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PROPORSI KANINUS MAKSILA YANG DIPREDIKSI IMPAKSI

BERDASARKANANALISIS FOTO PANORAMIK PASIEN


BERUMUR 9-12 TAHUN DI KLINIK RSGMP – FKG USU

ABSTRAK

Impaksi kaninus maksila merupakan anomali gigi yang sering ditemui. Ortodontis
penting untuk mengetahui kemungkinan kaninus akan mengalami impaksi atau tidak. Di
antara prosedur diagnostik untuk memprediksi kaninus yang berpotensi mengalami impaksi
yaitu pemeriksaan radiografi panoramik rutin dari gigi bercampur.Banyak metode penelitian
terdahulu memprediksi impaksi kaninus. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan
pengukuran sektor, angulasi, posisi antero-posterior apeks akar kaninus dan mahkota kaninus
dalam arah vertikal berdasarkan analisis foto panoramik pasien berumur 9-12 tahun.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proporsi kaninus maksila yang diprediksi
impaksi berdasarkan keempat variabel diatas, faktor mana yang paling besar proporsinya
pada pengukuran ke-empat variabel tersebut dan untuk mengetahui apakah ada perbedaan
proporsi kaninus maksila yang diprediksi impaksi antara anak laki-laki dan perempuan.
Rancangan penelitian berbentuk observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional dengan
jumlah 70 sample foto panoramik, terdiri dari 35 pasien laki-laki dan 35 pasien perempuan
berumur 9-12 tahun, Dari jumlah tersebut sampel berumur 9 tahun sebanyak 21 orang (30% ),
berumur 10 tahun sebanyak 27 orang atau ( 38,57%), sampel berumur 11 tahun sebanyak 14
orang (20%) dan sampel berumur 12 tahun sebanyak 8 orang (11,42 %), lalu dilakukan
penapakan sefalometri dilakukan 2 kali, kemudian melakukan pencatatan semua data, melalui
program SPSS.
Pada hasil penelitian ini sebagian besar kaninus tidak memiliki potensi impaksi,
sebanyak 109 gigi terletak pada sektor 1 atau sebesar 87,2%, dan yang memiliki potensi untuk
impaksi hanya sebesar 16 gigi atau sebesar 12,8 %. Berdasarkan pengukuran sektor didapati
bahwa sebanyak 16 gigi diprediksi impaksi ang tersebar pada sektor 2 dan 4.
Proporsi kaninus berdasarkan angulasi hanya 12 subyek gigi (9,6%) terletak pada sektor 2
dan 4 subyek gigi (3,2%) terletak pada sektor 4, artinya terdapat 16 gigi (12,8%) yang
diprediksi impaksi berdasarkan penilaian angulasi.Adanya perbedaan proporsi kaninus yang
berpotensi impaksi berdasarkan pengukuran posisi antero- posterior apeks akar gigi
menunjukkan hanya 0,8 %, atau hanya 1 gigi yang diprediksi impaksi sedangkan posisi
mahkota kaninus dalam arah vertikal proporsi kaninus yang diprediksi impaksi sebesar 26,4
% artinya bahwa terdapat sejumlah 33 gigi dari 125 subyek gigi yang diprediksi impaksi.
Pada penilaian keseluruhan didapat proporsi kaninus yang diprediksi impaksi 34,4% atau
sejumlah 43 gigi yang mengalami impaksi dari 125 subyek gigi, dan didapat 82 gigi atau
65,6% proporsi gigi yang diprediksi tidak mengalami impaksi. Pada penelitian ini ditemukan
bahwa dari keempat parameter yang diukur yang paling besar proporsinya adalah posisi
mahkota kaninus dalam arah vertikal. Perbedaan proporsi impaksi kaninus antara anak laki-
laki dan perempuan menunjukkan bahwa anak perempuan lebih tinggi proporsi impaksi
kaninus sebesar 17,6% diandingkan anak laki-laki sebesar 16,8%.

Kata kunci : Kaninus impaksi, Foto panoramik

Universitas Sumatera Utara


IMPACTION PREDICTED MAXILLARY CANINE PROPORTION BASED ON THE
ANALYSIS OF PANORAMIC PHOTOGRAPH IN THE PATIENTS OF 9–12 YEARS
OLDAT THE CLINIC OF RSGMP OF FACULTY OF DENTISTRY
UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA

ABSTRACT

Maxillary canine impaction is a frequently found dental anomaly. Orthodontics is


important to know the possibility whether or not canine will experience impaction. Among the
diagnostic procedures to predict the canine which is potential to experience impaction is a
routine panoramic radiography examination of mixed teeth. Many previous methods were
used to predict canine impaction. In this study, prediction was conducted based on sector
measurement, angulations, antero-posterior position of canine root apex and vertical canine
crown hight based on panoramic photo analysis in the patients of 9 – 12 years old.
The purpose of this study was to find out the proportion of predicted maxillary canine
impaction based on the four variables above, which factor that had the biggest proportion
when measuring the four variables, and to find out whether or not there was different
proportion of predicted maxillary canine impaction between boys and girls.
This is an observational study with cross-sectional approach. The samples were 70
panoramic photographs consisting of 35 photographs belonged to the boy patients and 35
belonged to the girl patients of 9 – 12 years old respectively. Of the 70 samples, 21 samples
(30%) were 9 years old, 27 (38.57%) were 10 years old, 14 (20%) were 11 years olds and 8
(11.42%) were 12 years old. cephalometric action was done twice (2 times) and then all of the
data were recorded by means of SPSS program.
The result of this study showed that most of the canine did not have potential
impaction. 109 teeth (87.2%) were located at sector 1, and 16 teeth (12.8%) had potential for
impaction. Based on sector measurement, it was found out that 16 teeth were predicted to
have impaction which was spread at sector 2 and sector 4.
The proportion based on the angulations, only 12 teeth (subjects) (9.6%) which were
located at sector 2, and 4 teeth (subjects) (3.2%) were located at sector 4, meaning that there
were 16 teeth (12.8%) which were predicted to have impaction based on angulations
evaluation. The existence of different proportion of canines which were potential for
impaction based on the measurement of antero-posterior position of canine root- apex
showed that only 1 tooth (0.8%) which was predicted to have impaction while the position of
vertical canine crown hight in proportion which was predicted to have impaction was 26.4%,
meaning there were 33 teeth of 125 teeth (subjects) which were predicted to have impaction.
Of the total evaluation, it was found out that the proportion of predicted canine
impaction was 34.4% or 43 teeth experiencing impaction of 125 teeth (subjects), and there
were 82 teeth (65.6%) of the predicted teeth proportion which did not experience impaction.
In this study, it was found out that, of the four parameters measured, the position of vertical
canine crow nhight in direction had the biggest proportion. Different proportion of canine
impaction between the boys and the girls showed that the proportion of canine impaction of
the girls was higher (17.6%) compared to that of the boys (16.8%).

Keywords: Canine Impaction, Panoramic Photograph

Universitas Sumatera Utara