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Lee Robin John Curay CE 445

BSCE-IV Engr. Showna Lee Sales

AGGREGATES

A combination of different sizes and shapes normally of stones. Maximum size is 75 mm

USES OF AGGREGATES

• As an underlying material for foundations and pavements

• As an ingredients in Portland cement concrete and asphalt concrete.

Selection of aggregates

* Aggregates shall be hard, durable and clean and free from adherent coatings and
organic matter and shall not contain appreciable amount of clay.

* Aggregates shall not contain harmful impurities such as iron pyrites, alkalis, salts,
coal, mica, shale or other materials which will affect hardening and attack reinforcement

Classification of aggregates

Based on size:

Classified into 2 categories:

• Fine aggregates - those aggregates which pass through 4.75 mm sieve or


aggregates with size less than 5 mm.

• Coarse aggregates – those aggregates passing through 75 mm sieve and


entirely retained on 4.75 mm sieve or those aggregates with size greater than
5 mm.
Based on source or method of manufacture:

Classified into 2 categories:

• Natural aggregate/uncrushed aggregate- Those from the river beds, river


sand and ex-mines. Normally rounded in shape and have smooth surface
texture.

• Manufactured aggregate / crushed aggregate –those obtained by


mechanically crushing rocks, boulders, or cobbles. Normally angular in shape
and have rough surface texture

Based on Density:

Based on specific gravity or density measured in bulk, aggregate is divided into 3 types:

• Lightweight aggregate

• Normal-weight aggregate

• Heavyweight aggregate

Lightweight aggregate

• Lightweight fine aggregate is any aggregate with bulk density less than 1120kg/m3
and lightweight coarse aggregate is any aggregate with bulk density less than
880kg/m3.

• They are commonly used as ingredients in the manufacture of lightweight concrete,


for making lightweight masonry blocks (to improved their thermal and insulating
properties and nailing characteristic), and lightweight floor and roof slabs.
Normal-weight aggregate

• Crushed stone, gravel and ordinary sand are examples of normal weight aggregate.

• They are commonly used in manufacture of normal weight concrete, asphalt


concrete and roadway sub-base.

• The average values of sp.gr. For sand and gravel are 2.6 and 2.65 respectively. Bulk
density of normal weight aggregate is around 1520 to 1680kg/m3.

Heavyweight aggregate

• Those aggregate with high density and is used primarily in the manufacture of
heavyweight concrete, employed for protection against nuclear radiation and as
bomb shelter.

• The unit weight of heavyweight concrete varies from 2400kg/m3 with sp.gr range
from 4.0 to 4.6.(eg: mineral ores and barite)

Physical properties of aggregates

• Strength

• Hardness

• Toughness

• Durability

• Porosity

• Water absorption

Tests on aggregates

a. Texture and shapes test


Test for shapes of aggregates:

1. round shape –usually natural aggregates

2. irregular shape- a combination of different shapes

3. angular shape- usually of crushed stone

4. flaky shape- where the thickness is less than its length and width

5. elongated- usually angular where its length is larger than its width and thickness

6. flaky and elongated- its length is larger than its width and its width is larger than its
thickness.

• In terms of surface texture, the aggregates may have a smooth texture, or


coarse/rough texture.

• For production of concrete, the aggregates which have angular shape and coarse
texture are recommended to have high bond strength.

b. Physical property

Water absorption test: aggregates absorb water because of their porosity.

• If all the pores are filled with water the aggregates are said to be saturated and
surface dry.

• If all the water inside the pores are removed by drying, the aggregates are said to
have maximum dry weight.

Classification of Natural Aggregates

 Synthetic Aggregates
- Thermally processed materials, i.e. expanded clays and shale
- Made from industrial by-products, i.e. fly ash
 Recycled Aggregates
- Made from municipal wastes and recycled concrete from demolished
buildings and pavements
-

Subbase Course

 Subbase is the layer of aggregate material laid on the subgrade on which the base
course layer is located
 Subbase is often the main load-bearing layer of the pavement.
 Its role is to spread the load evenly over the subgrade
Thinkness of Subbase:
 75 to 100 mm (3 to 4 in) for garden paths
 100 to 150 mm (4 to 6 in) for driveways and public footpaths
 150 to 225 mm (6 to 9 in) for heavy used roads

Sieve Designation
Standard, mm Alternate US Standard Mass Percent Passing
50 2” 100
25 1” 55 – 85
9.5 3/8” 40 – 75
0.075 No. 200 0 - 12

The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greater than 0.66 (two
thirds) of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.

The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit not
greater than 35 and plasticity index not greater than 12 as determined by AASHTO T 89
and T 90, respectively.
The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve, shall have a mass percent
of wear not exceeding 50 by the Los Angeles Abrasion Tests as determined by AASHTO T
96.

The material shall have a soaked CBR value of not less than 25% as determined by
AASHTO T 193. The CBR value shall be obtained at the maximum dry density and
determined by AASHTO T 180, Method D.

Base Course

 Base Course in pavements is a layer of material in an asphalt roadway, race track,


riding arena, or sporting field that is located directly under the surface layer.
 Base Course thickness ranges from 100 to 150 mm (4 to 6 in)

Sieve Designation Mass Percent Passing

Standard, mm Alternate US Grading A Grading B


Standard

50 2” 100

37.5 1-1/2” - 100

25.0 1” 60 – 85 -

19.0 ¾” - 60 – 85

12.5 ½” 35 – 65 -

4.75 No. 4 20 – 50 30 – 55

0.425 No. 40 5 – 20 8 – 25

0.075 No. 200 0 – 12 2 – 14


The fraction passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be greater than 0.66 (two
thirds) of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.

The fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve shall have a liquid limit not greater
than 25 and plasticity index not greater than 6 as determined by AASHTO T 89 and T
90, respectively.

The coarse portion, retained on a 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve shall have a mass percent of
wear not exceeding 50 by the Los Angeles Abrasion test determined by AASHTO T 96.

The material passing the 19 mm (3/4 inch) sieve shall have a soaked CBR value of not
less than 80% as determined by AASHTO T 193. The CBR value shall be obtained at the
maximum dry density (MDD) as determined by AASHTO T 180, Method D.