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# 2/14/2018 How to Calculate the Weld Efficiency of a Seamless Section

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Home » Posts » Pressure Vessel Weld Efficiency in Seamless Sections According to UW-12 when UW-11(a)(5)(b) is Utilized.

PRESSURE VESSEL WELD EFFICIENCY IN SEAMLESS SECTIONS WHY CHOOSE OAKLEY STEEL?

## ACCORDING TO UW-12 WHEN UW-11(A)(5)(B) IS UTILIZED.

1. Awesome Service
2. Thickest Plates
In this this article, guest author, Ramesh Tiwari discusses the issues 3. Best Availability
in calculating the weld efficiency of a seamless section according to 4. Best Quality Steel
the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. Specifically he focuses on how to 5. Super Delivery
do it using radiographic and ultrasonic examination. For the non
technical, the efficiency of welded joint (weld efficiency) is an artificial
number that defines it strength based on the amount of non-
efficiency could be as low as 60% but with increasing levels of
ultrasonic and radiographic testing this can increase to 100%.

## The following sample vessel illustrates how to calculate the

efficiencies of a seamless section according to UW-12 when UW-
11(a)(5)(b) is utilized.
AncoferWaldram is one of Europe;s
components — A rolled 40,000 metric tonnes of heavy carbon
and welded shell and two steel plates in stock Ancofer is able to
seamless elliptical heads. supply large quantities of heavy plate
The long seam in the shell to projects that need fast delivery.
and the head to shell Ancofer is fully owned by Dillinger
Weld Efficiency using Paragraph UW-11(a)(5)(b) welds are spot Hutte. Oakley Steel is Ancofer's agent
paragraph UW-52. All welds are Type 1 butt welds. What is the weld
efficency (E) for the rolled shell, and for the seamless heads?
Efficiencies of seamless sections are found in UW-12(d) – the two
shall be considered equivalent to welded parts of the same geometry
in which all category A welds are Type No 1. For calculations
involving circumferential stress in seamless vessel sections or for Dillinger Hutte is the world's leading
thickness of seamless heads, E = 1.0 when the spot radiography heavy plate mill. A German steel mill
requirements or UW-11(a)(5)(b) are met. E = 0.85 when the spot Dillinger specialises in producing
radiography requirements of UW-11(a)(5)(b) are not met, or when the heavy carbon steel plate for
category A or B welds connecting the seamless vessel sections of construction, offshore and process
heads are Type no 3, 4, 5 or 6 of Table UW-12. The sample vessels equipment.
welds are Type 1 so the bit about Type 3, 4,5 or 6 welds can be
ignored, but UW-11(a)(5)(b) can be utilized. UW-11(a)(5)(b) can not
be read on its own. UW-11, UW-11(a) and UW-11(a)(5) are also
needed as reference in order to understand the context of UW-11(a)
(5)(b). To quote UW-11(a) — Full Radiography

## The following welded joints shall be examined radiographically for

their full length. Starting with UW-11(a)(5): All Category A and D
buttwelds in vessel sections and heads where the design of the joint

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2/14/2018 How to Calculate the Weld Efficiency of a Seamless Section
or part is based on a joint efficiency permitted by UW-12(a), in which
case: and finally — UW-11(a)(5)(b): Category B or C butt welds [but
not including those in nozzles or communicating chambers except as
required in (2) above] which intersect the Category A butt welds in
vessel sections or heads or connect seamless vessel sections or
heads shall, as a minimum meet the required for spot radiography in
accordance with UW-52. Spot radiographs required by this paragraph
shall not be used to satisfy the spot radiography rules as applies to
any other weld increment.

SIMPLIFICATION OF UW-11(A)(5)

## Definitely a mouthful, start simplifying UW-11(a)(5). A Cat A weld is a

long seam. Combine it with UW-11(a)… All long seam welds in heads
or shells shall be type 1 or type 2 and shall be radiographed for their
full length. Simplify paragraph UW-11(a)(5)(b) Spot radiographs
required by this paragraph shall not be used to satisfy the spot
radiography rules as applies to any other weld increment. This means
that the radiography used to satisfy paragraph UW-11(a)(5)(b) cannot
be used to satisfy other weld increments that have spot radiography
rules applied to them. For example. If the vessel was to be stamped
RT-3 then all welds are required to be spot radiographed. You cannot
use the radiographic shots for welds satisfying RT-3 stamping.
Paragraph UW-11(a)(5)(b) radiography MUST be separate shots…

## …so to continue on… Ignoring the possibility of nozzles or

communicating chambers intersecting welds, we get the following:
Category B or C butt welds which intersect the Category A butt welds
in vessel sections or heads or connect seamless vessel sections or
heads shall, as a minimum meet the required for spot radiography in
accordance with UW-52. Combining the simplified statements (the
possibility of intersecting chambers and nozzles has been ignored) —
3 simple requirements: To meet UW-11(a)(5)(b) for the long seam in
question: (1) Fully radiograph the long seam or choose seamless sales@oakleysteel.co.uk
materials (2) Long seam must be Type 1 or Type 2 (3) Spot or fully +60 12 335 7743
radiograph the joining circ weld For the vessel shell, the long seam is +60 19 335 7743
not fully radiographed, and is not a seamless section, so UW-11(a)(5)
(b) is not met for the shell long seam. For each vessel head, the long
seam in the head is “assumed” to be Type 1 and is seamless, so UW-
11(a)(5)(b) is met for the imaginary head long seam. Getting back to
the sample vessel and UW-12. Imaginary (assumed) Type 1 seams

SUMMARY

once UW-11(a)(5)(b) is
known. To paraphrase for
the sample vessel: The
imaginary welds in the
1.0 if UW-11(a)(5)(b) is
met and 0.85 if it is not.
For the sample vessel, the head efficiency is 1.00. The shell long
seam efficiency is read directly from table UW-12 – it is 0.85.

## Mr. Ramesh Tiwari, is an ASME member and

an internationally recognized specialist in the
area of pressure vessels, heat exchangers, solar
energy, and codes and standards. He holds BS
and MS degrees in mechanical engineering
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2/14/2018 How to Calculate the Weld Efficiency of a Seamless Section
from universities in India and US respectively. Ramesh is a
registered Professional Engineer in the State of Maryland in
the US, a member of ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel, Section
VIII Subgroup on Heat Transfer Equipment, and a member of
ASME International Working Group on B31.1 for Power
Piping in India. He has over 24 years of design engineering
experience on a variety of projects spanning several industries.
Ramesh is the founder of CoDesign Engineering based in New
Delhi that provides a wide range of engineering, procurement
and construction services for pressure vessels, heat
exchangers, tanks and piping for several industries including
but not limited to oil & gas, power, chemical, petrochemical,
and fertilizers. Ramesh is also the editor-in-chief of a monthly
worldwide since 2007. He can be contacted at

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