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MPERlMENTAL ROCKFTS, AN AUXILIARY TEACHING A I D

Lise Blosset

T r a n s l a t i o n o f "Les fusees exp&imentales, moyen


a u x i l i a i r e d'enseignement . I t
Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 15th I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s t r o n a u t i c a l Congress, Warsaw, 1

7-12 September, 1964.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION


WASHINGTON NOVELIBER 1964

186
i; ,
4

NASA TI' F-9173


*

1
I

- I

EXPERlDBNTAL ROCKETS, AN AUXILIAFX TEACBING AID

1
Lise B l o s s e t

SUMMARY
The M i n i s t e r of S t a t e i n charge of S c i e n t i f i c Research and Atomic Energy

and Space Problems has e s t a b l i s h e d a program designed t o encourage space s t u d i e s ,

and it i s i n accordance w i t h t h i s program t h a t t h e National Center of Space

S t u d i e s (CNES) makes use of r o c k e t s as t e a c h i n g a i d s .


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r o c k e t engines,which it p u t s a t t h e d i s p o s a l of young people who have acquired

a background of r e l e v a n t s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s and experiments.

These engines are capable of v e r t i c a l l y launching a r o c k e t , having an

i n i t i a l weight ranging from 27-35 kg, up t o an a l t i t u d e of from 3,500 m -


5,000 m.
Under t h e c o n t r o l of CNES engineers and t e c h n i c i a n s t h e youth groups

undertake t h e f u r t h e r study and p e r f e c t i o n of t h e i r experiments and of recovery

systems, as w e l l as t h e a c t u a l construction of t h e r o c k e t p a r t which w i l l house

t h e instruments. On t h e l o c a l l e v e l they a r e most o f t e n advised by a f a c u l t y

member who may be a science professor or a l a b o r a t o r y t e a c h e r . A t t h e present

t i m e we have 23 such groups w i t h more t h a n 450 p a r t i c i p a n t s a l t o g e t h e r .

The p r e s e n t r e p o r t w i l l d e s c r i b e major r o c k e t experiments accomplished

o r under way, and it w i l l show how young people are g e t t i n g t o know t h e t e c h n i c a l

'Chief, Information and Documentation Branch, National Center of Space


Studies, Paris.
I
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NASA TT F-9173

problems involved and t o r e a l i z e that t h e r e are gaps i n t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l back-

ground, which h e l p s them t o make t h e necessary e f f o r t t o f i l l t h e s e gaps.

The a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r a launching i s only given a f t e r s t r i c t c o n t r o l of

t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e r o c k e t body and of t h e instruments, and a f t e r proof i s

obtained of t h e u s e f u l n e s s of t h e planned experiments.

The ground f a c i l i t i e s needed f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g s - - f i r i n g range, launching

material, communications networks, etc.--are obtained through o f f i c i a l and

p r i v a t e cooperation w i t h CNES.

The r o c k e t experiments are of far-reaching importance i n education: t h e y

complement t h e c l a s s i c a l courses and f u r n i s h t h e opportunity f o r a c q u i r i n g and

using t h e s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l knowledge which i s n o t g e n e r a l l y t a u g h t .

They determine c e r t a i n r e s e a r c h vocations i n s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s .

They a l s o t e a c h t h e u s e f u l n e s s of team work and c o n t r i b u t e , d u r i n g a program

l a s t i n g s e v e r a l months, t o t h e development of such q u a l i t i e s as patience,

s e r i o u s n e s s and s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e indispensable t o working i n s c i e n t i f i c

fields.

2
Table of Contents

Foreword 4

Chapter I French Youth and Space 6

Chapter I1 P o l i c y of t h e National Center of Space S t u d i e s

(CITES) w i t h Respect t o Young People 9

Chapter 111 A c t i v i t i e s of Youth Organizations and R e s u l t s

of t h e F i r s t Space Shots

Chapter IV Repercussions and Prospects

Chapter V Conclusion

3
Foreword &*
It i s our i d e a t h a t t h e study and launching of experimental r o c k e t s by

and f o r young people and a l l r e l a t e d experiments are extremely important

a u x i l i a r y teaching a i d s . The a c t i v i t i e s described i n t h e p r e s e n t r e p o r t seem

t o prove t h i s theory.

I n o r d e r t o i n t r o d u c e space techniques i n t o t h e f i e l d of education it i s

necessary t o t a k e various f a c t o r s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , such as age group, l e v e l

of t h e o r e t i c a l o r p r a c t i c a l background, a p t i t u d e f o r absorbing new i d e a s , en-

vironment (school, e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r groups). It i s p o s s i b l e t o l e a d young

amateurs from p r a c t i c a l experiments t o e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h by g i v i n g them t h e

materials necessary f o r experimental launchings t o be e f f e c t e d under s t r i c t con-

trol. O r , i f t h e group i s composed o f young people who are equipped w i t h ade-

quate s c i e n t i f i c background, it could be t r i e d t o o r i e n t them from t h e s t a r t i n g

p o i n t of t h e o r e t i c a l background towards t h e experimental v e r i f i c a t i o n obtained

through space shots. I n t h i s way t h e e s s e n t i a l l y e d u c a t i o n a l feedback from

t h e o r y t o p r a c t i c e and v i c e versa becomes apparent.

W e are, t h e r e f o r e , f a c i n g a method of t e a c h i n g which i n t h e f i e l d of

r o c k e t r y leads t o endless motivations. This holds t r u e provided of course t h a t

t h e a b s t r a c t study l e a d s always t o p r a c t i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n , which i s sometimes

t h e source of c r e a t i v e invention. It i s a l s o important t h a t p r a c t i c e based on

a b s t r a c t o r p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l knowledge always be placed under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n

of t e a c h e r s familiar w i t h t h e s e problems, so t h a t , by going back from p r a c t i c e

t o theory, it i s p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s back t o t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l

foundations. If r o c k e t s are used as described here, t h e y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o

t h e f i e l d of education i n consolidating and expanding a knowledge where prac-

t i c e and theory work hand i n hand.


-E
Numbers given i n t h e margin i n d i c a t e t h e p a g i n a t i o n i n t h e o r i g i n a l f o r e i g n
text.
4
R e a l t e s t s awaken t h e c u r l o s i t y and hold t h e a t t e n t i o n u f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s

by t h e i r d i v e r s i t y , s i n c e t h e r o c k e t launchings are combined w i t h systematic

programs involving s c i e n t i f i c experiments and various t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s . The

i n t e r e s t i s developed and deepened by a s u c c e s s f u l o r even p a r t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l

launching of a r o c k e t . Even a f a i l u r e c o n t r i b u t e s t o progress, because t h e

t h e o r e t i c a l o r t e c h n i c a l e r r o r m u s t be found.

The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s t r o n a u t i c s and space r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e f i e l d of

t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l education f u l f i l l s s t i l l another good purpose. By i t s

n o v e l t y and i t s o r i g i n a l i t y t h i s kind of education e x e r t s an i n t e l l e c t u a l as w e l l

as a moral i n f l u e n c e on t h e young people who r e c e i v e it and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e /2


i n it. I n t e l l e c t u a l l y , our young people become familiar w i t h t o p i c s which, a l -

though t h e y are not e n t i r e l y new, come i n e s p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e form, i f o n l y

because t h e y are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o action. The need t o work c o l l e c t i v e l y a t a

t a s k whose scope and complexity exceed i n d i v i d u a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x e r t s a f u r t h e r

b e n e f i c i a l influence. Numerous t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n c i d e n t s , happening

t o each small team, a r e t h e elements which b u i l d up c h a r a c t e r and morale.

Our s c i e n t i f i c education i n France has never had such g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s

as t h o s e o f f e r e d by t h e study and use of r o c k e t s and by t h e l a r g e f i e l d of space

research. A renewal has begun which w i l l continue and i n c r e a s e i n importance.

W e can see t h e day when t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r a c t i c e and t h e o r y and between

theory and p r a c t i c e w i l l open a t t r a c t i v e r e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o a l l young

people, whether t h e y are of t h e manual o r of t h e conceptual type.

It i s t h u s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l vocations a r e born and t h e v a l u a b l e and i n -

d i s p e n s a b l e q u a l i t i e s a r e developed which are necessary t o team work.

5
i

Chapter 1

Since t h e f i r s t a r t i f i c i a l s a t e l l i t e s were launched i n 1957 and 1938, hope

has become c e r t i t u d e t h a t space techniques w i l l open t o men a tremendous f i e l d of

new knowledge. I n s i t u space s t u d i e s and t h e r e a l i t y of a s t r o n a u t i c s have

aroused t h e enthusiasm of a l l peoples. The s p e c t a c u l a r results obtained by t h e

S o v i e t s and t h e Americans have provoked, e s p e c i a l l y i n young people, an i n t e n s e

c u r i o s i t y regarding space problems. One proof of t h i s are t h e i r - - o f t e n awkward--

a t t e m p t s t o launch r o c k e t s .

I n France, as i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , space e x p l o r a t i o n has c a p t i v a t e d t h e i n -

terest cf t h e ycusg Z;’ecple w h G f o n e r l y drzs-,22 Gf zolon-’,sl conqusst, szronautlzs,

atomic research, e t c . The p r e s e n t generation of t e a c h e r s , who are e i t h e r aware

o f t h e s e problems o r pushed by t h e i r s t u d e n t s , make an e f f o r t d u r i n g p r a c t i c e

s e s s i o n s t o e x p l a i n g r e a t t h e o r i e s with t h e h e l p of concrete examples taken

from t o p s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s . Even on t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l l e v e l e f f o r t s

are made t o o f f e r means f o r experimentation i n o r d e r t o develop a t a s t e for

s c i e n c e and technology. I n t h i s r e s p e c t it should be noted t h a t t h e percentage

of young people i n t h e French population has considerably increased, so t h a t

t h e government f a c e s a n a t i o n a l problem i n t h i s f i e l d of youth r e c r e a t i o n .

For s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e departments and organisms s p e c i a l i z i n g i n space


r e s e a r c h have been swamped w i t h requests by young people f o r advice and h e l p con- -
/3
cerning launching of r o c k e t s . Unfortunately, many a c c i d e n t s happened d u r i n g t h e

development or f i r i n g of missiles. When CNES s t a r t e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n 1962, it

t h e r e f o r e encountered a s i t u a t i o n rather disorganized, b u t r e l a t i v e l y f a v o r a b l e

a s f a r as work w i t h young people w a s concerned. S t a r t i n g i n June 1962, t h e I n -


formation and Documentation Branch of CNES h a s taken up t h e matter of young

b
r o c k e t launchers. I t s r o l e w a s t o study and t o e s t a b l i s h means for f u r t h e r i n g

s c i e n t i f i c vocations and t o plan a c t i v i t i e s which would b r i n g a d o l e s c e n t s i n

c o n t a c t w i t h problems encountered by r e s e a r c h e r s , engineers and t e c h n i c i a n s ,

always keeping i n mind t h e e s s e n t i a l need f o r s a f e t y .

Government a u t h o r i t i e s intervened beginning August 7, 1962. The M i n i s t r y

of t h e I n t e r i o r , after c o n s u l t i n g with t h e M i n i s t r y of t h e Armed Forces and

w i t h CNES, published a memorandum p r o h i b i t i n g t h e launching of experimental

r o c k e t s without c o n t r o l . This c o n t r o l w a s t o be e f f e c t e d by t h e CNES, whose

Information and Documentation Branch had c r e a t e d from t h e very beginning a

Youth Section. CNES w a s a l s o charged w i t h t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e space p r o j e c t s


and w i t h t h e establishment of a l l u s e f u l s a f e t y measures (see Appendix I,

Memorandum of t h e D i r e c t o r General of t h e S b e t e R a t i o n a l e ) . The handling of

products forming t h e composition of p r o p e l l a n t s i s dangerous. French l a w pro-

h i b i t s t h e f a b r i c a t i o n and f i r i n g of explosive m i x t u r e s by i n d i v i d u a l s , and any


,
v i o l a t i o n i s s e v e r e l y punished. Only t h e D i r e c t i o n d e s Poudres L ' ~ ' ~ ~ ' - ~ I ' 'I,

A-Arzr L-O pi IL@ i u r r l a ~ ~ k


an? <:! 1 7 ' 1 .>

A t t h e same t i m e an i n i t i a t i v e was taken by Mr. Gaston Palewski, S t a t e

M i n i s t e r i n charge of S c i e n t i f i c Research and Atomic and Space Problems, who

decided t o launch a program designed t o encourage space s t u d i e s among young

people.

W e w i l l g i v e a summary of measures taken by t h e CNES i n o r d e r t o c a r r y

o u t t h i s program and t o answer t h e c a l l of young people i n t e r e s t e d i n space prob-

lems. It w a s necessary t o channel t h e i r i n t e r e s t and t o g i v e them t h e means f o r

c a r r y i n g o u t experiments. It w a s a l s o necessary t o p r o f i t from t h e circumstances

and t o g i v e a d o l e s c e n t s t h e t a s t e for reference research, f o r t h e establishment

of b i b l i o g r a p h i e s on new s u b j e c t s , f o r observation and experimentation and f o r

7
1 C

t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of results. B r i e f l y , t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c minds had t o b e de-

veloped.

I n t h e f a l l of 1963 t h e program w a s ready t o e n t e r t h e phase of p r a t i c a l

applications. The f i r s t results obtained w e r e p o s i t i v e i n many f i e l d s . Because

of t h e i r r e p e r c u s s i o n and i n s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t it i s s t i l l very e a r l y , w e

w i l l h e r e t a k e up the hopes and a s p e c t s of t h e p o l i c i e s followed by t h e French

n a t i o n a l space r e s e a r c h organism w i t h r e s p e c t t o young people.

8
4

Chapter I1

CNES P o l i c y w i t h Respect t o Young People

The f i r s t t a s k of CNES was t o check t h e f e w e x i s t i n g groups ( t h e r e w e r e ik


f o u r o f them), as w e l l as t h e i n d i v i d u a l people having expressed s e r i o u s i n -

t e r e s t i n space problems, and t h e m e a n s of grouping them. It became i m e d i a t e l y

n e c e s s a r y t o t e a c h elementary s a f e t y rules. CNES d i d t h i s by preparing u s e f u l

textbooks and d i s t r i b u t i n g them on a l a r g e s c a l e .

T h e f i r s t recommendation of t h e CNES t o young space amateurs was t o re-

f r a i n from a t t e m p t s t o f a b r i c a t e p r o p e l l a n t s , i.e., n o t t o b u i l d r o c k e t engines.

T h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n w a s e s p e c i a l l y necessary because t h e r i s k s involved i n t h e


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o p e r a t i o n s may p r e s e n t . Young experimenters can o b t a i n nothing but u n s t a b l e com-

p o s i t i o n s , whose s p e c i f i c impulse i s very weak compared t o t h a t of commercially

f a b r i c a t e d explosives. I n a d d i t i o n , young people do n o t have t h e means of

making any progress i n t h e chemistry o f p r o p e l l a n t s .

The young people, who had made themselves familiar w i t h t h e problems


posed by space s t u d i e s , had t o c o n v i n c e themselves, l i t t l e by l i t t l e , t h a t t h e

r e a l g o a l was n o t only t h e launching of a r o c k e t . They have, s t e p by s t e p ,

undertaken t h e necessary i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t and have understood t h a t a r o c k e t

i s i n t e r e s t i n g only i f it i s n o t a goal i n i t s e l f , b u t a t o o l for making f a s c i -

n a t i n g observations and experiments.

CNES then decided t o d e f i n e t h e t y p e s of p r o p e l l a n t s which t h e youth

groups might use; c a l c u l a t i o n and f a b r i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o p e l l a n t s were e n t r u s t e d

t o specialists. Young people a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of space

r e s e a r c h and want t o l e a r n f i r s t about t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l problems encountered


by e n g i n e e r s and t e c h n i c i a n s . For t h i s purpose it i s , indeed, necessary t o

9
equip them w i t h t h e means f o r launching, t o a s u f f i c i e n t l y high a l t i t u d e , a

r o c k e t capable of housing instruments and a parachute w i t h i t s c o n t r o l device.

Taking i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the means a t t h e d i s p o s i t i o n of youth clubs, it can-

not be expected t h a t t h e y w i l l be able, from t h e start, t o produce m i n i a t u r e

equipment, which means t h a t t h e experimental payload runs t h e r i s k of becoming

r e l a t i v e l y heavy. The average payload weight h a s been estimated a t 5 kg. To

t h i s m u s t be added t h e weight of t h e r o c k e t body, a l s o constructed by t h e young

people themselves. The rest i s t h e engine.

Since none of t h e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e r o c k e t engines i s e x a c t l y s u i t a b l e ,


d.
CNES decided t o have a standaTlzed engine designed and constructed, which would

t h e n be given t o t h e s e youth groups which presented a program of experiments

judged s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t i n g . The f i n a l choice w a s an engine (see Appendix

11, Engine C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) capable of launching v e r t i c a l l y a r o c k e t having an

i n i t i a l weight ranging from 27 kg t o 35 kg t o an a l t i t u d e of from 3,500 m t o

5,000 m. T h i s engine i s b u i l t by t h e Technical Association f o r t h e Study of /5


Rockets under t h e name of ATEF-74 ( f i g . 1). T h i s engine i s a " s h o r t e r " v e r s i o n

of a model widely used by t h e M i n i s t r y of t h e Armed Forces f o r t h e launching of

propelled t a r g e t s o r of l i g h t or smoke c a n i s t e r s . The f u n c t i o n a l s a f e t y of t h e

engines on which t h e ATEF-74 i s b a s e d w a s a l r e a d y a c e r t a i n guaranty. I n addi-

t i o n , CNES has submitted t h e standardized engine t o a series of ground and f l i g h t

t e s t s ( f i g . 2 ) , under t h e c o n t r o l of t h e M i n i s t r y of Armed Forces, i n o r d e r t o

make sure t h a t t h i s engine could s a f e l y be put a t t h e d i s p o s i t i o n of young

people, who are f u l l y informed of t h e p r e c a u t i o n s t o be t a k e n during any f i r i n g

sessions.

The r o c k e t bodies, constructed by t h e youth groups, m u s t be adapted t o t h e

standardized engine and m u s t be designed t o j n s u r e t h e s t a b i l i t y of t h e space

10
vehicle. C e r t a i n l i m i t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h regard t o t h e i r weight, s i z e

and p o s i t i o n of t h e g r a v i t y c e n t e r (fig. 3). CNES does not, however, f u r n i s h

any p l a n s of r o c k e t s o r devices, because t h a t would take away from t h e young

people a l l i n i t i a t i v e and all personal and o r i g i n a l work. The r o c k e t body i s

a t t a c h e d t o t h e engine by a standardized coupling p i e c e ( f i g . 4), which i s

given t o each youth club who h a s submitted an i n t e r e s t i n g p r o j e c t t o CNES.

S t a r t i n g w i t h t h i s piece, it i s possible t o proceed t o t h e a c t u a l b u i l d i n g of

t h e r o c k e t body. One can t h u s be sure t h a t t h e r o c k e t body i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y

a d j u s t e d t o t h e engine. This method permits t h e f i n a l assembly on t h e launching

s i t e and avoids t h e handling of a f u e l - c o n t a i n i n g engine by young people a t a

t i m e when t h e r e i s no c o n t r o l .

The s i z e of t h e r o c k e t body i s l a r g e enough t o house numerous d e v i c e s .

A s an example it i s worth mentioning t h o s e included by a P a r i s i a n youth club:

small parachute, main parachute of 3.30 m diameter, parachute e j e c t o r device,

parachute opening-timing c o n t r o l devices, e l e c t r i c 8 m camera t o film t h e

ground, c o n t a i n e r f o r b i o l o g i c a l experiments ( h e a r t beat and r e s p i r a t o r y rhythm

of a r a t ) , and a t e l e m e t e r i n g t r a n s m i t t e r designed t o t r a n s m i t t o t h e ground the

a l t i t u d e given by an a l t i m e t r i c capsule and t h e measurements obtained on t h e rat.

CNES has s t r e s s e d i n i t s advice t o young people t h a t i s o l a t e d work i s not

effective i n t h i s field. CNES has also i n s i s t e d t h a t young people do n o t t r y t o

b u i l d a r o c k e t by themselves. Building a r o c k e t i s a d e l i c a t e , long and d i f f i c u l t

task. It can only b e t h e result of c o l l e c t i v e teamwork. The young people m u s t

work t o g e t h e r i n planning a program, then conceive and c a r r y o u t a coherent sys-

t e m , where each p a r t m u s t b e thoroughly checked, f i r s t s e p a r a t e l y and t h e n a g a i n

a f t e r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o more and more complex s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s program could, f o r

i n s t a n c e , be composed of t h e following:

11
1. Measurements concerning t h e performance of t h e r o c k e t i t s e l f . This

performance could be made t h e o b j e c t of a t h e o r e t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n

which w i l l l a t e r be compared t o t h e results obtained during f l i g h t .

2. The development of recovery methods f o r t h e r o c k e t and i t s payload

(instruments, animals, e t c . ) .

3. The u s e of complex instruments--telemetering instruments, f o r ex-

ample, --for groups of young people of high e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ( s t u d e n t s

of engineering and of t h e Faculty of Sciences).

The b u i l d i n g of a r o c k e t and the establishment of a s c i e n t i f i c experiment

program require a minimum of b a s i c knowledge. It i s , t h e r e f o r e , d e s i r a b l e t h a t

t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n rocketry s e l e c t members who have an e d u c a t i o n a l

background corresponding a t least t o t h a t of t h e "baccalaureate" of mathematics

or of experimental s c i e n c e s o r t o t h e t e c h n i c a l "baccalaureate". This does n o t

mean, however, t h a t t h e y m u s t exclude young people of a lower e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l

such as high school s t u d e n t s , t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , workers or a p p r e n t i c e s .

They should e n l i s t t h e h e l p of a professor (physics, mathematics) or of a shop

o r l a b o r a t o r y t e a c h e r , engineer, technician, commissioned o r noncommissioned

o f f i c e r of t e c h n i c a l branches o r o t h e r q u a l i f i e d person capable of t e a c h i n g

and guiding t h e young launchers. A t any rate, whatever t h e club or a s s o c i a t i o n ,

it m u s t be place4 under t h e d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an a d u l t . It was t h i s

grouping of t h e young experimenters which e n t a i l e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e beginning,

most of which have been overcome a t the p r e s e n t t i m e .

CNES t r i e s , t h e r e f o r e , t o develop i n s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s of young people

an i n t e r e s t t o be shared by member of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n ( t e a c h e r s of

high schools and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s ) , engineers, m i l i t a r y personnel of t h e t e c h n i c a l

branches, leaders of youth organizations, and p a r e n t s o f s t u d e n t s (whenever t h e y

12
8 a

have a t e c h n i c a l background). It i s t h e g o a l of CNES t o o f f e r t h e s e people t h e

h e l p and advice t h e y may need.

Requests addressed t o t e a c h e r s asking for a s s i s t a n c e and advice have gen-

e r a l l y been w e l l r e c e i v e d . The good w i l l of one t e a c h e r i s n o t always s u f f i c i e n t ,

however, t o r e s o l v e t h e numerous problems which occur. Experience has shown t h a t

t h e schools themselves are t h e most f a v o r a b l e p l a c e s f o r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n and

development of s c i e n t i f i c clubs.

I n a d d i t i o n , m i l i t a r y personnel and s c i e n c e o r engineering s t u d e n t s n o t

y e t f i n i s h e d w i t h t h e i r s t u d i e s are q u i t e w i l l i n g t o s h a r e t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l

and p r a c t i c a l knowledge w i t h young people who d e s i r e t o work on space experi-

ments. The problems encountered i n e n l i s t i n g a d u l t s a b s o l u t e l y i n d i s p e n s a b l e

t o such a c t i v i t i e s are, t h e r e f o r e , being resolved a t t h e p r e s e n t time.

CNES has undertaken t o regroup, according t o r e g i o n or c i t y , t h e young

people who had addressed themselves t o CNES. T h i s e n t a i l e d an important work

of p u t t i n g t h e young people i n contact w i t h each o t h e r i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e use-

f u l groups. CNES t h e n approached t h e d i r e c t o r s of youth a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e S t a t e /7


S e c r e t a r i a t f o r Youth and S p o r t s , t e a c h e r s a s s o c i a t i o n s , governmental and l o c a l

a u t h o r i t i e s , as w e l l a s superintendents and p r o f e s s o r s of e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h -

ments i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e necessary a i d f o r t h e youth groups.

A f i r s t s t a t i s t i c , c o n t a i n i n g 300 c a s e s examined i n 1963, shows t h a t con-


s t r u c t i o n of experimental r o c k e t s i n t e r e s t s n o t o n l y high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s aged

14 t o 19, b u t a l s o a d u l t s w i t h a high e d u c a t i o n a l background ( c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ,


t e c h n i c i a n s and e n g i n e e r s ) , f o r whom t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o use

t h e i r acquired knowledge or t o complete t h e i r education.

The h i g h school s t u d e n t s between 14 and 16 y e a r s o f age approach t h e ex-

periments i n a p u r e l y q u a l i t a t i v e way, t h e y proceed e m p i r i c a l l y and have no


p r e c i s e i d e a of t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l problems involved.

13
.

% a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the young people between 16 and 19 y e a r s of age, i n


s p i t e of t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e of e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l between a high school

s t u d e n t and a candidate f o r i n s t i t u t e s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , i s t h e d e s i r e t o b u i l d

a v e h i c l e f u n c t i o n i n g a c c u r a t e l y and capable of i n c l u d i n g a recoverable payload

of measuring instruments. More than 50 percent of t h e s e young people take or

have t a k e n courses a t t e c h n i c a l schools and p l a n t o c o n s t r u c t t h e materials them-

s e l v e s according t o t h e i r own c a l c u l a t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n s t h e y address t o CNES

concern methods f o r c a l c u l a t i o n s o r c e r t a i n techniques f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r

plans.

A s an example we want t o mention t h a t 850 r e q u e s t s by young people i n t e r e s t e d


i n r o c k e t r y w e r e received a t CNES between September 1, 1962 and September 1, 1963,

and 610 between September 1, 1963 and A p r i l 1, 1964. O f the latter, 460 came
from i n d i v i d u a l s and 130 from members of r e g u l a r l y c o n s t i t u t e d groups.

S t u d e n t s as w e l l as t e a c h e r s a r e w e l l aware of the complexity of t h e prob-

lems posed by t h e launching of a r o c k e t meant t o c a r r y instruments f o r p h y s i c a l

or b i o l o g i c a l experiments. The f i n a l success of t h e experiment depends on t h e

good f u n c t i o n i n g of a l l elements involved. With t h e exception of t h e f a c t o r y -

b u i l t engine, a l l p a r t s of t h e system a r e constructed by t h e c l u b members. The

l e a s t c a l c u l a t i o n e r r o r , an i n c o r r e c t e s t i m a t e of t h e apogee, t h e i n a c c u r a t e ad-

justment of t i m i n g - c o n t r o l d e v i c e s o r poor t r a n s m i s s i o n of r a d i o s i g n a l s can have

i r r e p a r a b l e consequences w i t h regard t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e recovery device, and

l e a d t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e v e h i c l e and t h e instruments on board. This r i s k

has been accepted by t h e young people. From a p u r e l y pedagogic s t a n d p o i n t such

l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e i s i n t e r e s t i n g enough t o a t t r a c t t e a c h e r s . Their contribution

was necessary, and it f i n a l l y turned o u t t h a t t h e i r work w a s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e

c r e a t i o n of an atmosphere of mutual confidence and c o l l a b o r a t i o n .

14
e a

It i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t school p r i n c i p a l s - - i n s p i t e of t h e i r numerous respon- /8


s i b i l i t i e s - - b e c o m e more aware t h a t the spontaneous s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s of

young people are of importance n o t only from a pedagogic s t a n d p o i n t , b u t a l s o

because t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l education of f u t u r e s t a f f m e m b e r s .

Whenever t h e r e i s a group of young people eager t o b u i l d a r o c k e t , t e a c h e r s

f a c e t h e urgent t a s k of i n s t r u c t i n g them i n t h e necessary t h e o r e t i c a l and prac-

t i c a l s t e p s which w i l l enable them t o c a r r y o u t t h e preliminary c a l c u l a t i o n s

c o r r e c t l y and t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e s u l t s . These i n c l u d e t r a j e c t o r y c a l c u l a t i o n s ,

t a k i n g i n t o account r e s i s t a n c e of a i r , weight o f t h e v e h i c l e and engine char-

a c t e r i s t i c s ; measurement of a l t i t u d e by means of a barograph or by o p t i c a l t r i -

a n g u l a t i o n ; measuring of v e l o c i t y by Doppler e f f e c t ; r a d i o t r a c k i n g , e t c .

A g r e a t number of young people who contacted CNES d e p l o r e t h e absence or

t h e i n s u f f i c i e n c y i n t h e i r school textbooks of c h a p t e r s or e x e r c i s e s d e a l i n g

w i t h t h e s e new c e n t e r s of i n t e r e s t . It seems t h a t t h e development of programs,

i n s p i t e of reforms, has n o t kept pace w i t h a youth becoming more e x a c t i n g .

Prominent members of t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s are p r e s e n t l y studying p o s s i b l e

s o l u t i o n s of t h i s problem. CNES i s convinced t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s n o t i n d i f f e r e n t

t o t h e q u e s t i o n s asked by s t u d e n t s w i l l be glad t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s study.

CNES and t h e French S o c i e t y o f A s t r o n a u t i c s have j u s t published a

t e a c h e r ' s handbook c o n t a i n i n g chapters by t h e b e s t s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e f i e l d

and answering t h e need f o r a renewal of t h e s o u r c e s of education. Its t i t l e i s

"Astronautics and Space Research". This book i s designed t o encourage a u t h o r -

i t i e s and t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h mathematics and physics c o u r s e s i n h i g h s c h o o l s and

j u n i o r c o l l e g e s by p r e s e n t i n g new examples t a k e n from t h e space f i e l d and new

p o i n t s of view t o e x p l a i n c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s .
t

Together w i t h t h e inventory of r e q u e s t s , t h e f i r s t c o n t a c t s and t h e d e -

velopment of engines, CNES has undertaken t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of g e n e r a l informa-

t i o n on t h e g o a l s , means and results a l r e a d y obtained i n t h e space f i e l d . An

e f f o r t w a s made simultaneously t o reach t h e young people and t h e i r t e a c h e r s by

d e t a i l e d a r t i c l e s published i n t h e d a i l y newspapers and i n s p e c i a l i z e d p e r i o d i -

cals. An information campaign was c a r r i e d out through r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n .

W e might mention i n t h i s r e s p e c t a series of a s t r o n a u t i c s programs f o r t h e

1963 s c h o o l t e l e v i s i o n , and v a r i o u s interviews of young people f o r t e l e v i s i o n


and designed f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Panel d i s c u s s i o n s on

r a d i o have aroused g r e a t i n t e r e s t . The p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e members o f CNES,

t e a c h e r s , h i g h school and u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and young t e c h n i c i a n s of CNES.

CNES has e s p e c i a l l y o r i e n t e d i t s e f f o r t s t o t h e i n t e r e s t o f young people

by g i v i n g i t s e x h i b i t s a n e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . A g r e a t number of photo-

graphs concerning French space a c t i v i t i e s and of s a t e l l i t e and r o c k e t models

w e r e given on loan t o youth a s s o c i a t i o n s t o be displayed a t l o c a l meetings.

Well-documented a r t i c l e s were published i n "The N a t i o n a l Education", a magazine

d i s t r i b u t e d throughout e d u c a t i o n a l establishments, as w e l l as i n b u l l e t i n s o f

t e a c h e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as t h e one of t h e P h y s i c a l S o c i e t y . CNES has a l s o

l a r g e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e formation of a s t r o n a u t i c s s e c t i o n s i n youth and c u l -

tural centers. F i n a l l y , a s p e c t a c u l a r i n i t i a t i v e was t a k e n by CNES on t h e

o c c a s i o n of i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n of 8 space r e s e a r c h paper a t a conference o f t h e

Northern Regions ( L i l l e ) : among t h e items t o be won a t a raffle were two t r i p s

t o t h e French launching range i n Algeria. The t w o winners will a s s i s t a t a

series of s c i e n t i f i c launchings o f space probes.

CNES i s w e l l aware of t h e f a c t t h a t space s t u d i e s involve c o n s i d e r a b l e ex-

penses f o r young people and t h e r e f o r e t r i e s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f i n a n c i n g of t h e

16
.

group a c t i v i t i e s . It i n c l u d e s i n i t s own budget t h e r o c k e t engines s t a g e s and

t h e h e l p of a t e c h n i c i a n . I n addition, CNES h a s contacted t h e o f f i c i a l author-

i t i e s , such as t h e M i n i s t r y of National Education, t h e S t a t e S e c r e t a r i a t f o r

Youth and S p o r t s (CNES has i t s main o f f i c e a t t h e Youth Science Committee, which


4

i s p a r t of t h e High Committee Youth), and t h e S t a t e M i n i s t r y i n charge of Space


I t

Research. CNES has suggested t h a t t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s a l s o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s .

S p e c i a l mention should be made of t h e a i d o f f e r e d by t h e M i n i s t r y of t h e

Armed Forces i n t h i s f i e l d . They p u t t h e launching f i e l d s a t t h e d i s p o s a l of t h e

youth groups, t h e y f u r n i s h means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e y have f u r n i s h e d , free

of charge, equipment i n good condition, b u t o b s o l e t e .

I n a d d i t i o n every e f f o r t i s being made t o o b t a i n t h e cooperation of p r i v a t e

firms (such as g i f t s of equipment by e l e c t r o n i c s companies, f o r example).

F i n a l l y , t h e young people are encouraged t o c o l l a b o r a t e as much as p o s s i b l e

w i t h c l u b s o r a s s o c i a t i o n s whose a c t i v i t i e s can h e l p w i t h t h e development of

s c i e n t i f i c experiment programs, such a s r a d i o amateurs, e l e c t r o n i c s amateurs,

amateur camera men, amateur astronomers o r m e t e o r o l o g i s t s , e t c .

The g e n e r a l plans proposed by CNES a t t h e beginning were being worked o u t /10


l i t t l e by l i t t l e i n more d e t a i l . The i s o l a t e d young people made c o n t a c t , c l u b s

were formed, b u i l d i n g s were found and adapted, a d u l t s u p e r v i s o r s became familiar

w i t h t h e problems, experimental p r o j e c t s were s t a r t e d and t h e r e q u e s t s f o r launch-

i n g a u t h o r i z a t i o n s started coming i n . It became necessary t o f a c e numerous small

b u t e s s e n t i a l problems, such as taking o u t of insurance p o l i c i e s . The o r g a n i z i n g

of t h e groups themselves had t o be watched c l o s e l y , guidance and i n s t r u c t i o n w a s

i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of experiments, b u i l d i n g of t h e r o c k e t body,

and t h e c o n t r o l over t h e whole assembly by CUES. Necessary s t e p s were t a k e n f o r

t h e recovery of any equipment t h a t could b e used again. Everything had t o be


planned i n such a way a s t o i n s u r e complete s a f e t y and t o guaranty a c e r t a i n

measure of success t o t h e young people and t h e a d u l t s i n charge.

They f u r n i s h newly forming groups w i t h d i r e c t i o n s and guidance con-

cerning t h e various ways i n which a club can be c o n s t i t u t e d and t h e con-

t a c t s which can b e e s t a b l i s h e d between t h e c l u b s and l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s

o r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c a l l y s c i e n t i f i c c h a r a c t e r .

They give a l l groups p r a c t i c a l advice as t o b u i l d i n g and launching of

experimental r o c k e t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r of r o c k e t s using t h e standardized engine

stage ATEF-74.
They h e l p o b t a i n a l l t h e necessary information so t h a t CNES can guide

and c o n t r o l t h e group a c t i v i t i e s . This i s done by two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .

One concerns t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f each group, t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and

staffing of i t s members, i t s f i n a n c i a l means, i t s techniques and equip-

ment. The o t h e r one concerns the planned program of experiments: r e -

covery device f o r payload and engine, measuring p r i n c i p l e and r e l a t e d

equipment (accelerometer, anemometer, a l t i m e t e r , thermocouples,. ..) ;


s p e c i f i c experiments, e.g., b i o l o g i c a l experiments ( h e a r t b e a t of' an a n i -

m a l , r e s p i r a t o r y rhythm, electroencephalogram,. ..); t r a n s m i s s i o n of s i g -

n a l s ( p r i n c i p l e of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r , c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c i e s , mode of modu-

l a t i o n ) ; ground r e c e p t i o n o f t h e t e l e m e t e r i n g and mode of d a t a

t r a n s c r i p t i o n ; p o s s i b l y camera work, remote c o n t r o l and r a d i o t r a c k i n g ;

and f i n a l l y t h e calendar f o r d e t a i l e d planning of study and c o n s t r u c t i o n

of t h e r o c k e t and i t s experimental equipment. A l l schematics, drawings

and c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a n s m u s t be furnished f o r t h e r o c k e t s t r u c t u r e as w e l l

a s f o r t h e mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l d e v i c e s and t h e e l e c t r o n i c components.

18
A d e t a i l e d r e p o r t of t h e p l a n s and p r o j e c t s , v e r i f i e d by a q u a l i f i e d t e c h -

n i c a l c o n s u l t a n t , i s t h e r e f o r e indispensable f o r o b t a i n i n g t h e engine s t a g e and

t h e means f o r launching ( s i t e s ) . W e a l s o recommend t h a t t h e various p r o j e c t s

b e grouped, i n as much as p o s s i b l e , on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . T h i s permits t h e

s e l e c t i o n of one launching s i t e f o r s e v e r a l clubs. CNES examines t h e p r o j e c t s

and h e l p s t h e i n t e r e s t i n g ones.

C l u b s whose p r o j e c t s have been approved are r e q u i r e d , p r i o r t o launching,

t o e s t a b l i s h a c h e c k l i s t of d e t a i l e d and chronometrical d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l opera-

t i o n s t o be performed on s i t e up t o launching of t h e r o c k e t . , The c h e c k l i s t m u s t

mention how t h e work i s d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e group members. The r e s u l t of each

o p e r a t i o n m u s t be reported on t h e c h e c k l i s t during and a f t e r t h e experiment.


Chapter I11

Activities of the Clubs and Results of First Rocket Launchings

There are now in France 23 regularly constituted clubs with approximately

450 members, 370 of which are students of secondary schools (high schools and

technical schools) and 80 are students of engineering schools. Most of the

clubs belong to either one of two organizations. One is the movement 'Youth-

Science" (? groups), the other one is the "National Association of Scientific

Club'' (16 clubs). In addition, the "French Cosmos Club" is interested in

theoretical studies and in scientific and technical documentation. The club

"Aviation-Youth-Space"has been created very recently and is only in the

organizational stage. Seven clubs are in the Parisian region, 16 in the pro-

vinces.

The following is brief indication of the average age and educational level

of group members:

18 clubs are "high school" clubs. The students are in their senior year
and the average age is 17.

5 clubs correspond to a higher educational level. The average age is


2G-21.

The staff of these groups is composed as follows:

Permanent staff members:

55 persons (40 professors or laboratory teachers, 10 engineers and tech-

nicians, 5 educators from youth organizations and the Armed Forces).


Occasional Consultants:

30 adults (15 college or university professors and medical researchers, 15


engineers and technicians).

20
8

It m u s t be expected t h a t t h e time needed f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s of t h e ex-

periments on board and of b u i l d i n g a r o c k e t v a r i e s between 5 months f o r t h e


groups having p r i o r experience t o 18 months f o r t h e groups p r e p a r i n g t h e i r

f i r s t launching. T h i s t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t t h e club members a r e a l l

o t h e r w i s e busy and pursue t h i s a c t i v i t y o n l y d u r i n g t h e i r s p a r e t i m e . /12


The t a b l e below g i v e s an idea of t h e t y p e of experiments done by the c l u b s

of young people w i t h experimental rockets launched i n 1963 and 1964.

The equipment and necessary means f o r c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s campaign are q u i t e

important and complex. They are b e i n g f u r n i s h e d by:

the M i n i s t r y of the Armed Forces: v e h i c l e s and personnel, camping equip-

ment (group t e n t s ) , e l e c t r i c energy, f i r i n g range;

CNES: launching s t a n d , engines and equipment, pyrotechnic t r a c e r s , t h r e e

t r a n s m i t t e r - r e c e i v e r s 27.14 MHz f o r l i n k i n g ground o b s e r v a t i o n p o s t s , f i e l d

telephone ( s t a n d t o f i r i n g p o s t l i n k ) , equipment f o r s e t t i n g up t h e stand;

by t h e clubs: a l l the o t h e r necessary ground equipment, i n a d d i t i o n t h e

equipment b u i l t by them and i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o the f u n c t i o n i n g of the r o c k e t

body i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e f i r i n g c a b l e w i t h i t s e l e c t r i c supply

( b a t t e r i e s ) , equipment f o r mounting pyrotechnic t r a c e r s , hand t o o l s , f e n c e

f o r t h e s a f e t y zone and, where necessary, equipment f o r o p t i c a l t r a c k i n g ,

t r i a n g u l a t i o n and r a d i o t r a c k i n g .

CNES c o o r d i n a t e s t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and use of a l l t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s and equip-

ment.

The following launchings were accomplished s t a r t i n g i n t h e f a l l of 1963.

I n November, 1963, a r o c k e t named ALGOL (diameter 0.16 m, l e n g t h 1.75 m y t o t a l


weight 30 kg: 10.5 kg f o r t h e payload and the r o c k e t body) b u i l t by members of
t h e A s s o c i a t i o n of A s t r o n a u t i c s Amateurs (A.A.A. ) , w a s launched a t Sissonne,

21
s .

Experiments and Data furnished by CNES Work of the young people


planned measurements

1) Aerodynamic Maximum forward position Calculation of the optimal

stability of the aerodynamical position of the center of

focus gravity. Weight distri-

bution around it

Maximum forward position

of the optimal gravity

center of the rocket

2) Method of Thrust characteristics Determination of the

recovery of the engine needed optimal ejection in-

for the calculation of stance of the para-

the velocity vs time chute

curve Electronic timing devices

controlling: opening of

the 2 nose cone halves by

electromagnets or explod-

ing bolts, ejection of

the nose cone tip in a

forward direction and

powder charge separation

of rocket body from engine

stage
3) Acceleration 1) Accelerograph,moving
measurement mass accelerometer with

pen and rotating drum

22
w .

Experiments and Work of t h e young people

planned m e a suremen t s

2) Accelerometer changing

an e l e c t r i c q u a n t i t y i n

o r d e r t o modulate a t e l e -

metering t r a n s m i t t e r

A l t i m e t r i c capsule: d i r e c t

d a t a r e a d i n g on a drum o r

modulation of a t e l e m e t e r i n g

transmitter

3 ) B i o l o g i c a l experiments: Telemetry t r a n s m i t t e r

a ) s t u d y o f an animal modulation (amplitude o r

h e a r t beat (rat o r frequency)

mouse)\

b ) Encephalogram of Telemetry t r a n s m i t t e r modu-

animal lation

c ) Skin temperature S e n s i t i v e thermocouples and

t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i t t e r modu-

lation

6) Tracking /13
a) Optical tracking Tracking by t h e o d o l i t e and

triangulation

b) Radio t r a c k i n g Radio beacon, 27, 14 MHz or

144 MHz, on board of t h e r o c k e t .


Ground r e c e i v e r s equipped w i t h

d i r e c t i o n a l antennas
.

Aisne. The program of experiments comprised observation concerning r e a c t i o n of

a r a t d u r i n g t h e f l i g h t ( t e l e m e t r y of t h e h e a r t b e a t ) , determination by t e l e m e t r y

of t h e a l t i t u d e of t h e r o c k e t , a f i l m taken i n f l i g h t w i t h an on-board camera

f o r studying t h e behavior of t h e engine, recovery of t h e r o c k e t (opening of t h e

parachute c o n t r o l l e d by timing d e v i c e s ) .

The results of t h i s experiment were t h e following: t h e r o c k e t k e p t i t s

s t a b i l i t y i n s p i t e of t h e premature opening of t h e p l a s t i c nose cone and pursued

i t s t r a j e c t o r y up t o an a l t i t u d e of approximately 2,500 m. The r a t ' s h e a r t b e a t

w a s observed f o r s h o r t t i m e and a c o r r e c t cardiogram obtained. The camera and /14


recovery system functioned, but t h e parachute l i n e s were broken d u r i n g t h e opening

of t h e nose cone, t h e speed a t t h i s moment being of t h e o r d e r of 300 m/s.

W e t h i n k it i s of i n t e r e s t t o g i v e some d e t a i l s on t h e two launchings a c -

complished a t Courtine, Creuse, i n December, 1963. The f i r s t r o c k e t (diameter

0.16 m, l e n g t h 1.80 m y t o t a l weight 27.5 kg, 8 kg f o r payload and r o c k e t body)


w a s b u i l t by t h e Group f o r Rocket Propulsion S t u d i e s . The experimental program

comprised t h e following: rocket-to-ground t e l e m e t r y transmission of o b s e r v a t i o n s

of t h e two r a t s during f l i g h t (cardiogram and encephalogram), of t h e a l t i t u d e

a t t a i n e d , of t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n and of t h e temperature d i f f e r e n c e s of t h e gas

f i l m alongside t h e cone and t h e cone t i p . The program a l s o included studying

t h e engine behavior by camera and recovery of t h e r o c k e t . The camera and t h e

recovery d e v i c e were operated by remote c o n t r o l .

The recovery ground zone could n o t be determined w i t h accuracy. According

t o a l o c a l p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r o c k e t nose cone came down normally, a t -

tached t o i t s parachute a f t e r having separated from t h e engine s t a g e . A t about

8 km north-west of t h e launching place, a dead W i s t a r r a t w a s found and w e m u s t


s u s p e c t that t h e nose cone and t h e parachute were found and taken by a peasant.

24
e

Following t h i s experiment, i t w a s decided t o equip t h e r o c k e t s w i t h o p t i c a l

t r a c e r s so t h a t t h e y can be tracked down t o t h e end.

The second launching of December, 1963 w a s prepared by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l


Space Club (C.S.I.). The s t u d i e s planned f o r t h e r o c k e t named EUROPE ALPHA

(same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as r o c k e t ALGOL) were t h e following: observations at’ t h e

h e a r t b e a t of a mouse during f l i g h t and t r a n s m i t t e d t o ground by telemetry,

d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e r o c k e t a l t i t u d e , a c c e l e r a t i o n telemetry, measurement of t h e

m a x i m u m dynamic p r e s s u r e , study of t h e s t r e n g t h of e l e c t r o n i c t u b e s under a c -

c e l e r a t i o n e f f e c t s , f i n d i n g of t h e rocket a f t e r i t s landing by t r a n s m i t t e d p u l s e s ,

recovery of t h e r o c k e t ( i n e r t i a l c o n t r o l l e d parachute equipped w i t h a time-lock

d u r i n g t h e powered f l i g h t . )

I n t h i s case t h e e j e c t i o n device of t h e parachute worked normally and w a s

found approximately 2,000 m from t h e launching stand. The r o c k e t wreckage w a s

recovered a t 500 m from t h e p o i n t o f parachute landing. The study of t h e re-

maining p i e c e s led t o t h e conclusion t h a t t h e parachute t i e cable w a s t o o weak

and broke.

The preceding examples show t h a t t h e f i r s t launchings d i d n o t g i v e a l l t h e

expected r e s u l t s , but t h e s e h a l f failures of 1963 were followed by 2 s p e c t a c u l a r

successes obtained i n t h e s p r i n g of 1964 a t t h e Camp of Sissonne and t h e Camp

of Larzac (Aveyron) .
The second r o c k e t of t h e A.A.A., ALGOL-2F, served t h e following e x p e r i -

mental program: determination of t h e r o c k e t a l t i t u d e , s t u d y of t h e engine be- /15


h a v i o r by camera, determination of t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n , o p t i c a l t r a c k i n g d u r i n g t h e

ascending p a r t of t h e t r a j e c t o r y , transmission t o ground by means of coded

a u d i b l e s i g n a l s , on-board measurements w i t h t a p e r e c o r d i n g of t h e s i g n a l s , re-

covery of t h e r o c k e t . An e l e c t r o n i c timing system c o n t r o l l e d s e p a r a t i o n of t h e

25
8 .

r o c k e t body from t h e engine s t a g e a t t h e apogee, opening of t h e parachute and

working of t h e camera.

The r o c k e t , weighing 33 kg, reached an a l t i t u d e of 3,600 m. The opening

of t h e parachute, 22 s e e a f t e r departure, caused t h e camera t o s t a r t working.

The a c c e l e r a t i o n s i g n a l s were received on t h e ground, as w e l l as p a r t of t h e

a l t i t u d e signals. The transmission stopped when t h e parachute opened because

t h e w i r e broke between t h e c a l i b r a t e d altimeter r e s i s t o r and t h e modulator s t a g e .

The camera motor worked, b u t t h e f i l m d i d n o t t u r n normally because t h e s p o o l

axis had been affected during t h e opening shock. With t h e h e l p of t r a c e r s ,

l i g h t e d 7 sec before d e p a r t u r e of t h e r o c k e t , t h e engine could be tracked up t o

i t s apogee. A t r i a n g u l a t i o n made from radio-equipped o b s e r v a t i o n p o s t s l e d t o

t h e r o c k e t recovery i n less t h a n 45 minutes. The r a t , wearing a space s u i t ,

withstood t h e b a l l i s t i c f l i g h t v e r y w e l l and w a s found safe and sound i n i t s

capsule 4 km from t h e launching p o i n t and i n t h e planned d i r e c t i o n .

The r o c k e t "ESPERANCE" launched i n May, 1964 had been b u i l t by t h e A.A.A./

O.L.M. (Local Organization of Montpellier, H e r a u l t ) . I t s e s s e n t i a l goal w a s

the study of a recovery system by electromagnetic c o n t r o l . The program com-

prised i n addition: accelerogram recording, transmission t o ground and t a p e

r e c o r d i n g of modulated s i g n a l s r e f e r r i n g t o a l t i t u d e v a r i a t i o n s , recovery of

t h e r o c k e t by e l e c t r o n i c timing which, by means of electromagnets, c o n t r o l l e d

t h e opening of t h e 2 nose cone halves and t h e e j e c t i o n of t h e parachute.

Launched a t an angle o f 7 5 O , t h e r o c k e t (diameter 0.16 m, l e n g t h 1.85 m,

t o t a l weight 35 kg, 20.9 f o r engine and t r a c e r s and 14.11 kg f o r payload and

r o c k e t body) could be tracked up t o more t h a n 2,000 m by means of t h e t r a c e r s .

The apogee a l t i t u d e , a s found from r a d i o s i g n a l s received a t t h e ground, w a s

approximately 3,500 m. The e j e c t i o n c o n t r o l of t h e parachute worked p e r f e c t l y

26
and the r o c k e t w a s found 4,000 m from the launching p l a c e i n the launching axis.

I n s p i t e of a r a p i d f a l l a t t r i b u t e d t o a t e a r i n t h e parachute, t h e engine and

t h e r o c k e t body were found i n good shape. Only t h e equipment on board had s u f -

f e r e d damage. The accelerograph gave the f o l l o w i n g results: acceleration a t

departure: + 4.5 g, d e c e l e r a t i o n a t the end of powered f l i g h t : - 2 g.

Two series of r o c k e t s of smaller dimensions equipped w i t h s m a l l e r pro- fs


p e l l a n t loads were launched, a f t e r checking w i t h CNES, by s e c t i o n s of t h e

Youth-Science Movement, whose members are a d o l e s c e n t s of a younger age t h a n

t h o s e u s i n g t h e engine standardized by CNES. These launchings were p a r t i a l l y

successful.

The p r o g r e s s made by t h e young people w i t h t h e i r experiments from f a l l

1963 to s p r i n g 1964 i s , indeed, very encouraging. One group e x p e c i a l l y , t h e

A.A.A., has launched a r o c k e t d u r i n g each of i t s 2 campaigns. A t the present

t i m e , numerous p r o j e c t s have been submitted t o CNES. During t h e f a l l of 1964,

6 launchings have been planned and w i l l be accomplished i n one week from t h e


same f i r i n g range. F i v e r o c k e t s have been c o n s t r u c t e d by P a r i s i a n groups and

one by a p r o v i n c i a l group. Another group of young people has t a k e n over t h e

task of a s s u r i n g t h e ground communications and t h e f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e t e l e -

metry-receiving equipment. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e members of 3 p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a -

t i o n s , who have a l r e a d y planned launchings f o r s p r i n g , 1965, w i l l be p r e s e n t

i n o r d e r t o g a i n a p r e l i m i n a r y experience. They w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n t r i -

a n g u l a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , t e s t i n g of ground r a d i o equipment and recovery o f t h e

engines .
The following experiments have been planned f o r t h e s e launchings:

1) a c c e l e r a t i o n and a l t i t u d e measurements, e i t h e r by r e c o r d i n g of minimums

and m a x i m u m s , or by telemetry;
2) tests of several parachute ejection systems (as a follow-up on improve-
ments made by 2 groups on their devices used in 1963);

3) tests of telemetry transmitters and receivers in bands of 144 and 27 MHz,


in order to determine which transmitter to adopt in 1963;

4) development of a mixed tracking network: optical (theodolite) and

radioelectric (radio beacons and receivers with directional antennas) ;

3) biological experiments on r a t s of heartbeat and skin temperature, with

transmission to ground of the measurements done on board.

Finally, there is the report that some groups with failures now work on

theoretical problems in order to improve their future results. Others are

patiently preparing their first launching and apply themselves to advanced

studies.

The program planned for 1963 distinguishes between

a) the group who will restrict themselves to technological experiments

(rocket stability, recovery, acceleration o r altitude measurements) ;

they will compare their experience to that of older clubs;

b) the groups who have already accomplished one or more launchings and who

will make an effort to develop radioelectric links: increase in range

and instrument sensitivity, increase in the number of channels of the

telemetry instruments and increase in the number of parameters meas-

ured; recovery systems: use of subsequent parachutes with increasing

surface to diminish scatter during descent; and tracking systems, es-

pecially ground facilities.

28
Chapter N

Repercussions and Prospects

It seems that the necessary background for learning how to develop a rocket

consists of the following topics: aerodynamics and flight mechanics (elementary

parts), radio electronics, electromechanics and elementary theory of servomech-

anism, technology (machining methods), strength of materials, biology (elemen-

tary, if necessary).

Pointers necessary for the scientific and technical education and relative

to rocketry are found by analyzing the failures and successes of the experiments.

A few examples of these follow.

Two failures have contributed to acquiring a better appreciation of the


forces liberated by the explosives. The use of too strong a charge for the

separation of the nose cone from the engine stage had led to breakage of a tele-

metry circuit and to malfunction of the camera. Similarly, too strong a charge

of the exploding bolt had led to breakage of the pie ce coupling the nose cone

to the engine stage. Tests on the exploding charges are now planned more

rationally: a preliminary calculation is followed by tests, step by step, start-

ing with a low charge.

A rocket was damaged because the parachute broke. An inspection of the


mishap has shown that the forces involved in the aerodynamic f l o w and in the

shock of the parachute had been underestimated for parachute material which was

too thin. The young people are in this way led to making preliminary tests of

static nature o r in flight, and these will become more numerous and more ac-

curate.

Malfunctions in radio transmission have led the interested people to con-

trol, ahead of time, the quality of the components making up the transmission

29
0
i

and r e c e i v i n g equipment, and t o make ground transmission t e s t s . Also t h e topog-

raphy of t h e f i r i n g ranges m u s t be s e r i o u s l y s t u d i e d , i n o r d e r t h a t o s b t a c l e s

be found t h a t could hamper t h e propagation of waves. Finally, optical tracking

should be included t o r e p l a c e f a i l i n g r a d i o t r a c k i n g , s i n c e t h i s would lead t o

l o s s of t h e r o c k e t . Recognition of r e l i a b i l i t y f a c t o r s now demand t h e a d d i t i o n

of a second system as a s a f e t y f a c t o r .

Accurate c a l c u l a t i o n s became necessary, e s p e c i a l l y by t h e groups which i n -

cluded s t u d e n t s i n s c i e n c e s or engineering. A s t u d e n t from t h e s e groups had used

a s a f e t y device on a r o c k e t , made up of a p i n t o be broken by a f o r c e of 150 N,

b u t capable of s u s t a i n i n g a c c e l e r a t i o n and d e c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e s . The margin of

s a f e t y w a s very much reduced, and c a l c u l a t i o n s have shown t h a t a thousandth of a

m i l l i m e t e r p r e c i s i o n i n machining was necessary. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e d u c t i o n of /18


t h e t e s t d a t a , and t h e f i n d i n g of t h e r o c k e t t r a j e c t o r y as a f u n c t i o n of weight,

a n g l e of f i r e , t h r u s t , ground and a l t i t u d e winds, y i e l d t h e causes of success o r

of f a i l u r e and l e a d t o t h e discovery of t h e e f f e c t s of t h e d i s t u r b i n g elements.

The young people can, therefore, become acquainted w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l

problems and whatever gaps e x i s t i n t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l background. They can a l s o

become aware of system and planning e r r o r s , and t h i s l e a d s them i n t u r n t o make

t h e necessary e f f o r t i n o r d e r t o fill t h e s e gaps. This i s emphatically shown by

t h e v a r i o u s examples of p r o g r e s s accomplished i n t h e r a d i o communication f i e l d by

young people who so f a r had only a t h e o r e t i c a l background.

I n a d d i t i o n , teamwork widens t h e i r awareness of systems and planning, and

t h e i r s p i r i t of coordination, although both m u s t exist from t h e o u t s e t . Team-

work a l s o develops i n t h e young t h e i r patience, s e r i o u s n e s s , s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e ,

a l l of which are necessary i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d . It a l s o develops a t t r i b u t e s

of a psychological n a t u r e needed f o r g e t t i n g along among themselves.


.

The f a c t t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and management of t h e s e youth c l u b s do

evolve seems t o prove t h a t t h e hopes which were expressed a t t h e o u t s e t were

w e l l founded. Having s t a r t e d o u t as clubs made up of high school s t u d e n t s ,

t h e s e groups now e n l i s t t h e i r members from c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n s c i e n c e and

e n g i n e e r i n g and from young t e c h n i c i a n s a l r e a d y working p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . Since

t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l elements have a much h i g h e r degree of maturity, marked i m -

provement i n t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e c l u b s r e s u l t e d , a s t h e y began t o

resemble r e s e a r c h c e n t e r s . A t t h e same t i m e t h e planned experiments grew i n

complexity. The y e a r 1964 was devoted t o s o l v i n g p u r e l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l problems

such as aerodynamic s t a b i l i t y , recovery, measurement of b a s i c f l i g h t parameter.

CNES proposes t o develop i n 1965 an engine s t a g e which w i l l p e r m i t i n c r e a s e i n


payload and c e i l i n g h e i g h t of experimental r o c k e t s . This w a s requested by

many groups anxious t o make p h y s i c a l measurements on t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e l a y e r s of

t h e atmosphere o r t o study t h e behavior o f animals launched t o much h i g h e r a l t i -

tudes.
. 4

Chapter V

Conclusion

The e f f o r t s of CNES t o h e l p young people c a r r y o u t v a l u a b l e experiments


WQS
i n complete safety, an answer t o a d e f i n i t e need. The p o l i c y which w a s s e l e c t e d

has been applied without excess.

By p r e s e n t i n g t h e r o c k e t as a means f o r g a t h e r i n g information, CNES hopes

t o awaken t h e vocations of r e s e a r c h e r and t e c h n i c i a n . The performance of t h e

r o c k e t i t s e l f i s , t h e r e f o r e , of l e s s e r importance t h a n t h e accuracy of t h e meas-

urements. The c a r e and p r e c i s i o n broughtto t h e conception and development of a

system are e s p e c i a l l y appreciated and encouraged. The most s e r i o u s members of

t h e teams w i l l l a t e r form t h e b r a i n trust of space e x p l o r a t i o n . Reliable,

e n t h u s i a s t i c , used t o teamwork, t h e y w i l l become t h e staff of l a b o r a t o r i e s , re-

s e a r c h c e n t e r s and i n d u s t r i e s working on t h e s e p i l o t p r o j e c t s .

It can be s a i d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s of 2 y e a r s work a r e promising; the ex-

perimental rocket can j u s t l y be c a l l e d an " a u x i l i a r y t e a c h i n g a i d " .

On one hand, t e a c h e r s a r e an e s s e n t i a l element needed f o r making t h e c l u b s

effective. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e space experiments of young people a c t u a l l y

h e l p t o renew t h e pedagogics of science. They f a c i l i t a t e education, s i n c e t h e

c o n c r e t e example i s u s e f u l f o r b e t t e r understanding of t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s . They

even l e a d t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of-new knowledge as a consequence of t h e documentary

r e s e a r c h t h e y imply. It m u s t be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e enthusiasm of young people

f o r r o c k e t r y does not keep them from achieving a good s c h o l a s t i c record. Those

who spend t h e i r s p a r e time i n s e a r c h of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and who work s e r i -

ously i n t h e clubs are a l s o t h e b e s t s t u d e n t s of mathematics and physics.

32
Although space occupies a t t h e p r e s e n t time a n important p l a c e i n t h e i n -

t e r e s t of young people, it i s s t i l l too e a r l y t o speak of a t r u e o r i e n t a t i o n

towards s c i e n t i f i c c a r e e r s and techniques. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e "youth"

p o l i c y of CNES i s still l i m i t e d . Nevertheless, w e can s t a t e t h a t an e x c e l l e n t

j o b of e d u c a t i o n and information h a s been started, and t h a t t h e f r u i t of t h i s

work w i l l become apparent when t h e young people become a d u l t s and t a k e t h e i r

p l a c e i n the working world.

CrJES i s w e l l a w a r e t h a t t h e r e a r e numerous r o c k e t amateurs i n many c o u n t r i e s .

The French a u t h o r i t i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these a c t i v i t e s , which i n our country are

t i e d t o education and c u l t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n , would b e i n t e r e s t e d t o l e a r n of t h e

r e s u l t s and hopes of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n t h i s f i e l d .

This brings US t o formulate a wish. I n view of t h e expenses involved i n

p r e p a r i n g s c i e n t i f i c r o c k e t launchings, i s it t o o ambitious t o t h i n k t h a t young

people of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Europe, could be meeting i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l

v a c a t i o n camps o r seminars i n o r d e r t o pool t h e i r work and organize common launch- -


/20

i n g campaigns? This would r e q u i r e a coordinated p r e l i m i n a r y p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e i r

space experience. W e would be w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a p r o j e c t .

I wish t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e thanks t o Miss J a c q u e l i n e Defond, i n charge of

p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and p r e s s a t CNES, f o r h e r v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s re-

p o r t , and t o Mr. Jacques Delaunay, i n charge of t h e youth program a t CNES, who

has gathered t h e information presented i n t h i s r e p o r t .

F i g u r e s 5-8. Drawings o f experimental r o c k e t s and ground equipment submitted

by youth groups

33
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38
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Appendix I

CIRCULAR OF AUGUST 7, 1962, No. 490, from t h e MINISTRY OF TBF: INTERIOR

O f f i c e of t h e D i r e c t o r General of t h e Sf;ret’e Nationale,

D i r e c t i o n of R u l e s and Regulations,

S u b d i r e c t i o n of I n t e r i o r Rules and Regulations,

O f f i c e of t h e General P o l i c e

The M i n i s t e r of t h e I n t e r i o r

to

The P o l i c e P r e f e c t and

The P r e f e c t s (Metropolitan

Area)

Subject: m p e r i m e n t a l Rockets

I n cooperation w i t h t h e Ministry of t h e Armed Forces, I have s t u d i e d

f o r s e v e r a l months t h e problems posed by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e launching of

experimental r o c k e t s by young people.

From a l l t h e information gathered, it appears t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e

extremely dangerous, e s p e c i a l l y because of t h e handling of p r o p e l l a n t m i x t u r e s

without desirable s a f e t y precautions.

Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s and i n accordance w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r of t h e Armed

Forces, I have decided t o p r o h i b i t any i n i t i a t i v e i n t h i s f i e l d without o f f i c i a l

control.

By t h i s a c t of p r o h i b i t i o n I do n o t want t o discourage t h e e f f o r t of t h e

young people i n question, b u t t o i n s u r e t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n as w e l l as t h a t of t h e


population i n general.
43
It w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be necessary from now on t h a t young people who d e s i r e

t o b u i l d o r launch experimental rockets f i r s t make o f f i c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h t h e

N a t i o n a l Center of Space S t u d i e s , 129 rue de l ' U n i v e r s i t 6 , P a r i s 7e (Tel.: INV.

49-39, ext. 444), which i s authorized t o d i r e c t such p r o j e c t s of young people,


t o provide them w i t h a l l u s e f u l recommendations and, i f necqssary, t o h e l p

them w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e i r tests.

I l e a v e up t o you t h e ways of giving t h i s c i r c u l a r a l l t h e p u b l i c i t y you

may judge d e s i r a b l e , so t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and launching of experimental

r o c k e t s by young people w i l l t a k e place, from now on, under c o n d i t i o n s s a t i s -

factory t o public safety.

For t h e Mfnist.~.rof the Int.e-iir

and by d e l e g a t i o n ,

The D i r e c t o r General of t h e
n
S u r e t e Nationale,

Jacques Aubert.

44
L c

Appendix I1

1
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e Engine Stage ATEF-74

given by CNES t o t h e group of young people who propose a program

of i n t e r e s t i n g s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l experiments.

Body

made of a duraluminum t u b e

i n t e r i o r diameter: 150 mm

e x t e r i o r diameter: 160 mm
length: 380 IUEI

Nozzles

made of s o f t i r o n w i t h g r a p h i t e neck

h a l f a n g l e of t h e t o p o f t h e converging tube: 45'


h a l f angle of t h e t o p of t h e d i v e r g i n g tube: loo

neck c r o s s s e c t i o n : approximately 450 mm2

O v e r a l l l e n g t h of t h e body-nozzle combination: 530 mm


Fins

screwed t o t h i s engine i s a 160 mm diameter t u b e on which are soldered,

i n c r o s z f i g u r a t i o n , f i n s of i s o s c e l e s t r a p e z o i d form:

1
For s a f e t y reasons t h e engine i s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e launching f i e l d . The coupling

p i e c e i s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e c l u b s during e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e program because it i s

needed f o r assembly of t h e r o c k e t body.

45
o v e r a l l span: 510 (160 + 2 x 175)
base s i d e : 250 mm I . .

outer side: 100 mm

O v e r a l l l e n g t h of combined engine and f i n s : 696 mm (without coupling p i e c e )

The t o t a l weight of t h e combined engine and f i n s (without coupling p i e c e

and without f u e l ) i s of t h e order of 12.5 kg

P r o p e l l a n t Charge

c o n s i s t s of a 300 mm l i n g block of p l a s t o l i t e w i t h a c e n t e r h o l e having

t h e form of a ten-sided s t a r :

plaat,nlFt.e wetght. 6 3 kg
~

i n h i b i t o r weight: 0.7 kg

Powder c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and engine performance

s p e c i f i c impulse: approximately 180 s e c on ground under 4 MPa

combustion t i m e : 4.65 f 0.10 s

i n t e r i o r pressure of t h e chamber: approximately 4 MPa

t h r u s t on ground: approximately 2,500 N .

T h i s t r u s t remains approximately c o n s t a n t d u r i n g t h e whole period of

combustion.

46