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Deforming Force 1.

Young’s Modulus of Elasticity

A force which produces a change in configuration of the object on It is defined as the ratio of normal stress to the longitudinal
applying it is called a deforming force. strain within the elastic limit.
Elasticity y = Normal stress / Longitudinal strain
Elasticity is that property of the object by virtue of which it Its unit is N/m2 or Pascal and its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2].
regains its original configuration after the removal of the 2. Bulk Modulus of Elasticity
deforming force. It is defined as the ratio of normal stress to the volumetric strain
Elastic Limit within the elastic limit.
Elastic limit is the upper limit of deforming force upto which, if K = Normal stress / Volumetric strain
deforming force is removed, the body regains its original form Its unit is N/m2 or Pascal and its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2].
completely and beyond which if deforming force is increased the 3. Modulus of Rigidity (η)
body loses its property of elasticity and get permanently It is defined as the ratio of tangential stress to the shearing
deformed. strain, within the elastic limit.
Perfectly Elastic Bodies η = Tangential stress / Shearing strain
Those bodies which regain its original configuration immediately Its urut is N/m2 or Pascal and its dimensional formula is [ML-1T-2].
and completely after the removal of deforming force are called Compressibility
perfectly elastic bodies. e.g., quartz and phosphor bronze etc. Compressibility of a material is the reciprocal of its bulk modulus
Perfectly Plastic Bodies of elasticity.
Those bodies which do not regain its original configuration at all on Compressibility (C) = 1 / k
the removal of deforming force are called perfectly plastic bodies, Its SI unit is N-1m2 and CGS unit is dyne-1 cm2.
e.g., putty, paraffin, wax etc. Steel is more elastic than rubber. Solids are more elastic and
Stress gases are least elastic.
The internal restoring force acting per unit area of a deformed For liquids: modulus of rigidity is zero.
body is called stress. Young’s modulus (Y) and modulus of rigidity (η) are possessed by
Stress = Restoring force / Area solid materials only.
2 -12 -2
Its unit is N/m or Pascal and dimensional formula is [ML T ]. Limit of Elasticity
Stress is a tensor quantity. The maximum value of deforming force for which elasticity is
Stress is of Two Types present in the body is called its limit of elasticity.
(i) Normal Stress If deforming force is applied normal to the area, Breaking Stress
then the stress is called normal stress. The minimum value of stress required to break a wire, is called
If there is an increase in length, then stress is called tensile breaking stress.
stress. Breaking stress is fixed for a material but breaking force varies
If there is a decrease in length, then stress is called compression with area of cross-section of the wire.
stress. Safety factor = Breaking stress / Working stress
(ii) Tangential Stress If deforming force is applied tangentially, Elastic Relaxation Time
then the stress is called tangential stress. The time delay in restoring the original configuration after removal
Strain of deforming force is called elastic relaxation time.
The fractional change in configuration is called strain. For quartz and phosphor bronze this time is negligible.
Strain = Change in the configuration / Original configuration Elastic after Effect
It has no unit and it is a dimensionless quantity. The temporary delay in regaining the original configuration by the
According to the change in configuration, the strain is of three elastic body after the removal of deforming force is called elastic
types after effect.
(1) Longitudinal strain= Change in length / Original length Elastic Fatigue
(2) Volumetric strain = Change in volume / Original volume The property of an elastic body by virtue of which its behavior
(iii) Shearing strain = Angular displacement of the plane becomes less elastic under the action of repeated alternating
perpendicular to the fixed surface. deforming force is called elastic fatigue.
Hooke’s Law Ductile Materials
Within the limit of elasticity, the stress is proportional to the The materials which show large plastic range beyond elastic limit
strain. are called ductile materials, e.g., copper, silver, iron, aluminum, etc.
Stress ∞ Strain Ductile materials are used for making springs and sheets.
or Stress = E * Strain Brittle Materials
where, E is the modulus of elasticity of the material of the body. The materials which show very small plastic range beyond elastic
Types of Modulus of Elasticity limit are called brittle materials, e.g., glass, cast iron, etc.
Elastomers  Isothermal elasticity of a gas ET = ρ where, ρ = pressure
The materials for which strain produced is much larger than the of the gas.
stress applied, with in the limit of elasticity are called elastomers,  Adiabatic elasticity of a gas Es = γρ
e.g., rubber, the elastic tissue of aorta, the large vessel carrying Where, γ = Cp / Cv ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and
blood from heart. Etc. at constant volume.
Elastomers have no plastic range.  Ratio between isothermal elasticity and adiabatic
Elastic Potential Energy in a Stretched Wire elasticity Es/ ET = γ = Cp / Cv
The work done in stretching a wire is stored in form of potential
energy of the wire. Explanation of Stress Strain Curve
Potential energy U = Average force * Increase in length
= 1 / 2 FΔl
= 1 / 2 Stress * Strain * Volume of the wire
Elastic potential energy per unit volume
U = 1 / 2 * Stress * Strain
= 1 / 2 (Young’s modulus) * (Strain)2
Elastic potential energy of a stretched spring = 1 / 2 kx2
where, k = Force constant of spring and x = Change in length.
Thermal Stress
When temperature of a rod fixed at its both ends is changed, then
the produced stress is called thermal stress.
Thermal stress = F / A = yαΔθ
Stress strain curve has different regions and points. These regions
Where, α = coefficient of linear expansion of the material of the and points are:
rod. (i). Proportional limit
When temperature of a gas enclosed in a vessel is changed, then (ii). Elastic limit
the thermal stress produced is equal to change in pressure (Δp)of (iii). Yield point
(iv). Ultimate stress point
the gas.
(v). Fracture or breaking point.
Thermal stress = Δ p = Ky Δ θ
where, K = bulk modulus of elasticity and (i). Proportional Limit: It is the region in the strain curve which
γ = coefficient of cubical expansion of the gas. obeys Hookes law i.e. within elastic limit the stress is directly
Interatomic force constant proportion to the strain produced in the material. In this limit the
K = Yro ratio of stress with strain gives us proportionality constant known
Where, ro = interatomic distance. as young’s modulus. The point OA in the graph is called the
proportional limit.
Poisson’s Ratio
When a deforming force is applied at the free end of a suspended
(ii). Elastic Limit: It is the point in the graph upto which the
wire of length 1 and radius R, then its length increases by dl but its material returns to its original position when the load acting on it is
radius decreases by dR. Now two types of strains are produced by completely removed. Beyond this limit the material cannot return
a single force. to its original position and a plastic deformation starts to appear in
(i) Longitudinal strain (ii) Lateral strain it. The point A is the Elastic limit in the graph.
∴ Poisson’s Ratio (σ) = Lateral strain / Longitudinal
(iii). Yield Point or Yield Stress Point: Yield point in a stress
strain
strain diagram is defined as the point at which the material starts
The theoretical value of Poisson’s ratio lies between – 1 and 0.5. Its
to deform plastically. After the yield point is passed there is
practical value lies between 0 and 0.5. permanent deformation develops in the material and which is not
Relation Between Y, K, η and σ reversible. There are two yield points and it is upper yield point
(i) Y = 3K (1 – 2σ) and lower yield point. The stress corresponding to the yield point is
(ii) Y = 2 η ( 1 + σ) called yield point stress. The point B is the upper yield stress point
(iii) σ = 3K – 2η / 2η + 6K and C is the lower yield stress point.

(iv) 9 / Y = 1 / K + 3 / η or Y = 9K η / η + 3K
(iv) Ultimate Stress Point: It is the point corresponding to the
Important Points
maximum stress that a material can handle before failure. It is the
 Coefficient of elasticity depends upon the material, its maximum strength point of the material that can handle the
temperature and purity but not on stress or strain. maximum load. Beyond this point the failure takes place. Point D in
 For the same material, the three coefficients of elasticity γ, the graph is the ultimate stress point.
η and K have different magnitudes.
(v). Fracture or Breaking Point: It is the point in the stress
strain curve at which the failure of the material takes place. The
fracture or breaking of material takes place at this point. The
point e is the breaking point in the graph.
Measurement of the Young modulus
The Young modulus may be measured for a material in the form of
a wire using the apparatus shown in Figure 1.

Two identical wires are hung from a beam; a scale is fixed to one
wire and a mass hung on the end to remove kinks in it. This wire is
used as a reference standard. The other wire has a small load
placed on it to straighten it and a vernier scale which links with the
scale on the reference wire.

The original length (L) of the test wire is measured and its
diameter is found for various points along its length and an average
diameter calculated. Hence its mean radius r
can be found.

Loads are then placed gently on the wire and

the extension of the wire found for each
one. They should not be dropped, as this
would subject the wire to a sudden shock.
removed to check that the wire returns to
its original length, showing that its elastic
limit has not been exceeded.

A graph is plotted of stress against strain

and from this the value of the Young modulus
may be found (this is the gradient of the line
i.e. F/A divided by e/L).

The wires should be long and thin to give as large an extension as

possible for a given load while retaining its elastic properties.
Two wires are used to eliminate errors due to changes of
temperature and sagging of the beam.