α = flare angle in radians taken as the angle between the s 2
ka = ⎛ 1.1 – 0.25  ⎞
side plating and a vertical line, measured at the point ⎝ l⎠
considered
β = angle in radians between the waterline and a longitudi = maximum 1.0 for s/l = 0.4
nal line, measured at the point considered. With refer = minimum 0.72 for s/l = 1.0
ence to Fig.4, the flare angle may normally be taken in σf = minimum upper yield stress of material in N/mm2 and
accordance with: shall not be taken less than the limit to the yield point
longitudinal due to relative deflection between the sup pd, σd and K are as given in 401.
ports calculated for the dynamic pressure pd. 403 'Tween deck frames in tanks shall have a section modu
This stress shall be deducted from 110 c/K to obtain the allow lus at their welded end supports not less than:
able stress σd in the formula for Z.
2
402 Main frames in tanks are at their welded end support to 83 s l p d w k 3
have a section modulus not less than: Z =  (cm )
σd
2 pd, σd and K are as given in 401.
83 s l p d w k 3
Z =  (cm )
σd
Fig. 7
Stress concentration factors
SECTION 8
DECK STRUCTURES
A. General 5.7 ( M S + M W )
f 2d = 
A 100 Introduction ZD
101 The requirements in this section apply to ship's deck
structure. ZD = midship section modulus in cm3 at deck as built
102 The formulae given for plating, stiffeners and girders are MS = normally to be taken as the largest design still water
based on the structural design principles outlined in Sec.3 B. In bending moment in kNm. MS shall not be taken less
most cases, however, fixed values have been assumed for some than 0.5 MSO. When actual design moment is not
variable parameters such as: known, MS may be taken equal to MSO
M SO = design still water bending moment in kNm given in
— aspect ratio correction factor for plating Sec.5 B
— bending moment factor m for stiffeners and girders. MW = rule wave bending moment in kNm given in Sec.5
B. Hogging or sagging moment to be chosen in re
Where relevant, actual values for these parameters may be lation to the applied still water moment.
chosen and inserted in the formulae.
1) For details see Sec.1 B.
Direct stress calculations based on said structural principles 2) For details see Sec.2 B and C.
and as outlined in Sec.12 will be considered as alternative basis
for the scantlings. Guidance note:
In special cases a more detailed evaluation of the actual still wa
A 200 Definitions ter moment MS to be used may be allowed. The simultaneous oc
currence of a certain local load on a structure and the largest
201 Symbols: possible MSvalue in the same area of the hull girder may be used
as basis for estimating f2d.
L = rule length in m 1)
B = rule breadth in m 1) Example: Deck longitudinals. External load (p1 or p2 in Table
B1) gives maximum local stress in compression, and MS may be
D = rule depth in m 1) taken as maximum sagging moment. Internal load (p7 to p10 in
T = rule draught in m 1) Table B1) gives maximum load stress in tension, and MS may be
CB = rule block coefficient 1) taken as maxim hogging moment.
V = maximum service speed in knots on draught T endofGuidancenote
L1 = L but need not be taken greater than 300 m
t = rule thickness in mm of plating A 300 Documentation
Z = rule section modulus in cm3 of stiffeners and simple
girders 301 Plans and particulars to be submitted for approval or in
ka = correction factor for aspect ratio of plate field formation are specified in Sec.1.
= (1.1 – 0.25 s/ l)2 A 400 Structural arrangement and details
= maximum 1.0 for s/ l = 0.4
= minimum 0.72 for s/ l = 1.0 401 Dry cargo ships with length L > 150 m are normally to
s = stiffener spacing in m, measured along the plating have deck longitudinals in the strength deck clear of hatchway
l = stiffener span in m, measured along the topflange of openings.
the member. For definition of span point, see Sec.3 402 In tankers the deck is normally to be longitudinally stiff
C100. For curved stiffeners l may be taken as the ened in the cargo tank region.
cord length 403 When the strength deck is longitudinally stiffened:
S = girder span in m. For definition of span point, see
Sec.3 C100 — the longitudinals shall be continuous at transverse mem
zn = vertical distance in m from the baseline or deckline bers within 0.5 L amidships in ships with length L > 150 m
to the neutral axis of the hull girder, whichever is — the longitudinals may be cut at transverse members within
relevant 0.5 L amidships in ships with length corresponding to 50
za = vertical distance in m from the baseline or deckline m < L < 150 m. In that case continuous brackets connect
to the point in question below or above the neutral ing the ends of the longitudinals shall be fitted
axis, respectively — the longitudinals may be welded against the transverse
wk = section modulus corrosion factor in tanks, see Sec.3 members in ships with length L ≤ 50 m and in larger ships
C1004 outside 0.5 L amidships.
σ = nominal allowable bending stress in N/mm2 due to
lateral pressure 404 Transverse beams are preferably to be used in deck areas
p = design pressure in kN/m2 as given in B between hatches. The beams shall be efficiently supported by
f1 = material factor longitudinal girders. If longitudinals are used, the plate thick
= 1.0 for NVNS steel 2) ness shall be increased so that the necessary transverse buck
ling strength is achieved, or transverse buckling stiffeners shall
= 1.08 for NV27 steel 2) be fitted intercostally. The stiffening of the upper part of a
= 1.28 for NV32 steel 2) plane transverse bulkhead (or stool tank) shall be such that the
= 1.39 for NV36 steel 2) necessary transverse buckling strength is achieved.
= 1.47 for NV40 steel 2)
f 2d = stress factor above the neutral axis of the hull girder, Transverse beams shall extend to the second deck longitudinal
depending on surplus in midship section modulus from the hatch side. Where this is impracticable, stiffeners or
and maximum value of the actual still water mo brackets shall be placed intercostally in extension of beams.
ments: 405 If hatch coaming corners with double curvature or hatch
corners of streamlined shape are not adopted, the thickness of openings in them shall satisfy the requirements of this section
deck plates in strength deck at hatch corners shall be increased and Ch.3 Sec.6. Watertight ventilators and trunks shall be car
by 25%, maximum 5 mm. ried at least up to the bulkhead deck in passenger ships and up
The longitudinal extension of the thicker plating shall not be to the freeboard deck in cargo ships.
less than 1.5 R and not more than 3 R on both sides of the hatch 502 Where a ventilation trunk passing through a structure
end. The transverse extension outside line of hatches shall be penetrates the bulkhead deck, the trunk shall be capable of
at least 2 R. withstanding the water pressure that may be present within the
For shape and radius of corners in large hatch openings, see trunk, after having taken into account the maximum heel angle
Sec.5. allowable during intermediate stages of flooding, in accord
ance with SOLAS Ch. II1/8.5.
R = corner radius.
503 Where all or part of the penetration of the bulkhead deck
406 The seam between the thicker plating at the hatch corner is on the main roro deck, the trunk shall be capable of with
and the thinner plating in the deck area between the hatches standing impact pressure due to internal water motions (slosh
shall be located at least 100 mm inside the point at which the ing) of water trapped on the roro deck.
curvature of the hatch corner terminates. 504 In ships constructed before 1 July 1997, the require
If the difference between the deck plate thickness at the hatch ments of paragraph 2 shall apply not later than the date of the
corners and in the deck area between hatches is greater than 1/ first periodical survey after 1 July 1997.
3 of the thickest plate, a transition plate shall be laid between
the thick plating and the thin deck area plating. The quality of 505 After completion, a hose or flooding test shall be applied
the transition plate shall not be more than one grade below that to watertight decks and a hose test to watertight trunks, tunnels
of the plating at the hatch corner. and ventilators.
407 Weld connections shall satisfy the general requirements (SOLAS Ch. II1/19)
given in Sec.11.
408 For end connections of stiffeners and girders, see Sec.3
C.
B. Design Loads
A 500 Construction and initial testing of watertight
decks, trunks etc. B 100 Local loads on deck structures
501 Watertight decks, trunks, tunnels, duct keels and venti 101 All generally applicable local loads on deck structures
lators shall be of the same strength as watertight bulkheads at are given in Table B1, based upon the general loads given in
corresponding levels (see Table B1, p13) The means for mak Sec.4. In connection with the various local structures reference
ing them watertight, and the arrangements adopted for closing is made to this table, indicating the relevant loads in each case.
p8 = ρ g0 hs + p0
p7 = 0.67 (ρ g0 hp + ∆ pdyn)
Deck as tank top in general p8 = ρ g0 hs + p0
Ballast, bunker or
Deck as tank boundary in tanks with liquid cargo p 9 = ρ g 0 [ 0.67 ( h s + φ b ) – 0.12 H φ b t ]
breadth > 0.4 B
Deck as tank boundary towards ends of p 10 = ρ g 0 [ 0.67 ( h s + θ l ) – 0.12 H θ l t ]
tanks with length > 0.15 L
B
Deck as tank boundary in tanks p 11 = ρ ⎛ 3 – ⎞ b b
with breadth > 0.4 B 3) ⎝ 100⎠
L
Deck as tank boundary in tanks p 12 = ρ ⎛ 4 – ⎞ l b
with length > 0.1 L 4) ⎝ 200⎠
Watertight decks submerged in p 13 = 10 hb
damaged condition 5) Sea pressure
1) On weather decks combination of the design pressures p1 and p2 may be required for deck cargo with design stowage height less than 2.3 m.
2) For ships with service restrictions p1 may be reduced with the percentages given in Sec.4 B202. CW should not be reduced
3) To be used for strength members located less than 0.25 bb away from tank sides in tanks with no restrictions on their filling height. For tanks with free
breadth (no longitudinal wash bulkheads) bb > 0.56 B the design pressure will be specially considered according to Sec.4 C305
4) To be used for strength members located less than 0.25 lb away from tank ends in tanks with no restrictions on their filling height. For tanks with free
length (no transverse wash bulkheads or transverse web frames in narrow tanks) lb > 0.13 L the design pressure will be specially considered according to
Sec.4 C305
5) The strength may be be calculated with allowable stresses for plating, stiffeners and girders increased by 60 f1.
a = 1.0 for weather decks forward of 0.15 L from FP, or hs = vertical distance in m from the load point to top of
forward of deckhouse front, whichever is the fore tank, excluding smaller hatchways
most position hp = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top
= 0.8 for weather decks elsewhere of air pipe
pdp, ks = as given in Sec.4 C201 hb = vertical distance in metres from the load point to the
h0 = vertical distance in m from the waterline at draught deepest equilibrium waterline in damaged condition
T to the deck obtained from applicable damage stability calcula
av = vertical acceleration as given in Sec.4 B600 tions. The deepest equilibrium waterline in dam
q = deck cargo load in t/m2 as specified.Weather decks aged condition should be indicated on the drawing
above cargo holds in dry cargo ships are normally to of the deck in question.
be designed for a minimum cargo load: The vertical distance shall not be less than up to the
qmin = 1.0 for ships with L = 100 m margin line (a line drawn at least 76 mm below the
= 1.3 for ships with L > 150 m when superstructure upper surface of the bulkhead at side)
deck ∆ pdyn = as given in Sec.4 C300
= 1.75 for ships with L > 150 m when freeboard deck. p0 = 25 in general
For ships with length between 100 and 150 m the q = 15 in ballast holds in dry cargo vessels
value may be varied linearly. = tank pressure valve opening pressure when exceed
When it is specially stated that no deck cargo shall ing the general value
be carried, the qmin may be discarded H = height in m of tank
ρc = dry cargo density in t/m3, if not otherwise specified b = the largest athwartship distance in m from the load
to be taken as 0.7, see also also Sec.4 C401 point to the tank corner at the top of tank/ hold most
ρ = density of ballast, bunker or liquid cargo in t/m3, distant from the load point
normally not to be less than 1.025 (i.e. ρ g0 ≈ 10) bt = breadth in m of top of tank/hold
HC = stowage height in m of dry cargo. Normally the bb = distance in m between tank sides or effective longi
'tweendeck height or height to top of cargo hatch tudinal wash bulkhead at the height at which the
way to be used strength member is located
l = the largest longitudinal distance in m from the load 202 The thickness of steel decks shall not be less than:
point to the tank corner at top of tank most distant
from the load point k L1
lt t = t 0 +  + t k (mm)
= length in m of top of tank f1
lb = distance in m between transverse tank bulkheads or
effective transverse wash bulkheads at the height at
which the strength member is located. Transverse t0 = as given in 104
webframes covering part of the tank cross section k = 0.01 for 'tween deck above 0.7 D in vessels with two
(e.g. wing tank structures in tankers) may be regard continuous decks above 0.7 D from the baseline and
ed as wash bulkheads first tier of superstructure or deckhouse in vessels with
φ = roll angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B400 single continuous deck when more than 50% of 0.4 L
θ = pitch angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B500. amidships is covered
= 0.01 for forecastle decks forward of 0.2 L from F.P.
= 0 for other decks.
402 The thickness of web and flange shall not be less than b = loading breadth in m
given in 303. zn – za
403 For end connections, see Sec.3 C200. σ = 190f 1 – 130f 2d  , maximum 160 f 1
zn
404 For beampanel buckling, see Sec.13 C501.
for continuous longitudinal girders within 0.4 L amid
Table C1 ships
= 160 f1 for transverse girders and longitudinal girders
Deck σ within 0.1 L from perpendiculars.
Strength deck, long superstructures 225 f1 – 130 f2d,
and effective deckhouses above Between specified regions the σvalue may be varied linearly.
strength deck maximum 160 f1 For longitudinal girders σ = 160 f1 may be used in any case in
zn – za combination with heeled condition pressures p9 and p11.
225f 1 – 130f 2d 
Continuous decks below strength deck zn f2d = stress factor as given in A 200.
maximum 160 f1 202 The web area requirement (after deduction of cutouts)
at the girder ends is given by:
0.07 S b p 2
D. Girders A =  + 10 h t k (cm )
f1
D 100 General
p = as given in 201
101 The thickness of web plates, flanges, brackets and stiff b = as given in 201
eners of girders shall not be less than: h = girder height in m.
k The web area at the middle of the span shall not be less than
t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm)
f1 0.5 A.
203 For stiffness in connection with panel buckling, see
k = 0.01 L1 in general Sec.13 C502.
= 0.02 L1 for girder webs, flanges and brackets in cargo
oil tanks and ballast tanks in cargo area D 300 Complex girder systems
= 0.03 L1 (= 6.0 maximum) for girder webs, flanges and 301 In addition to fulfilling the general local requirements
brackets in peaks. given in 100, the main scantlings of deck girders being part of
complex girder systems in holds or tanks for heavy cargo or
The thickness of girder web plates is in addition not to be less
liquids may have to be based on a direct stress analysis as out
than: lined in Sec.12.
t = 12 s + tk (mm)
s = spacing of web stiffening in m.
102 The buckling strength of web plates subject to in plane E. Special Requirements
compressive and shear stresses shall be checked according to
Sec.13. E 100 Transverse strength of deck between hatches
103 Longitudinal deck girders above tanks shall be fitted in 101 In ships with large hatch openings, it shall be examined
line with transverse bulkhead verticals. that the effective deck area between hatches is sufficient to
withstand the transverse load acting on the ship's sides. Bend
The flange area shall be at least 1/7 of the sectional area of the ing and shear stresses may also arise as result of loading on the
web plate, and the flange thickness shall be at least 1/30 of the transverse bulkhead supported by the deck area, and also as re
flange width. For flanges subject to compressive stresses the sult of displacements caused by torsion in the hull girder. Re
thickness shall be taken as 0.1 bf, bf being the flange width inforcements to reduce the additional stresses will be
when asymmetric and half the flange width when symmetric. considered in each case. The effective area is defined as:
104 Deck transverses shall be fitted in the lowest deck in en
gine room, in line with the side verticals. The depth of the deck — deck plating
transverses shall be at least 50% of the depth of the side verti — transverse beams
cals, web thickness and face plate scantlings being as for side — deck transverses
verticals. — hatch end beams (after special consideration)
— cross section of stool tank at top of transverse bulkhead
105 The thickness of girder stiffeners and brackets shall not — cross section of transverse bulkhead (if plane or horizon
be less than given in 102. tally corrugated) down to base of top wing tank, or to 0.15
106 The end connections and stiffening of girders shall be ar D from deck.
ranged as given in Sec.3 C.
When calculating the effective area, corrosion additions shall
D 200 Simple girders be deducted.
201 The section modulus requirement for simple girders is The compressive stress shall not exceed 120 f1 N/mm2 nor
given by: 80% of the critical buckling stress of the deck, bulkhead and
stool tank plating.
2
100 S b p w k 3 The buckling strength of stiffeners and girders shall be exam
Z =  (cm ) ined.
σ
p = p1 – p6 E 200 Strength of deck outside large hatches
= 1.15 p7 201 The strength of deck and ship's side in way of long and
= p8 – p13, whichever is relevant, as given in Table B1. wide hatches as given in Sec.5 A106 is, as applicable, to be ex
amined by direct calculation of bending moments, torsional ADK = deck area in m2 supported by the pillar
moments, shear forces and deflections due to loads caused by pt = design pressure p in kN/m2 giving tensile stress in
the sea and the deck cargo as given in Pt.5 Ch.2 Sec.6 C. the pillar.
E 300 Pillars in tanks Doubling plates at ends are not allowed.
301 Solid pillars shall be used. E 400 Strengthening against liquid impact pressure in
302 Where the hydrostatic pressure may give tensile stresses larger tanks
in the pillars, their sectional area shall not be less than: 401 If the deck forms boundary of larger ballast or cargo
A = 0.07 ADK pt (cm2) tanks with free sloshing length ls > 0.13 L and or breadth bs >
0.56 B, the deck structure shall have scantlings according to
Sec.9 E400 for impact loads referred to in Sec.4 C305.
SECTION 9
BULKHEAD STRUCTURES
A. General 202 The load point where the design pressure shall be calcu
lated is defined for various strength members as follows:
A 100 Introduction
— For plates: Midpoint of horizontally stiffened plate field.
101 The requirements in this section apply to bulkhead struc
tures. Half of the stiffener spacing above the lower support of
vertically stiffened plate field, or at lower edge of plate
102 The formulae given for plating, stiffeners and girders are when the thickness is changed within the plate field.
based on the structural design principles outlined in Sec.3 B. In — For stiffeners: Midpoint of span.
most cases, however, fixed values have been assumed for some
variable parameters such as: When the pressure is not varied linearly over the span, the
design pressure shall be taken as the greater of:
— aspect ratio correction factor for plating pa + pb
— bending moment factor m for stiffeners and girders. p m and 
2
Where relevant, actual values for these parameters may be
chosen and inserted in the formulae. Direct stress calculations pm, pa and pb are calculated pressures at the midpoint and at
based on said structural principles and as outlined in Sec.12 each end respectively.
will be considered as alternative basis for the scantlings. — For girders: Midpoint of load area.
A 200 Definitions 203 For corrugated bulkheads the following definition of
201 Symbols: spacing applies (see Fig.1):
L = rule length in m 1) S2
B = rule breadth in m 1)
D = rule depth in m 1) S3
T = rule draught in m 1)
CB = rule block coefficient 1)
L1 = L, but need not be taken greater than 300 m
t = rule thickness in mm of plating S1
Z = rule section modulus in cm3 of stiffeners and simple
girders
ka = correction factor for aspect ratio of plate field Fig. 1
Corrugated bulkhead
= (1.1 – 0.25 s/ l)2
= maximum 1.0 for s/ l = 0.4
= minimum 0.72 for s/ l = 1.0 s = s1 for section modulus calculations
s = stiffener spacing in m, measured along the plating. For = 1.05 s2 or 1.05 s3 for plate thickness calculations in
corrugations, see 203 general
l = stiffener span in m, measured along the topflange of = s2 or s3 for plate thickness calculation when 90 degrees
the member. For definition of span point, see Sec.3 corrugations.
C100. For curved stiffeners l may be taken as the cord
length A 300 Documentation
S = girder span in m. For definition of span point, see Sec.3
C100 301 Plans and particulars to be submitted for approval or in
zn = vertical distance in m from the baseline or deckline to formation are specified in Sec.1.
the neutral axis of the hull girder, whichever is relevant A 400 Structural arrangement and details
za = vertical distance in m from the baseline or deckline to
the point in question below or above the neutral axis, 401 Number and location of transverse watertight bulkheads
respectively shall be in accordance with the requirements given in Sec.3.
f1 = material factor 402 The peak tanks shall have centre line wash bulkheads
= 1.0 for NVNS steel 2) when the breadth of the tank is greater than 2/3 of the moulded
= 1.08 for NV27 steel 2) breadth of the ship.
= 1.28 for NV32 steel 2) 403 Within 0.5 L amidships, in the areas 0.15 D above the
= 1.39 for NV36 steel 2) bottom and 0.15 D below the strength deck, the continuity of
= 1.47 for NV40 steel 2) bulkhead longitudinals shall be as required for bottom and
f 2b = stress factor below neutral axis of hull girder as defined deck longitudinals respectively.
in Sec.6 A200
f 2d = stress factor above neutral axis of hull girder as defined 404 Weld connections shall satisfy the general requirements
in Sec.8 A200 given in Sec.11.
wk = section modulus corrosion factor in tanks, see Sec.3 405 For end connections of stiffeners and girders, see Sec.3
C1004 C.
= 1.0 in other compartments 406 Stern tubes shall be enclosed in a watertight space (or
σ = nominal allowable bending stress in N/mm2 due to lat spaces) of moderate volume. In case the stern tube terminates
eral pressure at an afterpeak bulkhead also being a machinery space bulk
p = design pressure in kN/m2 as given in B. head, a pressurized stern tube sealing system may be accepted
1) For details see Sec.1 B . as an alternative to the watertight enclosure.
2) For details see Sec.2 B and C . (SOLAS Ch. II1/11.9)
B. Design Loads tures are given in Table B1, based upon the general loads given
in Sec.4. In connection with the various local structures refer
B 100 Local loads on bulkhead structures ence is made to this table, indicating the relevant loads in each
101 All generally applicable local loads on bulkhead struc case.
p4 = 0.67 (ρ g0 hp + ∆ pdyn)
Tank bulkheads in general
p5 = ρ g0 hs + p0
In tanks with
Longitudinal bulk breadth p 6 = ρ g 0 [ 0, 67 ( h s + φ b ) – 0, 12 H φ bt ]
heads as well as > 0.4 B
transverse bulkheads
at sides in wide tanks B
Note 1) p
7
= ρ 3 –  b
100 b
Ballast, bunker or
In tanks with liquid cargo
Transverse bulkheads length > 0.15 L p 8 = ρ g 0 [ 0, 67 ( h s + θ l ) – 0, 12 H θ lt ]
and longitudinal
bulkheads at ends
in long tanks L
p = ρ 4 –  l
Note 2) 9 200 b
B
Longitudinal wash bulkheads p 7 = ρ 3 –  b b
100
L
Transverse wash bulkheads p = ρ 4 –  l
9 200 b
1) To be used for strength members located less than 0.25 bb away from tank sides in tanks with no restrictions on their filling height. For tanks with free
breadth (no longitudinal wash bulkheads) bb > 0.56 B the design pressure will be specially considered according to Sec.4 C305.
2) To be used for strength members located less than 0.25 lb away from tank ends in tanks with no restrictions on their filling height. For tanks with free
length (no transverse wash bulkheads or transverse web frames in narrow tanks) lb > 0.13 L the design pressure will be specially considered according to
Sec.4 C305.
hb = vertical distance in metres from the load point to the hatch coaming is in line with or close to the panel
deepest equilibrium waterline in damaged condition considered.
obtained from applicable damage stability calcula In dry cargo 'tweendecks, hc may be taken to the
tions. The deepest equilibrium waterline in dam nearest deck above
aged condition should be indicated on the drawing hp = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top
of the bulkhead in question. of air pipe
The vertical distance shall not be less than up to the ∆ pdyn = as given in Sec.4 C300
margin line (a line drawn at least 76 mm below the H = height in m of tank
upper surface of the bulkhead at side) p0 = 25 in general
av = vertical acceleration in m/s2 as given in Sec.4 B600 = 15 in ballast holds in dry cargo vessels
ρc = dry cargo density in t/m3 if not otherwise specified = tank pressure valve opening pressure when exceed
to be taken as 0.7 ing the general value
ρ = density of ballast, bunker or liquid cargo in t/m3, b = the largest athwartship distance in m from the load
normally not to be taken less than 1.025 (i.e. ρ g 0 ≈ point to the tank corner at the top of tank/ hold most
10) distant from the load point
K = sin2 α tan 2 (45 – 0.5 δ) + cos2 α bt = breadth in m of top of tank/hold
= cos α minimum l = the largest longitudinal distance in m from the load
α = angle between panel in question and the horizontal point to the tank corner at top of tank most distant
plane in degrees from the load point
δ = angle of repose of cargo in degrees, not to be taken lt = length in m of top of tank
greater than 20 degrees for light bulk cargo (coal, φ = roll angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B400
grain) and not greater than 35 degrees for heavy θ = pitch angle in radians as given in Sec.4 B500
bulk cargo (ore) bb = distance in m between tank sides or effective longi
hs = vertical distance in m from the load point to the top tudinal wash bulkhead at the height at which the
of tank or hatchway excluding smaller hatchways strength member is located
hc = vertical distance in m from the load point to the lb = distance in m between transverse tank bulkheads or
highest point of the hold including hatchway in gen effective transverse wash bulkheads at the height at
eral. For sloping and vertical sides and bulkheads, which the strength member is located. Transverse
hc may be measured to deck level only, unless the webframes covering part of the tank cross section
(e.g. wing tank structures in tankers) may be regard η = 0.80 for cargo tank bulkheads, cargo hold bulkheads
ed as wash bulkheads. when exposed to dry cargo or ballast pressure, and col
lision bulkheads
= 1.0 for watertight bulkheads.
C. Plating and Stiffeners 106 For plates in afterpeak bulkhead in way of sterntube, in
creased thickness or doubling may be required.
C 100 Bulkhead plating 107 For wash bulkhead plating, requirement for thicknesses
101 The thickness requirement corresponding to lateral pres may have to be based on the reaction forces imposed on the
sure is given by: bulkhead by boundary structures.
15.8k a s p C 200 Longitudinals
t =  + t k (mm) 201 The section modulus requirement for stiffeners and cor
σ
rugations is given by:
p = p1 – p9, whichever is relevant, as given in Table B1 2
σ = 160 f1 for longitudinally stiffened longitudinal bulk 83 l s p w k 3 3
head plating at neutral axis irrespective of ship length Z =  (cm ), minimum 15 cm
σ
= 140 f1 for transversely stiffened longitudinal bulkhead
plating at neutral axis within 0.4 L amidships, may p = p1 – p9, whichever is relevant, as given in Table B1
however be taken as 160 f1 when p6 or p7 are used.
zn – za
Above and below the neutral axis the σvalues shall be σ = 225f 1 – 130f 2  , maximum 160 f 1
reduced linearly to the values for the deck and bottom zn
plating, assuming the same stiffening direction and within 0.4 L amidships
material factor as for the plating considered = 160 f1 within 0.1 L from perpendiculars.
= 160 f1 for longitudinal bulkheads outside 0.05 L from
F.P. and 0.1 L from A.P. and for transverse bulkheads Between specified regions the σvalue may be varied linearly.
in general For longitudinals σ = 160 f1 may be used in any case in com
= 220 f1 for watertight bulkheads except the collision bination with heeled condition pressures p6 to p7 and with
bulkhead, when p1 is applied. sloshing pressure p9.
Between specified regions the σvalue may be varied linearly. The allowable stress may be increased by 60 f1 for watertight
bulkheads, except the collision bulkhead, when p1 is applied.
In corrugated bulkheads formed by welded plate strips, the
thickness in flange and web plates may be differing. f2 = stress factor f2b as given in Sec.6 A200 below the neu
The thickness requirement then is given by the following mod tral axis
ified formula: = stress factor f2d as given in Sec.8 A200 above the neu
tral axis.
2
p – t n + t k
500 s 2 202 The web and flange thickness shall not be less than the
t = (mm)
σ larger of:
tn = thickness in mm of neighbouring plate (flange or web), k
not to be taken greater than t. t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm)
f1
102 The thickness shall not be less than:
k L1 h
t = 5.0 +  + t k (mm) =  + t k
g
f1
k = 0.01 L1 in general
k = 0.03 for longitudinal bulkheads except double skin = 0.02 L1 (= 5.0 maximum) in peak tanks and in cargo oil
bulkheads in way of cargo oil tanks and ballast tanks in tanks and ballast tanks in cargo area
liquid cargo tank areas h = profile height in mm
= 0.02 in peak tanks and for transverse and double skin g = 70 for flanged profile webs
longitudinal bulkheads in way of cargo oil tanks and = 20 for flat bar profiles.
ballast tanks in liquid cargo tank areas
= 0.01 for other bulkheads. 203 Longitudinals supported by vertical girders subject to
relatively large deflections shall be checked by a direct
103 The thickness of longitudinal bulkhead plating is also to strength calculation, see Sec.12 C. Increased bending stresses
satisfy the buckling strength requirements given in Sec.13, tak at transverse bulkheads shall be evaluated and may be ab
ing into account combined shear and in plane compressive sorbed by increased end brackets.
stresses where relevant.
204 The buckling strength of longitudinals shall be checked
104 In longitudinal bulkheads within the cargo area the according to Sec.13.
thickness shall not be less than:
C 300 Vertical and transverse stiffeners on tank, wash,
1000s dry bulk cargo, collision and watertight bulkheads
t =  + t k (mm)
120 – 3 L 1 301 Transverse bulkheads for ballast and bulk cargo holds
are normally built with strength members only in the vertical
105 The buckling strength of corrugation flanges at the mid direction (corrugations or double plane bulkheads), having un
dle length of corrugations shall be controlled according to supported spans from deck to inner bottom. In larger ships,
Sec.13, taking kl in Sec.13 B201 equal to 5. stool tanks are often arranged at the lower and upper end of the
Usage factors to be applied: bulkhead. The scantlings of such bulkheads are normally to be
The web area at the middle of the span shall not be less than sure as given in Sec.4 C305.
0.5 A. 402 Plating subjected to impact pressure pi. The thickness
D 300 Complex girder systems shall not be less than:
301 In addition to fulfilling the general local requirements 0.9 k a s p i
given in 100, the main scantlings of bulkhead girders being t =  + t k (mm)
parts of complex girder systems in holds or tanks for heavy f1
cargo or liquids, may have to be based on a direct stress anal
ysis as outlined in Sec.12. 403 Stiffeners supporting plating subjected to impact pres
sure pi. The section modulus shall not be taken less than:
0.5 l l p s p i k p w k 3
Z =  (cm )
E. Special Requirements f1
E 100 Shaft tunnels The shear area at each end shall not be less than:
101 In ships with engine room situated amidships, a water 0.05 l ( l p – s ) s p i k p
tight shaft tunnel shall be arranged. Openings in the forward 2
A S =  + 10 h t k (cm )
end of shaft tunnels shall be fitted with watertight sliding doors lp f1
capable of being operated from a position above the load wa
terline.
lp = loaded length of stiffener, maximum l, but need not be
102 The thickness of curved top plating may be taken as 90% taken greater than 0.1 ls or 0.1 bs, respectively, for lon
of the requirement to plane plating with the same stiffener gitudinal or transverse impact pressure
spacing. kp = correction factor for resulting impact pressure
103 If ceiling is not fitted on top plating under dry cargo
hatchway openings, the thickness shall be increased by 2 mm. l
= 1.1 – 10  , minimum 0.35.
104 The shaft tunnel may be omitted in ships with service re l′ s
striction notation R2, R3 and R4 provided the shafting is oth l 's = ls or bs as defined in Sec.4 C306
erwise effectively protected. Bearings and stuffing boxes shall h = height in m of stiffener.
be accessible.
If the impact pressure is acting on the stiffener side, the stiff
E 200 Corrugated bulkheads ener web thickness shall not be less than:
201 The lower and upper ends of corrugated bulkheads and s pi
those boundaries of vertically corrugated bulkheads connected t = 5 +  + t k (mm)
to ship sides and other bulkheads shall have plane parts of suf 100f 1
ficient width to support the adjoining structures.
The throat thickness of continuous fillet welding of the stiffen
202 Girders on corrugated bulkheads are normally to be ar er to the plating when impact pressure is acting on the stiffener
ranged in such a way that application of the bulkhead as girder side shall not be less than:
flange is avoided.
203 End connections for corrugated bulkheads terminating s pi tk
at deck or bottom shall be carefully designed. Supporting t =  +  (mm)
120 2
structure in line with corrugation flanges shall be arranged be
low an inner bottom. A proper fit up between stiffener and plating is assumed.
The net connection area of continuous stiffeners at girders
E 300 Supporting bulkheads shall satisfy the following expression:
301 Bulkheads supporting decks shall be regarded as pillars. 1.7 AF + AW = 2 AS
The compressive loads and buckling strength shall be calculat
ed as indicated in Sec.13 assuming: AF = connection area at flange in cm2
AW = connection area at web in cm2.
i = radius of gyration in cm of stiffener with adjoining
plate. Width of adjoining plate shall be taken as 40 t, 404 Girders supporting stiffeners subjected to impact pres
where t = plate thickness sure pi.
Local buckling strength of adjoining plate and torsional buck The section modulus shall not be less than:
ling strength of stiffeners shall be checked
0.5 S S p b p i k p w k 3
302 Section modulus requirement to stiffeners: Z =  (cm )
f1
Z = 2 l2 s (cm3)
303 The distance between stiffeners shall not be greater than The shear area at each end shall not be taken less than:
2 frame spacings, and shall not exceed 1.5 m. 0.05 S b p i k p 2
304 The plate thickness shall not be less than 7.5 mm in the A S =  + 10 h t k (cm )
f1
lowest hold and 6.5 mm in 'tween decks.
305 On corrugated bulkheads, the depth of the corrugations Sp = loaded length of girder, maximum S, but need not be
shall not be less than 150 mm in the lower holds and 100 mm taken greater than 0.1 ls or 0.1 bs, respectively, for lon
in the upper 'tween deck. gitudinal or transverse impact pressure
E 400 Strengthening against liquid impact pressure in kp = correction factor for impact pressure
larger tanks b
401 Tanks with free sloshing length ls > 0.13 L and or = 1.1 – 10  , minimum 0.25 for horizontals
l′ s
breadth bs > 0.56 Bpi shall be strengthened for the impact pres
Sp
= 1.1 – 10  , minimum 0.25 for verticals
l′ s s pi tk
t =  +  (mm)
l 's = l s or bs as defined in Sec.4 C306 120 2
h = height in m of girder web
b = loading breadth of girder in m. A proper fit up between stiffener and plating is assumed.
The spacing of stiffeners on the web plate for girders in the
The web thickness is in no case to be less than: tank where impact pressure occurs shall not be taken greater
0.2 p i than:
t = 6.5 +  + t k (mm)
f1 1.2 ( t – t k )
s =  (m)
The throat thickness of continuous fillet welding of girder pi
webs to the plating subjected to impact pressure is acting on
the girder web side shall not be less than: pi = impact pressure at panel near girder.
SECTION 10
SUPERSTRUCTURE ENDS, DECKHOUSE SIDES AND ENDS, BULWARKS
not be greater than 6.0 mm. openings. Openings in bulwarks should not be situated near the
For intermediate heights, the thickness of the bulwark may be end of superstructures.
found by interpolation.
D 400 Aluminium deckhouses
302 A strong bulb section or similar shall be continuously
welded to the upper edge of the bulwark. Bulwark stays shall 401 The strength of aluminium deckhouses shall be related
be spaced not more than 2 m apart, and shall be in line with to that required for steel deckhouses, see below.
transverse beams or local transverse stiffening, alternatively The scantlings shall be based on the mechanical properties of
the toe of stay may be supported by a longitudinal member. the applied alloy. See Sec.2 C.
The stays shall have sufficient width at deck level. The deck
beam shall be continuously welded to the deck in way of the 402 The minimum thicknesses given in 102 and 201 shall be
stay. Bulwarks on forecastle decks shall have stays fitted at increased by 1 mm.
every frame where the flare is considerable. 403 For the section moduli requirements given in 100 and
Stays of increased strength shall be fitted at ends of bulwark 200, f1 need not be taken less than 0.6.
SECTION 11
WELDING AND WELD CONNECTIONS
A. General
A 100 Introduction
A : L A P J O IN T
101 In this section requirements related to welding and vari
ous connection details are given.
d
A 200 Definitions
201 Symbols:
B: SLO T W ELD
t > 6 mm
Fig. 1
Manually welded butt joint edges θ
For fillet weld with opening angle θ (see Fig.3.) less than 75 Chain and staggered welds may be used in dry spaces and
deg., the net requirement in C103, C202 and C302 shall be in tanks arranged for fuel oil only.
creased by a factor 2 cos ( θ ⁄ 2 ) . When chain and staggered welds are used on continuous mem
Where the connection is highly stressed or otherwise consid bers penetrating oil and watertight boundaries, the weld termi
ered critical, the edge of the abutting plate may have to be bev nation towards the tank boundary shall be closed by a scallop,
elled to give partial or full penetration welding, see also 304. see Fig.5.
For penetration welds, root face r and throat thickness tw are
defined as shown in Fig.3. In case of partial penetration weld
ing with an abutting plate bevelled only at one side, the fillet
weld at opposite side should not be less than 80% of that re
quired for a double continuos fillet weld according to C103 and
C202.
Where the connection is moderately stressed, intermittent
welds may be used. With reference to Fig.4, the various types
of intermittent welds are as follows:
— chain weld
— staggered weld
— scallop weld (closed).
For size of welds, see C500.
Fig. 5
Weld termination towards tank boundary
lw
d
304 Full penetration welds are in any case tobe used in the
C H A IN W E L D following connections:
M IN . h 2
FULL PENETRATION
D O U B L E C O N T IN O U S W E L D b > 300 mm
BUTT WELD
h2
E x te n t o f d o u b le c o n tin u o u s w e ld s a t e n d
c o n n e c tio n s o f s tiffe n e rs w h e n o th e rw is e b
c o n n e c te d th ro u g h in te rm itte n t w e ld in g
Fig. 4
Intermittent welds
Fig. 6
Deck and bottom penetrations
302 Double continuous welds are required in the following
connections irrespective of the stress level:
— weathertight, watertight and oiltight connections C. Size of Weld Connections
— connections in foundations and supporting structures for
machinery C 100 Continuous fillet welds, general
— all connections in after peak
— connections in rudders, except where access difficulties 101 Unless otherwise stated, it is assumed that the welding
necessitate slot welds consumables used will give weld deposit with yield strength
— connections at supports and ends of stiffeners, pillars, σfw as follows:
cross ties and girders
— centre line girder to keel plate. σ fw = 355 N/mm2 for welding of normal strength steel
= 375 N/mm2 for welding of the high strength steels NV
303 Where intermittent welds are accepted, scallop welds 27, NV32 and NV36
shall be used in tanks for water ballast, cargo oil or fresh water. = 390 N/mm2 for welding of high strength steel NV40.
If welding consumables with deposits of lower yield strength Watertight centre line girder to bottom plating
than specified above are used, the σfwvalue shall be stated on and inner bottom plating
the drawings submitted for approval. The yield strength of the
weld deposit is in no case to be less than required in Pt.2 Ch.3. Boundary connection of ballast tanks and liq
uid cargo tanks
102 When deep penetrating welding processes are applied,
the required throat thicknesses may be reduced by 15% of that 0.52
Hatch coamings at corners and transverse
required in C103 provided sufficient weld penetration is dem hatch end brackets to deck.
onstrated.
Guidance note: Strength deck plating to shell
An electrode is considered to be of deep penetration type when Scuppers and discharges to deck
the penetration is at least 4 mm when welding a fillet weld with
a maximum gap of 0,25 mm. The electrode shall be type ap Fillet welds subject to compressive stresses 0.25
proved as a deep penetration electrode. only
All other welds not specified above or in 200
endofGuidancenote to 400, e.g. boundary connection of watertight 0.43
compartments and fuel oil tanks
103 The throat thickness of double continuous fillet welds
1) Welding of longitudinals of flatbar type may normally be according to
shall not be less than: 104.
Typical design values for C1 are given in Table C3. (pressure ratio less than 0.3 or greater than 3.3)
= 1.0 for stiffeners with loading from two sides
Table C3 Values of C1 f1 = material factor of abutting plate as defined in Sec.2
C1 B203
Plate Fillet weld: Partial penetration weld l = distance between girder web plates in m
material σ s = spacing between stiffeners in m
r = to with root face:
r = to/3 p = design pressure in kN/m2.
NS 160 0.54 0.31
NV32 205 0.68 0.35 Corrosion addition as specified in Sec.2 D200 is not included
NV36 222 0.74 0.37 in the formulae for ao, and shall be added where relevant.
Weld area shall not be less than:
C 300 End connections of girders, pillars and cross ties
301 The weld connection area of bracket to adjoining girders 1.15a 0 f 1 2
or other structural parts shall be based on the calculated normal a =  + a k (cm )
fw
and shear stresses. Double continuous welding shall be used.
Where large tensile stresses are expected, welding according to ak = corrosion addition corresponding to tk
200 shall be applied. fw = as given in 103.
The section modulus of the weld area at the end connection of
simple girders shall satisfy the requirement for section modu Table C4 Values of c
lus given for the girder in question. Type of Stiffener/bracket on top of stiffener
302 Where high shear stresses in web plates, double contin connection Single Double
(see figure) None
uous boundary fillet welds shall have throat thickness not less sided sided
than: a 1.00 1.25 1.00
t0 τ b 0.90 1.15 0.90
t w =  + 0.5t k (mm) c 0.80 1.00 0.80
2τ w
303 End connection of pillars and cross ties shall have a weld b
area not less than:
kP 2
a =  + a k (cm ) LUG
fw S T IF F E N E R O R
BRACKET
P = axial load in pillar of cross tie (kN)
ak = corrosion addition corresponding to tk c
fw = as given in 103
k = 0.05 when pillar in compression only
= 0.14 when pillar in tension.
C 400 End connections of stiffeners
401 Stiffeners may be connected to the web plate of girders
in the following ways: Fig. 7
End connections
— welded directly to the web plate on one or both sides of the
frame
— connected by single or doublesided lugs 403 Various standard types of connections are shown in
— with stiffener or bracket welded on top of frame Fig.7.
— a combination of the above.
Other types of connection will be considered in each case.
In locations with great shear stresses in the web plate, a double Guidance note:
sided connection or a stiffening of the unconnected web plate In ballast and cargo tanks the connection types b or c should be
edge is normally required. A doublesided connection may be used for longitudinals on ship sides, unless doublesided brackets
taken into account when calculating the effective web area. are arranged, see also Sec.7 E400.
402 The connection area at supports of stiffeners is normally endofGuidancenote
not to be less than:
ao = c k (l – 0.5 s) s p (cm2) 404 Connection lugs shall have a thickness not less than 75%
of the web plate thickness.
c = factor as given in Table C4 405 Lower ends of peak frames shall be connected to the
k = r1 r2 floors by a weld area not less than:
r1 = 0.125 when pressure acting on stiffener side
= 0.1 when pressure acting on opposite side a = 0.105 l s p + ak (cm2)
r2 = 1.0/f1 for stiffeners with mainly loading from one side l, s, p and ak = as given in 402.
SECTION 12
DIRECT STRENGTH CALCULATIONS
A. General and that the model complies with the actual structure. The doc
umentation of the structure may be given as references to
A 100 Introduction drawings with their drawing numbers, names and revision
101 In the preceding sections the scantlings of various pri numbers. Deviations in the model compared with the actual
mary and secondary hull structures have been given explicitly, geometry according to these drawings shall be documented.
based on design principles outlined in Sec.3 B. In some cases 303 The modelled geometry, material parameters, plate
direct strength or stress calculations have been referred to in thickness, beam properties, boundary conditions and loads
the text. shall be documented preferably as an extract directly from the
This section describes loads, acceptance criteria and required generated model.
documentation of direct strength calculations. Loading condi 304 Reaction forces and displacements shall be presented to
tions and specific scope of analysis are given in Pt.5 for the dif the extent necessary to verify the load cases considered.
ferent class notations. Instructions related to model and model
extent for such analysis are described in detail in classification 305 The documentation of results shall contain all relevant
notes for the considered type of vessel. results such as:
105 For structures as decks, bulkheads, hatch covers, ramps y = transverse distance in m from centre line
etc., a direct calculation may generally be undertaken as a ϕ = as given in Sec.4 B.
frame and girder analysis as described in E, supplemented by
local structure analyses as described in F, if necessary. 309 The liquid pressure in tanks in the upright condition is
normally to be taken as given in Sec.4 C300 (5).
106 Corrosion additions, tk, shall be deducted from the ma
terial thickness. 310 In heeled condition, the liquid pressure in tanks, p, shall
be taken as:
107 Areas representing girder flanges shall be adjusted for
effective width in accordance with Sec.3 C400. 2
p = g 0 ρ ( h s + 0.5 φ b – 0.1 ϕ Hb t ) (kN/m )
108 The element mesh fineness and element types used in fi
nite element models shall be sufficient to allow the model to ρ = liquid density in t/m3
represent the deformation pattern of the actual structure with hs = height in m from load point to top of hold (including
respect to matters such as: hatch coaming) or tank with the vessel on even keel
— effective flange (shear lag) b = athwartships distance in m with the vessel on even keel
— bending deformation of beam structures from load point to the point which represents the top of
— threedimensional response of curved regions. the tank when the ship is heeled to an angle of 0.5 ϕ
H = height of hold (including hatch coaming) or tank in m
Acceptable calculation methods, including mesh fineness in fi with the vessel on even keel
nite element models are given in relevant classification notes. bt = breadth of top of tank or hold in meter with the vessel
The acceptance criteria given in 400 are closely related to the on even keel
procedures given in the classification notes. ϕ = as given in Sec.4 B.
B 200 Computer program 311 Pressures and forces from cargo and heavy units are gen
erally to be taken as given in Sec.4, C400 and C500. The pres
201 The calculations specified in the requirements shall be sure from dry bulk cargoes is, however, generally to be taken
carried out by computer programs supplied by, or recognised as:
by the Society. Programs applied where reliable results have
been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Society are regard p = ρ (g0 + 0.5 av) K hc (kN/m2)
ed as recognised programs.
K = sin2 α tan2 (45 – 0.5 δ ) + cos2 α
B 300 Loading conditions and load application
ρ = stowage rate of cargo in t/m3
301 The calculations shall be based on the most severe real α = angle between panel in question and the horizontal
istic loading conditions with the ship: plane in degrees
av = as given in Sec.4 B, generally
— fully loaded = 0 in static loading conditions
— partly loaded δ = angle of repose of cargo in degrees
— ballasted hc = vertical distance in m from the load point to the hold
— during loading/discharging. boundary above, in general. When a partly filled hold
is considered, the hc shall be measured to the cargo sur
302 General design loads are given in Sec.4 and design loads face, taking due consideration of the untrimmed coni
for specific structures are given in Sec.6 and Ch.3 Sec.8. cal shape of the cargo volume within the hold
303 Local dynamic loads shall be taken at a probability of = as given in Sec.9 B100 for cargo bulkhead structures.
exceedance of 104, when used together with acceptance crite
ria as given in 400. For watertight bulkheads between cargo holds, the pressure
load, p, shall be taken as given in Sec.9 B100.
304 For seagoing conditions realistic combinations of exter
nal and internal dynamic loads shall be considered. 312 The mass of deck structures is generally to be included
when greater than 5% of the applied loads. Vertical accelera
305 For harbour conditions, only static loads need to be con tion shall be included when relevant.
sidered. Harbour conditions with asymmetric loading are rele
vant to the extent that they do not result in unrealistic heeling. B 400 Acceptance criteria
306 External sea pressures in the upright seagoing condition 401 The expressions related to nominal stress components
shall be taken in accordance with Sec.4 C200 with h0 defined are defined as follows:
as follows.
Hull girder stresses consist of nominal normal and shear
h0 = vertical distance in m from the waterline considered to stresses. Hull girder normal stresses are those stresses resulting
the loadpoint. from hullgirder bending and may generally be determined by
a simple beam method, disregarding shear lag and effects of
307 In harbour conditions, the external sea pressure, p shall small deck openings etc. Hull girder shear stresses are those
be taken as: shear stresses caused by the unbalanced forces in the vertical,
p = 10 h0 (kN/m2) horizontal and longitudinal directions along the vessel, that are
transferred to the hull girder with the vessel in an equilibrium
308 The external sea pressures, p, in heeled conditions are condition. The hull girder may be defined as effective longitu
normally to be taken as: dinal material such as bottom, inner bottom, decks, side and
longitudinal bulkheads.
p = 10 (Ta– z) + 6.7 y tan (ϕ/2) (kN/m2)
Transverse or longitudinal bottom, side, bulkhead or deck
on submerged side girder nominal stresses consist of normal and shear stresses.
p = 10 (Ta– z) – 10 y tan (ϕ/2) (kN/m2) These stresses shall be determined by performing a 3dimen
on emerged side sional finite element analysis or a beam analysis. Transverse or
= 0 minimum. longitudinal bottom, side, bulkhead or deck girder normal
stresses are those stresses resulting from bending of large stiff
Ta = actual considered draught in m ened panels between longitudinal and transverse bulkheads
z = vertical distance in m from base line due to local loads in a cargo hold or tank. The nominal normal
stresses of girders shall include the effect of shear lag and ef
fectivity of curved and unsymmetrical flanges. Transverse or 85 b f 2
longitudinal bottom, side, bulkhead or deck girder shear σ = 1 (N/mm )
stresses are those stresses caused by an unbalanced force with B
in a tank or a hold and carried in girders as mentioned, to the b = breadth of double bottom in m between supporting side
girder supports. The nominal shear stress of girders is general and or bulkheads.
ly defined as the mean shear stress of the effective shear carry
ing areas of the girder web. Higher local normal stresses than given above may be accepted
Stiffener nominal stresses are those stresses resulting from lo provided the combined stress including hull girder stress and
cal bending of longitudinals between supporting members, i.e. longitudinal bottom girder stress, as given in Table B1 and
floors and girders web frames etc. The stresses include those 402, are complied with.
due to local load on the stiffener and those due to relative de 408 The allowable stresses given in Table B1 assume that
flections of the supporting ends. The stiffener stress may be re appropriate considerations and conditions are taken with re
garded as a nominal bending stress without consideration of spect to the model definition and result analysis. In particular
effective width of flanges and warping of unsymmetrical stiff the following should be noted:
eners.
1) Calculated stresses based on constant stress elements may
402 The final thickness of the considered structure shall not have to be considered with respect to the stress variation
be less than the minimum thickness given in Sec.6 and Ch.3 within each element length.
Sec.8, regardless of the acceptance criteria presented in the fol
lowing. 2) The allowable nominal stresses, given in Table B1, do not
refer to local stress concentrations in the structure or to lo
403 The equivalent stress σe, taken as the local bending cal modelling deficiencies in finite element models. The
stresses combined with in plane stresses, in the middle of a lo allowable stresses do neither refer to areas where the mod
cal plate field shall not exceed 245 f1 N/mm2. The local bend el is not able to describe the structure's response properly
ing in the middle of the plate field shall not exceed 160 f1 N/ due to geometrical simplifications or insufficiencies of the
mm2. σe is defined in 409. element representation.
404 The allowable nominal stresses may be taken as given in 3) The allowable shear stresses given in Table B1 may be
Table B1. Buckling strength with usage factors as given in used directly to assess shear stresses in girder webs clear
Sec.13 is generally to be complied with. of openings not represented in the model. In way of areas
with openings, the nominal shear stress is normally to be
405 The allowable nominal girder stresses in a flooded con derived as given in Sec.3 C500, based on the integrated
dition may be taken as 220 f1 for normal stresses and 120 f1 for shear force over the girder web height.
shear stresses.
4) Equivalent stresses for girder webs of longitudinal struc
406 The longitudinal combined stress taken as the sum of tures shall not be considered in relation to the allowable
hull girder and longitudinal bottom, side or deck girder bend limits given in Table B1, unless global forces and mo
ing stresses, is normally not to exceed 190 f1 N/mm2. The hull ments are applied.
girder stresses may in general be calculated as given in Sec.5 5) Peak stresses obtained by fine mesh finite element calcu
C300, applying relevant combinations of hogging and sagging lations may exceed the values stated above in local areas
stresses, and with wave bending moments taken as given in close to stress concentration points. The allowable peak
Sec.5 B204. stress is subject to special consideration in each case.
407 During preliminary strength calculations of longitudinal
stiffeners in double bottom the values of longitudinal bottom 409 The equivalent stress is defined as follows:
girder stresses may normally be taken as follows:
2 2 2
Normal stress, light bulk cargoes: σe = σx + σy – σx σy + 3 τ
σ = 20 f1 (N/mm2)
σx = nominal normal stress in xdirection
Normal stress, ballast condition: σy = nominal normal stress in ydirection
σ = 50 f1 (N/mm2) τ = shear stress in the xyplane.
Normal stress, liquid cargo condition:
stresses
Longitudinal Seagoing X1) X 190 f1 90 f1 100 f1
girders Harbour X1) X 190 f1 100 f1 110 f1
Transverse and Seagoing X 160 f1 90 f1 100 f1 180 f1
vertical girders Harbour X 180 f1 100 f1 110 f1 200 f1
Seagoing (X) (X) 200 f12)
Girder brackets
Harbour (X) (X) 220 f12)
Seagoing and X 160 f1
harbour
Longitudinal Seagoing and X X 180 f1 90 f1
stiffeners harbour
Seagoing and X1) X X 245 f1
harbour
Transverse and Seagoing and (X) (X) X 180 f1
vertical stiffeners harbour
Seagoing and
Stiffener brackets (X) (X) X 225 f1
harbour
X Stress component to be included
(X) Stress component to be included when relevant
1) Includes the hull girder stresses at a probability of exceedance of 104, see 406.
2) Shows allowable stress in the middle of the the bracket's free edge. For brackets of unproven design, additional stress analysis in way of stress concetration
areas may be required. Reference is made to acceptance criteria for local structure analysis, F300.
— stresses in girders and stringers on transverse bulkheads ry assumptions, deformations or forces. Prescribed boundary
— relative deflections of deep supporting members as floors, deformations may be taken from a cargo hold or tank analysis
frames and girders. as described in subsection D.
Guidance note: E 200 Loading conditions and load application
Shear stresses of plate flanges of the mentioned girders forming 201 Selection of design loading conditions and application
ships' sides or longitudinal bulkheads should not be taken from
the model unless special boundary conditions are applied to rep of local loads are given in B300.
resent the global shear forces correctly.
E 300 Acceptance criteria
endofGuidancenote
301 For the main girder system, nominal and local stresses
Hull girder normal stresses and hull girder shear stresses shall derived from a frame and girder analysis shall be checked ac
not be considered directly from the analysis unless special cording to the acceptance criteria given in B400.
boundary conditions and loads are applied to represent the hull 302 In way of local stress concentrations, and at local struc
girder shear forces and hull girder bending moments correctly. tural details where the finite element model does not represent
102 A cargo hold or tank analysis, carried out for the midship the local response sufficiently, the structure may for proven
region, will normally be considered applicable also outside of design details be accepted based on the nominal stress re
the midship region. However, special direct calculations of sponse of the adjacent structures.
girder structures outside of the midship region may be required
if the structure or loads are substantially different from that of
the midship region.
F. Local Structure Analysis
D 200 Loading conditions and load application
F 100 General
201 Selection of design loading conditions and application
of local loads are given in B300. 101 A local structure analysis may be used to analyse nomi
nal stresses in laterally loaded local stiffeners and their con
D 300 Acceptance criteria nected brackets, subject to relative deformation between
supports. The model and the analysis shall be designed and
301 For the main girder system, nominal and local stresses performed in a suitable way for obtaining results as listed be
derived from a cargo hold or tank analyses shall be checked ac low:
cording to the acceptance criteria given in B400.
— nominal stresses in stiffeners
— stresses in brackets' free edge.
E. Frame and Girder Analysis Acceptable methods are described in detail in classification
notes related to the considered type of vessel.
E 100 General
102 The analysis may be included as a part of a larger 3di
101 A frame and girder analysis may be used to analyse mensional analysis, or run separately with prescribed bounda
stresses and deformations in the framing and girder systems ry assumptions, deformations or forces. Prescribed boundary
within or outside of the midship region. The model and the deformations may be taken from a cargo hold or tank analysis
analysis shall be designed and performed in a suitable way for as described in D.
obtaining results as listed below. Acceptable methods are de
scribed in detail in classification notes related to the considered F 200 Loading conditions and load application
type of vessel.
201 Selection of design loading conditions and application
— stresses in longitudinal bottom, side and deck girders of local loads are given in B300.
(when relevant) 202 The most severe loading condition among those relevant
— stresses in transverse bottom, side and deck girders (when for the cargo hold or tank analysis or the frame and girder anal
relevant) ysis, shall be applied for the structure in question.
— stresses in girders and stringers on transverse bulkheads
(when relevant) 203 If the local structure analysis is run separately, pre
— stresses in brackets in connection with longitudinal, trans scribed boundary deformations or forces, taken from the cargo
verse or vertical girders located on bottom, side, deck or hold or tank analysis or the frame and girder analysis shall be
bulkhead structures. applied. Local loads acting on the structure shall be applied to
the model.
However, shear stresses in plate flanges of the mentioned gird
ers, forming ships' sides, inner sides or longitudinal bulkheads F 300 Acceptance criteria
shall not be taken from the model unless special boundary con 301 Allowable nominal stresses are in general given in
ditions are applied to represent the global shear forces correct B400, Table B1.
ly. 302 The equivalent nominal allowable stress for brackets
102 The analysis may be included as a part of a larger 3 di connected to longitudinal stiffeners may be taken as σe = 245
mensional analysis, or run separately with prescribed bounda f1, when longitudinal stresses are included.
SECTION 13
BUCKLING CONTROL
The above correction factors are not valid for negative ψvalues.
The critical buckling stress is found from 102.
202 For plate panels stiffened in direction of the compressive l a
stress and with circular cutouts, the ideal buckling stress σ el
shall be found by multiplying the factor kl with a reduction fac
tor r given as: r = b2
d
r = 1 – ( 0.5 + 0.25 ψ ) 
s b
ψ = factor given in 201, Fig.1
d = diameter of cutout, in m. Fig. 3
Stiffening perpendicular to compressive stress
With edge reinforcement of thickness t at least equal to plate
thickness to, factor r may be multiplied by:
205 The critical buckling stress calculated in 201 shall be re
h h lated to the actual compressive stresses as follows:
0.8 + 0.1  ,  ≤ 8
t0 t σ
σ c ≥ a
h = height of reinforcement, in mm. η
203 For plate panels stiffened in direction of the compressive σa = σa calculated compressive stress in plate panels. With
stress and with stadium formed cutouts (see Fig.2) the ideal linearly varying stress across the plate panel, shall be
buckling stress σ el shall be found by substituting the expres taken as the largest stress.
sion for factor kl in 201 with the following:
In plate panels subject to longitudinal stresses, σa is
0.58  ⎛ s– b ⎞ 2 b 2 given by:
k =  + 1 + 2.7 ⎛  ⎞
0.35 ψ + 1 ⎝ 2a ⎠ ⎝a⎠
(see Fig.2) M +M
S W 5 2
σ al = 
 ( z n – z a )10 (N/mm )
ψ = as given in 201. IN
= minimum 30 f1 N/mm2 at side
η = 1.0 for deck, single bottom and longitudinally stiffened
side plating
= 0.9 for bottom, inner bottom and transversely stiffened
r= b
2 side plating
s = 1.0 for local plate panels where an extreme load level
b is applied (e.g. impact pressures)
= 0.8 for local plate panels where a normal load level is
applied
a
MS = stillwater bending moment as given in Sec.5
MW = wave bending moment as given in Sec.5
l IN = moment of inertia in cm4 of the hull girder.
206 For ships with high speed and large flare in the forebody,
the requirement for critical buckling stress σc of the strength
deck as given in 205 shall be based on the following σvalue
forward of 0.3 L from F.P.:
x
σ al = σ l1 + σ l2 ⎛⎝ 1 –  ⎞⎠
2
(N/mm )
0.3L
MA = MS + MW Fig. 4
Buckling stress reduction factor
MS and MW as given in 205.
Appendix A shall not be applied for plate panels subject to the
combined effect of compression and shear.
B 300 Plate panel in shear
301 The ideal elastic buckling stress may be taken as:
t–t 2
τ el = 0.9 k t E ⎛⎝ k ⎞⎠
2
(N/mm )
1000s
s 2 l
kt = 5.34 + 4 ⎛  ⎞
⎝ l ⎠
The critical shear buckling stress is found from 103.
302 For plate panels with cutouts the ideal buckling stress
σ el shall be found by multiplying the factor kt with a reduction
factor r given as:
a) For circular cutouts with diameter d: s
d
r = 1 – 
s
With edge reinforcement of thickness t at least equal to the
plate thickness t0, factor r may be multiplied by:
h h
0.94 + 0.023  , ≤8
t0 t
h = height of reinforcement. s
Alternatively, with buckling stiffeners on both sides of
opening, factor r may be multiplied by 1.3
b) For rectangular openings the reduction factor may be
found from Fig.4. With edge reinforcement of thickness t
at least twice the plate thickness and height at least equal
to 8 t, the factor may be multiplied by 2.1. l
Alternatively, with buckling stiffeners along the longer
edges the factor may be multiplied by 1.4, with stiffeners Fig. 5
along the shorter edges by 1.5, see Fig.5. Buckling stiffeners
303 The critical shear stress calculated in 301 and 302 shall B 500 Plate panel in biaxial compression and shear
be related to the actual shear stresses as follows:
501 For plate panels subject to biaxial compression and in
τ addition to inplane shear stresses the interaction is given by:
τ c ≥ a
η σ σ σ σ n
ax
 ax ay
 + ⎛ 
 – K  ay
 ⎞ ≤1
η x σ cx q η x η y σ cx σ cy q ⎝ η y σ cy q ⎠
τa = calculated shear stress. In plate panels in ship's side
and longitudinal bulkheads the shear stresses are given σax, σay, σcx, σcy. ηx, ηy,K and n are as given in 401.
in Sec.5 D.
For local panels in girder webs with cutouts, τa shall τ 2
q = 1 – ⎛  ⎞
a
be taken as the stress in web plate without cutout ⎝ τc ⎠
η = 0.90 for ship's side and longitudinal bulkhead subject
to hull girder shear forces τa and τc are as given in 303.
= 0.85 for local panels in girder webs when nominal Only stress components acting simultaneously shall be insert
shear stresses are calculated (τa = Q/A) ed in the formula, see also 401.
= 0.90 for local panels in girder webs when shear stresses
are determined by finite element calculations or simi
lar.
An increase of the critical buckling strength may be necessary
C. Stiffeners and Pillars
in plate panels subject to combined inplane stresses, see 400 C 100 General
and 500.
101 Methods for calculating the critical buckling stress for
B 400 Plate panel in biaxial compression the various buckling modes of axially compressed stiffeners
401 For plate panels subject to biaxial compression the in and pillars are given below. Formulae for the ideal elastic
teraction between the longitudinal and transverse buckling buckling stress σ el are given. From this stress the critical buck
strength ratios is given by: ling stress σc may be determined as follows:
σ σ σ σ n σf
ax
 ax ay
 + ⎛ 
 – K  ay ⎞
 ≤1 σ c = σ el when σ el < 
η x σ cx η x η y σ cx σ cy ⎝ η y σ cy ⎠ 2
σ σ
= σ f ⎛ 1 –  ⎞ when σ el > 
f f
σ ax = compressive stress in longitudinal direction (per ⎝ 4 σ el ⎠ 2
pendicular to stiffener spacing s)
σ ay = compressive stress in transverse direction (perpen C 200 Lateral buckling mode
dicular to the longer side l of the plate panel)
σ cx = critical buckling stress in longitudinal direction as 201 For longitudinals subject to longitudinal hull girder
calculated in 200 compressive stresses, supporting bulkhead stiffeners, pillars,
σ cy = critical buckling stress in transverse direction as cal cross ties, panting beams etc., the ideal elastic lateral buckling
culated in 200 stress may be taken as:
ηx, ηy = 1.0 for plate panels where the longitudinal stress I 2
A
σ al (as given in 205) is incorporated in σax or σay σ el = 0.001 E  (N/mm )
2
= 0.85 in other cases Al
K = cβa
IA = moment of inertia in cm4 about the axis perpendicular
c and a are factors given in Table B1. to the expected direction of buckling
A = crosssectional area in cm2.
s σf
β = 1000   When calculating IA and A, a plate flange equal to 0.8 times
t – tk E
the spacing is included for stiffeners. For longitudinals sup
n = factor given in Table B1. porting plate panels where elastic buckling is allowed, the
plate flange shall not be taken greater than the effective width,
Table B1 Values for c, a, n see B207 and Appendix A.
c a n Where relevant tk shall be subtracted from flanges and web
1.0 < l/s < 1.5 0.78 minus 0.12 1.0 plates when calculating IA and A.
1.5 ≤ l/s < 8 0.80 0.04 1.2 The critical buckling stress is found from 101.
The formula given for σ el is based on hinged ends and axial
force only.
For plate panels in structures subject to longitudinal stresses,
such stresses shall be directly combined with local stresses to If, in special cases, it is verified that one end can be regarded
the extent they are acting simultaneously and for relevant load as fixed, the value of σ el may be multiplied by 2. If it is veri
conditions. Otherwise combinations based on statistics may be fied that both ends can be regarded as fixed, the value of σ el
applied. may be multiplied by 4.
In cases where the compressive stress σax or σay is based on an In case of eccentric force, additional end moments or addition
extreme loading condition (dynamic loads at probability level al lateral pressure, the strength member shall be reinforced to
108 or less) the corresponding critical buckling stress σcx or withstand bending stresses.
σcy may be substituted by σux or σuy according to Appendix A. 202 For longitudinals and other stiffeners the critical buck
This is only relevant in the elastic range ling stress calculated in 201 shall be related to the actual com
(σc based on σ el < 0.65 σf). pressive stress as follows:
σ
σ c ≥ a SHIP'S SIDE
η
σa = calculated compressive stress.
For longitudinals σa = σ al as given in B205. For ships GIRDER
with high speed and large flare, see also B206
η = 0.85.
B GIRDER
203 For pillars, cross ties and panting beams the critical
buckling stress as calculated in 201 shall not be less than:
A1
GIRDER
10P 2
σ c =  (N/mm )
Aη A2
k
η =  , minimum 0.3 b1
⎛ 1 + l ⎞ SHIP'S SIDE
⎝ i ⎠
Fig. 6
P = axial load in kN as given for various strength members Deck with transverse beams
in 204 and 205. Alternatively, P may be obtained from
direct stress analysis, see Sec.12
l = length of member in m l5 l4
IA l5 /2 l4 /2
i = radius of gyration in cm = 
A SHIPS'S SIDE
TRANSVERSE
IA and A as given in 201
TRANSV.
k = 0.5 for pillars below exposed weather decks forward of
0.1 L from F.P.
= 0.6 for pillars below weather decks when sea loads are
applied
= 0.7 in all other cases.
204 The nominal axial force in pillars is normally to be taken
as: A3
P=nF
A4
n = number of decks above pillar. In case of a large number
of decks (n > 3) a reduction in P will be considered
based upon a special evaluation of load redistribution A5
F = the force contribution in kN from each deck above and
SHIP'S SIDE
supported by the pillar in question given by:
Fig. 7
Deck with longitudinals
F = p AD (kN)
p = design pressure on deck as given in Table B1 in Sec.8 C 300 Torsional buckling mode
B
AD = deck area in m2 supported by the pillar, normally taken 301 For longitudinals and other stiffeners in the direction of
as half the sum of span of girders supported, multiplied compressive stresses, the ideal elastic buckling stress for the
by their loading breadth. torsional mode may be taken as:
For centre line pillars supporting hatch end beams (see 2
Figs. 6 and 7): π E IW ⎛ 2 K ⎞ I 2
 m +  + 0.385 E T
σ el =  (N/mm )
b1 4 2 ⎝ 2⎠ IP
10 I p l m
A D = 4 ( A 1 + A 2 )  when transverse beams
B
4
b1 Cl 6
= 4 ( A 3 + A 4 + A 5 )  when longitudinals K =  10
4
B π E IW
b1 = distance from hatch side to ship's side.
m = number of half waves, given by the following table:
205 The nominal axial force in cross ties and panting beams
is normally to be taken as: 0<K≤4 4 < K ≤ 36 36 < K ≤ 144 K > 144
m 1 2 3 4
P = e b p (kN)
IT = St Venant's moment of inertia in cm4 of profile (with
e = mean value of spans in m on both sides of the cross tie out plate flange)
b = load breadth in m 3
p = the larger of the pressures in kN/m2 on either side of hw tw –4
the cross tie (e.g. for a side tank cross tie, the pressure =  10 for flat bars (slabs)
3
head on the ship's side may be different from that on
the longitudinal bulkhead).
1 tf
=  h w t w + b f t f ⎛ 1 – 0.63  ⎞ 10
3 3 –4
⎝
σel as given in B205. For ships with high speed and
3 bf ⎠ large flare, see also B206
for flanged profiles η = 0.9 in general
IP = polar moment of inertia in cm4 of profile about connec = 0.85 when the adjacent plating is allowed to buckle in
tion of stiffener to plate the elastic mode, according to B207.
3 C 400 Web and flange buckling
hw tw –4
=  10 for flat bars 401 The σel value required for the web buckling mode for
3
3 flanged profiles may be taken as:
⎛ hw tw 2 ⎞ –4
= ⎜  + h w b f t f⎟ 10 for flanged profiles tw – tk 2
σ el = 3.8 E ⎛⎝ 
⎞
3 2
⎝ ⎠ (N/mm )
IW = sectorial moment of inertia in cm6 of profile about con hw ⎠
nection of stiffener to plate The critical buckling stress σc found from 101 shall not be less
hw tw
3 3 than as given in 302.
–6
=  10 for flat bars 402 For flanges on angles and Tsections of longitudinals an
36 other highly compressed stiffeners the thickness shall not be
3 2
tf bf hw –6 less than:
=  10 for Tprofiles
12 tf = 0.1 bf + tk (mm)
3 2
bf hw 2 2 –6 bf = flange width in mm for angles, half the flange width for
 [ t ( b f + 2b f h w + 4h w ) + 3t w b f h w ]10
 Tsections.
= 2 f
12 ( b f + h w )
C 500 Transverse beams and girders
for angles and bulb profiles 501 For beams and stiffeners supporting plating subject to
hw = web height in mm compressive stresses perpendicular to the stiffener direction
tw = web thickness in mm the moment of inertia of the stiffener section (including effec
bf = flange width in mm tive plate flange) shall not be less than:
tf = flange thickness in mm. For bulb profiles the mean
thickness of the bulb may be used 4
tp = thickness of supporting plate in mm 0.09 σ a σ el l s 4
I =  (cm )
l = span of profile in m t
s = spacing of profiles in m.
Where relevant tk shall be substracted from all thicknesses (tw, l = span in m of beams or stiffeners
tf and tp). s = spacing in m of beams or stiffeners
t = plate thickness in mm
C = spring stiffness exerted by supporting plate panel σel = 1.18 σa when less than σf/2
3 2
kEt p –3
σ f
=  10 = 
 otherwise
3 4 ( σ f – 1.18 σ a )
⎛ 1.33 k h w t p ⎞
3s ⎜ 1 +  ⎟ σa = actual compressive stress.
3
⎝ 1000 s t w ⎠
502 For transverse girders supporting longitudinals or stiff
k = 1 – ηpa, not to be taken less than zero eners subject to axial compression stresses the moment of in
σ ertia of the girder section (including effective plate flange)
ηp = a shall not be less than:
σ ep
4
a = 2 in general S 4
I = 0.3  I S (cm )
= 1 for flat bar profiles 3
l s
σa = calculated compressive stress. For longitudinals, see
B205 and 206 S = span in m of girder
σ ep = elastic buckling stress of supporting plate as calculated l = distance in m between girders
in B201. s = spacing in m of stiffeners
IS = moment of inertia in cm4 of longitudinal or stiffener
For flanged profiles k need not be taken less than 0.2. necessary to satisfy the lateral buckling mode require
302 The critical buckling stress as found from 301 and 101 ment given in 201—202
shall not be less than: σ el A l
2
σ = 
σ c ≥ a 0.001 E
η
σel = as given in 501
σa = calculated compressive stress. For longitudinals σa = A = as given in 201.
SECTION 14
STRUCTURES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARGO
A 300 Documentation
301 In addition to the required documentation given in Pt.5 C. Ship Arrangement
Ch.3 Sec.1 C or Pt.5 Ch.4 Sec.1 C, whichever is relevant, the
following documentation shall be submitted: C 100 Location and separation of spaces
— heat balance calculations of the partcargo or fullcargo 101 The cargo pump rooms shall be separated from the cargo
conditions, including all the necessary input data area by cofferdam or insulation, preferably an open, ventilated
cofferdam.
— heat capacity calculations
— temperature distribution in the hull girder system for the C 200 Equipment within the cargo area
partcargo and fullcargo conditions
201 Equipment fitted on cargo tank deck or inside the cargo
— stress analysis carried out based on the above temperature tanks shall be fastened to the main structure with due consid
distributions in the hull system. The extent of this calcula eration to the thermal expansion and stresses that will occur.
tion is dependent on cargo containment system and cargo
temperature. Combination of calculated conditions to rep C 300 Surface metal temperature
resent actual sea conditions is appreciated. Presentation of
results as isoplot instead of listing is then a must 301 See Pt.5 Ch.3 Sec.3 J100.
— specifications and data for insulation materials. C 400 Cargo heating media
A 400 Survey and testing 401 See Pt.5 Ch.3 Sec.4 D.
401 See Pt.2 Ch.3 Sec.8 and Pt.5 Ch.3 Sec.1 D whichever is
relevant.
D. Load Conditions
A 500 Signboards
501 See Pt.5 Ch.3 Sec.1 E or Pt.5 Ch.4 Sec.1 F, whichever is D 100 Full and partial cargo conditions
relevant. 101 See Sec.5 or Pt.5 Ch.3 or Ch.4, whichever is relevant.
102 All partial cargo conditions where cargo temperature ex The air in the double bottom is assumed stationary layered with
ceeds 80°C shall be arranged with symmetric loading in the the same temperature as the structure. Hence no heat transfer
transverse direction. During charging and discharging the from air to the structure will exist.
maximum difference between two adjacent liquid levels The air in side tanks is not stationary.
should be limited to abt. 3 meters or 1/4 h whichever is the less, For the deck beams:
where h is the depth of the longitudinal bulkhead or the tank
depth. Alternate tank filling in longitudinal direction should be  asphalt to deck beam: 50
basis for the thermal stresses. The following material data for mild steel may be used:
 density: 7 860 kg/m3
D 200 Water ballast conditions  specific heat: 0.114 kcal/kg/°C
201 Water ballast is at no time to be carried adjacent to the  coefficient for heat conduction: 0.3 t + 59,l96 kcal/h m °C.
tanks with hot cargo. A defined safe zone must be specified. The effect from various scantlings is negligible.
endofGuidancenote
SECTION 15
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS  ADDITIONAL CLASS
C 400 Requirements for fatigue life a) Representative longitudinal stiffener connections in the
401 Fatigue calculations shall in general be performed as de bilge area of midship, including the stiffener on top, cut
scribed in Sec.16 with the following modifications: out and collar plate. See Guidance note to 402.
b) Fatigue strength assessment of the following hatch corners
— Fatigue calculations, including those required for NAUTI and coamings shall normally be carried out:
CUS(Newbuilding), shall be carried out with the
number of wave encounters related to a design life of 30 — typical hatch corner and coaming, amidships
years for the PLUS1 notation and 40 years for the — the after hatch corners and coamings in the after cargo
PLUS2 notation. hold (the hatch corner located in front of engine room
— Fatigue strength assessment of details according to 402 to forward bulkhead)
404 depending on the vessel type shall be carried out by — one hatch corner and coaming selected as the most
simplified fatigue calculation procedure described in critical hatch corner with respect to fatigue within the
Sec.16 and in Classification Note No. 30.7. When a stress forward part of the cargo area.
concentration factor is not available for the structure in
question this may be found by the finite element analysis Such fatigue assessment will normally have to be based on
as described in Classification Note No. 30.7. a global finite element analysis.
The results from investigation of the details in the midship area
402 For tankers, fatigue strength assessment of the following mentioned in a) above, shall be utilised within the cargo area.
details shall be carried out in addition to those required for A detailed procedure is described in Classification Note No.
class notation NAUTICUS(Newbuilding): 30.7.
a) Representative longitudinal stiffener connections in the 405 If the PLUS1 or PLUS2 notation is applied in combi
midship area, in the bottom and inner bottom, including nation with the CSA2 notation, all fatigue calculations shall
the stiffener on top, cut out and collar plate. See Guidance be based on the design life specified for the PLUS1 or
note. PLUS2 notations
b) Representative longitudinal stiffener connections in the
midship area, in the side and inner side, including the stiff
ener on top, cut out and collar plate. See Guidance note. D. Class Notation COAT1 and COAT2
c) Representative deck openings.
D 100 General
The results from the investigation of the details in the midship 101 The COAT1 and COAT2 notations include additional
area, mentioned in a), b) and c) above, shall be utilised within requirements for corrosion prevention of tanks and holds for
the cargo area. A detailed procedure is described in Classifica newbuildings.
tion Note No. 30.7.
D 200 Application
Guidance note:
The following criteria may be used for the determination of rep 201 The COAT1 and COAT2 notations are primarily in
resentative longitudinals: tended for tankers, bulk carriers and container vessels of con
ventional design, but may also be applied to other types of
 longitudinal stiffener where the minimum fatigue life is ob vessel. The vessels shall comply with the requirements for cor
tained from Nauticus Hull Fatigue calculations
 longitudinal stiffener showing representative behaviour of the rosion prevention of tanks and spaces as described in D.
adjacent longitudinals
D 300 Documentation
 longitudinal stiffener in areas where the maximum web frame
shear stress is anticipated 301 A coating specification shall be submitted for approval.
 longitudinal stiffener where the maximum dynamic pressure The coating specification shall be based on the principles de
is applied. scribed in Ch.3 Sec.7 Table A1.
endofGuidancenote
D 400 Requirements for corrosion prevention
403 For bulk carriers, fatigue strength assessment of the fol 401 A corrosion prevention system shall be specified and ap
lowing details shall be carried out in addition to those required plied to the ballast water tanks and cargo area as described in
for class notation NAUTICUS(Newbuilding): 402 to 404 for different types of ships. The coating systems re
ferred in the following are described in Classification Note No.
a) Representative longitudinal stiffener connections in the 33.1.
midship bilge area, in the bottom and inner bottom, includ 402 For crude oil tankers the following corrosion prevention
ing the stiffener on top, cut out and collar plate. See Guid system shall be specified and applied:
ance note to 402.
b) Representative lower and upper bracket ends of the side — All ballast water tanks shall be protected by a corrosion
frame, located in the middle of an ore hold, within the mid prevention system, equal to, or better than, coating system
ship area. II for the COAT1 notation and system III for the COAT
2 notation.
c) Hatch coaming bracket amidships for ships with large — Inner bottom of all cargo tanks and 0.5 m up, shall be pro
deck openings (total width of hatch openings in one trans tected by a corrosion prevention system, equal to, or better
verse section exceeding 65% of the ship’s breadth or than, coating system II for both the COAT1 and COAT
length of hatch opening exceeding 75% of hold length) 2 notation.
— Upper part 1) of horizontal stringers in cargo tanks shall be
The results from the investigation of the details in the midship protected by a corrosion prevention system, equal to, or
area mentioned in a), b) and c) above, shall be utilised within better than, coating system I for the COAT1 notation and
the cargo area. A detailed procedure is described in Classifica system II for the COAT2 notation.
tion Note No. 30.7. — Deckhead and 2 m down shall be protected by a corrosion
404 For container carriers, fatigue strength assessment of the prevention system, equal to, or better than, coating system
following details shall be carried out in addition to those re I for the COAT1 notation and system II for the COAT2
quired for class notation NAUTICUS(Newbuilding): notation.
303 Reference loads for extreme loads shall be calculated for bulkheads shall be investigated along with stress increase in
a 20year return period using wave scatter diagrams for the critical areas such as brackets with continuous flanges. Local
North Atlantic. This will serve as basis for the wave load anal structure models may also be used to determine the edge stress
ysis with respect to the calculation of hull girder and main gird in way of critical hatch corner openings in, e.g. container car
er system stress response (400 and 500) as well as hull girder riers and bulk carriers.
capacity analysis (600). In general, such analysis shall be performed in areas as defined
Fatigue loads shall be based on 104 probability of exceedance. in Pt.5 for the various ship types.
However, other probability levels may be accepted provided a Local structure models may be included in the cargo hold mod
consistent direct analysis procedure has been used. Wave scat el or the frame and girder model or run separately with pre
ter diagrams for a worldwide trading pattern, will serve as ba scribed boundary deformations or boundary forces from the
sis for the fatigue analysis (700), unless a more severe fatigue frame and girder model.
environment has been specified.
406 Stress concentration models (Model level 5)
E 400 Finite element analysis Fine mesh finite element models shall be applied at critical
401 The finite element analysis of the hull structure shall be stress concentration details as required for fatigue assessment
carried out in accordance with the principles given in 402 to according to 702. The model extent shall be such that the cal
406. The analysis described in 403 to 405 may be included in culated results are not significantly affected by assumptions
higher level analyses. made for boundary conditions and application of loads.
402 Global stiffness model (Model level 1) Elements size for stress concentration analysis shall be in the or
In this model, a relatively coarse mesh extending over the total der of the plate thickness. Normally, shell elements shall be used
hull length shall be used to represent the overall stiffness and for the analysis while solid elements may be used on a compara
global stress distribution of the primary members of the hull. tive basshall investigate stress concentration factors in special ar
eas. If solid modelling is used, the element size in way of the hot
Wave loads derived from the wave load analysis as given in spot may have to be reduced to half the plate thickness in case the
300 shall be applied. The following effects shall be taken into overall geometry of the weld is included in the model representa
account: tion. For further details, see Classification Note No. 30.7.
— vertical hull girder bending including shear lag effects E 500 Acceptance criteria
— vertical shear distribution between ship side and bulk
heads 501 The longitudinal hull girder and main girder system
— horisontal hull girder bending including shear lag effects nominal and local stresses derived from the direct strength cal
— torsion of the hull girder (if open hull type) culations in B and C shall be checked according to the criteria
— transverse bending and shear. specified below.
Allowable equivalent nominal stresses referred to 20 year
The analysis may be carried out with a relatively coarse mesh. North Atlantic conditions are:
Stiffened panels may be modelled by means of anisotropic el
ements. Alternatively, a combination of plate elements and Seagoing conditions:
beam elements, may be used. It is important to have a good σe = 0.95σf (N/mm2)
representation of the overall membrane panel stiffness in the
longitudinal and transverse directions and for shear. In transverse girders the flange stress shall not exceed 0.85 σf.
The global model provides boundary conditions for the cargo Harbour conditions:
hold model in 403. σe = 0.85σf (N/mm2)
403 Cargo hold model (Model level 2) In transverse girders the flange stress shall not exceed 0.75 σf.
The model is used for the midship area and aims to analyse the
deformation response and nominal stresses in primary structur σf = minimum upper yield stress of the material
al members. See Sec.12 and relevant classification notes for σe = equivalent stress
applicable requirements and guidelines for such models.
— buckling control, see 503
The cargo hold model may be included in the global stiffness — hull girder capacity, see 600
model. — fatigue control, see 700.
The cargo hold model may provide boundary conditions for
the frame and girder model in 404. 502 Local linear peak stresses in areas with pronounced ge
ometrical changes, such as in hatch corners, frame corners etc.,
404 Frame and girder model (Model level 3) may need special consideration. Local peak stresses in this
The frame and girder analysis shall be used to analyse stresses context are stresses calculated with Stress concentration mod
and deformations in the main framing or girder system. See els (Model level 5) that have a finer finite element mesh repre
Sec.12 and relevant classification notes for applicable require sentation than used for nominal stress determination.
ments and guidelines for such analyses.
For extreme 20 year North Atlantic loads, linear peak stress
The calculations shall include results as membrane stresses corresponding to an acceptable equivalent plastic strain is:
caused by bending, shear and torsion. The minimum require
ments for the areas as defined by mandatory class notations. σe = 400 f1 (N/mm2)
In addition, at least one transverse web frame in the forward Local peak stresses as given above may be accepted provided
cargo hold or tank shall be analysed. plastic mechanisms are not approached (developed) in the as
The model may be included in the cargo tank or hold analysis sociated structural parts.
model, or run separately with prescribed boundary deforma Guidance note:
tions or boundary forces from the cargo hold model. Areas above yield determined by a linear finite element method
analysis may give an indication of the actual area of plastifica
405 Local structure models (Model level 4) tion. Otherwise, a nonlinear finite element method analysis may
The local structure analyses are used to analyse stresses in lo need to be carried out in order to trace the full extent of the plastic
cal areas. Stresses in laterally loaded local plates and stiffeners zone.
may need to be investigated. Further, stiffeners subjected to
large relative deformations between girders or frames and endofGuidancenote
503 The Ultimate Capacity control of local stiffened panels height of B/15. The damage extents are given by:
shall be performed according to the DNV PULS code.
Damage extent
PULS stands for Panel Ultimate Limit State and is a computer Damage parameter
Single side Double side
ized nonlinear buckling code recognized by the Society.
Height: b/B 0.75 0.55
The PULS Ultimate Capacity usage factor shall not to exceed Length: l/L 0.50 0.30
0.90 for stiffened panels. b= penetration breadth
PULS Ultimate Capacity estimate of stiffened panels accepts 603 The ultimate hull girder bending capacity shall comply
local elastic buckling of plates between stiffeners. with the following limits:
Guidance note: Intact design
The ultimate strength control of stiffened panels, girders etc.
may be assessed using recognised nonlinear FE programs. The M UI
M S + γ W1 M W ≤ 
strength assessments should consider all relevant effects accord γM
ing to DNV's approval.
Damaged condition
endofGuidancenote
γS MS + γW2 MW ≤ MUD
504 The buckling and ultimate strength control of unstiff
MS = maximum design sagging or hogging still water mo
ened and stiffened curved panels may be performed according ment according to the loading conditions from the
to the method as given in DNVRPC202. For bilge applica loading manual used in the wave load analysis
tion the knock down factors in the formulas in DNVRPC202 MW = design wave bending moment according to the
may be modified according to the Guidance Note. The usage wave load analysis in 300
factor shall not exceed 0.90 for extreme load design. M UI = hull girder bending moment capacity in intact con
Guidance note: dition, determined as given below
M UD = hull girder bending moment capacity in damaged
For bilge buckling assessment the curved panel formulas in condition, determined as given below
DNVRPC202 can be used with the following modifications: γM = 1.15 (material factor)
 Table 3.31 and Table 3.41 axial stress, constant from 0.5 to γ'W1 = 1.1 (partial safety factor on MW for environmental
0.7 in expression for ρ. loads)
 Table 3.31 and Table 3.4.1 lateral pressure (circ. stress), γS = 1.1 (factor on MS allowing for moment increase
ρ = 0.9 instead of ρ = 0.6. with accidental flooding of holds)
γ W2 = 0.67 (wave load reduction factor corresponding to 3
endofGuidancenote month exposure in worldwide climate).
The ultimate hull girder strength MU shall be calculated for the
E 600 Hull girder capacity intact midship section as well as for the remaining intact parts
601 For vessels with notation CSA2, the ultimate sagging of the damaged midship section using models recognised by
the Society.
and hogging bending capacity of the hull girder shall be deter
mined, for both intact and damaged conditions. The MU shall be calculated both for sagging and hogging con
ditions.
The ultimate hull girder bending capacity check applies to
tankers and bulk carriers. For application concerning other The MU for the intact (MUI) and damaged (MUD) condition
may be calculated using DNV's simplified HULSN models.
ship types a case by case evaluation will be given by the Soci The HULSN models calculate the ultimate moment capacity
ety. MU as an incremental sum
602 The following damage conditions shall be considered in MU = ∆Μ1 + ... + ∆Μi + ... + ∆ΜΝ
dependently, using the worst possible position in each case: where an incremental moment ∆Μi is defined as
1. Collision ∆Μi = (EI)redi ∆κi
with penetration of one ship side, single or double side within and
a breadth of B/16.
(EI)redi = reduced incremental hull bending stiffness for
The damage extents are given by: load step i
∆ κi = incremental curvature for load step i
Damage extent HULS = Hull girder Ultimate Limit State
Damage parameter
Single side Double side N = total number of load steps.
Height: h/D 0.75 0.60 HULS2 is an acceptable model for sagging.
Length: l/L 0.10 0.10 For hogging all relevant local loads and double bottom effects
h = penetration height shall be considered..
l = penetration length
HULSN stands for Hull girder Ultimate Limit State and are
Guidance note: computerized buckling models recognized by the Society for
the assessment of ultimate capacity of ship hulls. The HULS
Calculations utilising symmetrical characteristics, i.e. the capac N models apply the PULS code for individual panel strength.
ities of the damaged parts of the cross section are reduced with
50% on both sides of the ship, will be accepted. Guidance note:
The ultimate sagging and hogging bending capacity of the hull
endofGuidancenote girder may be assessed using recognised nonlinear FE pro
grams. The strength assessments should consider all relevant ef
2. Grounding fects according to DNV's approval.
with penetration of bottom, single or double bottom within a endofGuidancenote
SECTION 16
FATIGUE CONTROL
A. General the planned life of the vessel. The period is, however, normally
not to be taken less than 20 years. Unless otherwise specified,
A 100 Introduction the fatigue calculation shall be based on the North Atlantic
wave scatter diagram, 80% of North Atlantic, as described in
101 The background and assumptions for carrying out fa
Classification Note No. 30.7.
tigue calculations in addition to or as a substitute to the specific
rule requirements in Sec.5 to Sec.11 are given in this section. 402 The cumulative effect of the stress history may be ex
Load conditions, design criteria and applicable calculation pressed by linear cumulative damage usage factor (Miner
methods are specified. Palmgren), which shall not exceed the value η = 1.0 using SN
For some ship types, such direct fatigue calculations are spec data for mean value minus 2 times the standard deviation.
ified in the rules for the class notation in question. A 500 Calculation methods
A 200 Application 501 Acceptable calculation methods are given in Classifica
201 The application of direct fatigue calculations is gov tion Note No. 30.7.
erned by the following cases: 502 For welded joints the SN curves of which the effect of
the weld is taken into account, shall be used. The effects of a
1) The calculations are required as part of rule scantling de corrosive environment on the fatigue life shall be taken into ac
termination when simplified formulations do not represent count through appropriate SN curves.
the dynamic stress distribution and a direct stress analysis
has been required with a reference to this section. Guidance note:
The influence of corrosive environments in ballast water tanks is
2) Serving as an alternative basis for the scantlings, direct taken into account, considering that the coated structures is main
stress calculations may give reduced scantlings compared tained, to provide effective corrosion protection for a period
to the explicit fatigue requirements. equal to the specified design life of the vessel minus five (5)
years.
A 300 Loads
endofGuidancenote
301 The vessel shall be evaluated for fatigue due to global
and local dynamic loads. For the local loads, stresses due to in For coated ballast water tanks, SN curves in air may be used
ternal and external pressures may be calculated separately and for the specified design life of the vessel minus five (5) years
combined using a correlation factor between the sea pressure and SN curves for corrosive environment shall be used for the
loads and internal pressure loads. Simplified formulas for dy last five (5) years of the specified design life.
namic loads are given in Classification Note No. 30.7, Ch.4.
The simplified loads may be substituted by directly computed For uncoated cargo oil tanks and coated cargo tanks, SN
dynamic loads. curves in air may be used for the specified design life.
Guidance note:
In case the values of roll radius Kr and the metacentric height GM
have not been calculated for the relevant loading conditions, the B. Basic Requirements
following approximate values may be used:
B 100 Longitudinals
Tanker Bulk carrier Container carrier
Kr GM Kr GM Kr GM 101 For longitudinals the fatigue evaluation may be carried
out based on direct calculation of the stresses. The stresses to
Loaded 0.39B 0.12B 0.39B 0.17B 0.39B 0.04B
be taken into account are:
Ballast 0.39B 0.33B 0.39B 0.25B 0.39B 0.04B
1) Nominal hull girder longitudinal stresses.
2) Stresses due to bending of longitudinal girders due to lat
endofGuidancenote
eral loading.
302 The fatigue strength evaluation shall be based on the 3) Local bending stresses of longitudinals for lateral loading.
most frequently used design load conditions. The fraction of
the lifetime operating under each considered loading condition 4) Bending stresses due to support deflection of longitudi
shall reflect the intended operational trading pattern of the nals.
ship. If nothing else is specified, the values in Table A1 shall
Global stress components may be calculated based on gross
be used.
scantlings.
Table A1 Distribution of design load conditions Local stress components should be calculated based on re
Vessel type Tankers Bulk carriers Container carrier duced scantlings, i.e. gross scantlings minus corrosion addition
Loaded condition 0.45 0.5 0.65 tk.
Ballast condition 0.4 0.35 0.2 The calculated stress may be reduced due to the mean stress ef
fect. The correction shall be based on a calculated value of the
A 400 Design criteria
mean stress. The stress concentration factors shall be included
401 The fatigue analysis shall be based on a period equal to when calculating the mean stress.
APPENDIX A
ELASTIC BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH
A. Introduction = 10 b (t – tk) + Σ as
AR = reduced area of panel
A 100 Scope and description = 10 be (t – tk) + Σ as
101 Average inplane compressive stresses above the elastic b = total width (m) of panel
buckling stress σel may be allowed for plate elements subject be = reduced width (m) as given in 201
to extreme loading conditions (probability level of 108 or t = thickness (mm) of plating
less), as long as functional requirements do not prohibit large as = area (cm2) of stiffener/girder in direction of compres
and offplane elastic deflections. sive stress
σel = elastic buckling stress (N/mm2) of plating
An accepted procedure for evaluating the ultimate compres σm = σc l or 0.9 σf , whichever is the smaller, when stiffeners
sive strength is given in the following. in direction of stress
The ultimate stress limit and effective width of local plate pan = 0.9 σf when stiffeners perpendicular to stress
els are given in B100 and B200. The ultimate strength of stiff σc l = critical buckling stress of stiffeners in direction of
ened panels, simple girders and ship hull girders is given in compressive stresses, as calculated in Sec.13 C200 and
B300 to B500. C300.
The design condition is given by:
PU ≥ PA / η u
B. Calculation Procedure
PA = actual compressive load in panel, based on extreme dy
B 100 Estimation of ultimate stress namic load
101 For each local panel where elastic buckling is expected = 0.1 σa A
(σa > ησel), the maximum allowable compressive stress σu is ηu = 0.85.
given by:
B 400 Ultimate strength of simple girders with stiffened
σu = ψu σel panel flange
σel = elastic buckling stress as calculated from Sec.13 B201 401 The ultimate bending moment capacity of girders with a
ψu = excess factor given as a function of σf / σel stiffened plate flange in compression is given by:
MU = ME + ∆ MU (kNm)
For longitudinally stiffened plating:
ME = moment capacity corresponding to the elastic buck
σ ling limit
ψ u = 1 + 0.375 ⎛⎝ f – 2⎞⎠
σ el σ el I
=  (kNm)
For transversely stiffened plating (compressive stress 1000 z p
perpendicular to longest side l of plate panel):
σel = elastic buckling stress (N/mm2) of plating in com
σ pression flange calculated with 100% effective
ψ u = 1 + c ⎛⎝ f – 2⎞⎠ plate
σ el
I = moment of inertia of girder (cm4) with intact plate
flange b (100% effective)
0.75 zp = distance (cm) from neutral axis to compression
c = 
l flange, see Fig.1
+1
s
B 200 Calculation of effective width σe l , σu COMPRESSION
zp
ηu = 0.85.
zlb
zl
ze
Guidance note:
N.A. INTACT In cases where several plate panels with different values of elas
N.A. BUCKLED tic buckling stress are involved, a stepwise calculation of ME has
to be made according to the general formula:
zfb
n
zf
ME = ∑ ∆MEI
i=1
σ ef
TENSION
ei z
Fig. 2 σ ei – σ e ( i – 1 ) 
Hull girder ze ( i – 1 )
∆M =  I
EI 1000 z ei E(i – 1)
∆ MU = additional moment above elastic buckling limit, σei = elastic buckling stress (N/mm2) of local panel
to be taken as the smaller of: considered in step i
σE(i – 1) = elastic buckling stress of local panel considered In the first step IE(i – 1) = I (intact moment of inertia). σE1 will
in previous step be the lowest elastic buckling stress in relation to the actual stress
in the considered plate, and σE(i – 1) = 0.
IE(i – 1) = moment of inertia of hull girder with effective
width of elastically buckled panels in earlier When last step in the elastic buckling calculation (∆ MENME) has
steps inserted been performed and the total found, the highest elastic buckling
stress σen shall be used as σe in the further calculation of ∆ MU.
zei = vertical distance (cm) from neutral axis in above
section to middle of the plate panel i endofGuidancenote
zE(i – 1) = vertical distance from neutral axis in above sec
tion to the plate panel i – 1.