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CHAPTER I

The Problem
Introduction

Hygiene includes personal hygiene, which is defined as self care applications that

individuals carry out in order to maintain their health. Personal hygiene is very important for

protecting and maintaining good health and addressing health problems and is also fundamental

to the prevention of many diseases(Source: Merriam Webster). The human body can provide

places for diseases causing germs and parasites to grow and multiply. Those places includes the

skin and in around the opening of the body. It is less likely that germs and parasites will inside

the body if people have good personal hygiene habits. People have been aware of the importance

of hygiene for thousands of years. Thus, maintaining a high level of personal hygiene will help to

increase self esteem and confidence while minimizing the chances of developing imperfections.

In fact that people have been aware of personal hygiene, we cannot deny that sometimes we

forgot to observe this practice.

Personal hygiene precautions include, hand-face hygiene, regular bathing using soap and

water in the cleaning process, washing hands before preparing foods, before and after eating

meals and after using the bathroom, hair care and washing and using one’s own clothes, shoes,

and slippers, cutting fingernails and cleaning ears regularly. Besides constituting a basis for

personal and social health, personal hygiene is in indispensable part of living in society. Human

beings are continuously affected by external environment pollutants. Everyday activities involve

with many sources of environmental contamination, these may be touched with the hand, present

on shoes while walking, a dust on the body and hair, moving the hand to the mouth also causes

microorganisms to enter the body (Aslant et. al., 2006 Wilma and Oban 2009).
These are the problems encountered by a human being around the world due to their poor

personal hygiene in their faces, skin , teeth, ears, hands, nails, feet, and hair: Athlete’s foot,

or tine pedals, is an infection of the skin and feet that can be caused by a variety of different

fungi. Although tine pedals can affect any portion of the foot, the infection most often affects the

space between the toes. Tooth decay (cavities) is a common problem for people of all ages. For

children, untreated cavities can cause pain, absence from school, difficulty concentrating on

learning, and poor appearance, all problems that greatly affect quality of life and ability to

succeed. Ear infections can be caused by leaving contaminated water in the ear after swimming.

This infection, known as "swimmer's ear" or obits external, is not the same as the common

childhood. The infection occurs in the outer ear canal and can cause pain and discomfort for

swimmers of all ages.Head lice, or Pedicels human’s capitals, are parasitic insects that can be

found on the head and neck and survive by feeding on human blood. Lice are spread most

commonly by close person-to-person contact. Hot Tub Rash infections are often caused by the

germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This germ is common in the environment and is microscopic so

that it can’t be seen with the naked eye. Hot Tub Rash is spread by direct skin contact with

contaminated water and usually occurs within a few days of swimming in poorly maintained hot

tubs or spas. It can also be spread by swimming in a contaminated pool or lake(Source: Centers

for disease control and prevention). Common respiratory illnesses that can be spread by poor

hand washing include rhinoviruses such as the common cold and influenza. Chicken pox,

meningitis and Group A and B streptococcal infections are also airborne illnesses. (Sourece:

Livestrong.com).Poor facial hygiene (having a dirty face) is associated with trachoma infection.

A number of surveys have found that children with cleaner faces are less likely to have

trachoma(Source: Virtual medical centre). Nail fungus, or onychomycosis, is a condition that


occurs when a microscopic fungus enters either a fingernail or toenail. Fungal infections occur in

toenails more often than in fingernails (source: WebMD).

The researchers believe that through conducting a research it will help them in

identifying what particular level of knowledge andthe practices of students of ACES have about

personal hygiene. Thus it will help researchers on what should be done in order to have an

improvement among the students.Hygiene are the conditions and practices that you do to help

yourself and surroundings clean in order to maintain good health. In this regard, the researchers

are urged to conduct a study about the level of awareness of the ACES students because they are

aware that there some negligence in considering their personal hygiene.

Statement of the Problem

The main aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge and the practices on

personal hygiene among ACES students that will serve as basis for formulating a proposed

intervention program. Specially, it seeks to answer the following questions :

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of :

a. Age

b. Sex

c. Civil Status

d. College/ Department

2. What are the level of knowledge of Aces students on personal hygiene in terms of :

a. Care of the Hands d. Care of the Hair

b. Care of the Face e. Care of the teeth

c. Care of the Skin f. Care of the Feet


3. What are the practices in terms on the listed categories above ?

4. Is there is a significant difference on level of knowledge of Aces students on personal

hygiene when grouped according to demographic profile ?

5. Is there is a significant difference on the practices personal hygiene when grouped

according to their demographic profile ?

6. Is there a significant relationship between level of knowledge and the extent of personal

hygiene practices ?

7. Based on the result of the study, what implications could be derived from the assessment

of knowledge and the extent of personal hygiene practices ?

Hypothesis

In line with assessing the level of knowledge and the practices on personal hygiene of

ACES students, the researchers will test the following hypotheses out of 0.05 level of

significance

Ho: There is no significant difference on level of knowledge and the practices on

personal hygiene of ACES students when grouped according to the demographic profile.

Ho: There is no significant difference on level of knowledge and on the extent personal

hygiene practices of ACES students when grouped according to the demographic profile.

H:o There was no significant difference on level of knowledge and the practices on

personal hygiene of ACES students when grouped according to the demographic profile.

Theoretical Framework
It is important to be able to determine at first hand whether a particular supplier can be

relied upon to produce a commodity of acceptable quality and one that is safe. Scarcity of safe

water implies in my view, the presence of contaminated water. Some unscrupulous suppliers will

definitely use any water available to them to wash their farm products before supplying them.

Some contaminated water used could be so toxic that internal cleanliness may not wholly remove

the germs. In view of this I propose a clear process of handling and cleaning suppliers be

established in all hospitality and tourism facilitates. With a proper purchasing and receiving

procedure should be practiced by all hospitality and tourism facilities. Relevant authorities

should ensure high standards of hygiene and sanitation are met by all practioners by the checks

made by health officer to ensure all facilities practice appropriate standards of hygiene and

sanitation. ensuring such standards should the made by ensuring Those supplying farm products

should have their suppliers go through and washing process before they deliver their suppliers to

the central store(Knowles Tim (2002:149).

Children were often the focus of various crusades for cleanliness throughout the

nineteenth and twentieth century’s. Recent historical phenomenon, although hygiene as a health

practice has its roots in antiquity. In classical Greece Hygeia was worshiped as the giver of

health to all who followed a balanced physical regimen and lived in accord with her precepts. In

this conception health came from maintaining both the internal harmony of the body and the

equilibrium between the body and the environment in which it lived. One's well-being came

from a holistic understanding of person and place. Through the European Renaissance the

classical idea of hygiene as a set of routines aimed at keeping the individual in balance with the

internal and external environment persisted. Prior to the modern period, however, almost all

hygienic advice assumed that only the wealthiest members of society had either the leisure or the
economic resources to follow hygienic rules. Nor was there much notion that children required

any special hygienic attention. In the late classical period, the Greek physician Galen had given

distinct advice about the hygiene of infants; otherwise most writing on hygiene and disease

prevention remained primarily concerned with adults(John Everett Millais's Bubbles,2006).

Personal hygiene may be described as the principle of maintaining cleanliness and

grooming of the external body. People have been aware of the importance of hygiene for

thousands of years. The ancient Greeks spent many hours bathing, using fragrances and make up

in an effort to beautify themselves and be presentable to others.Personal Hygiene products are a

billion dollar business in the commercial market, with many high profile celebrities endorsing

products that aim to keep us looking our best. In fact, hygiene is actually a scientific study.

Failure to keep up a standard of hygiene can have many implications. Not only is there an

increased risk of getting an infection or illness, but there are many social and psychological

aspects that can be affected. Poor Personal Hygiene, in relation to preventing the spread of

disease is paramount in preventing epidemic or even pandemic outbreaks. To engage in some

very basic measures could help prevent many coughs and colds from being passed from person

to person.Maintaining personal hygiene is necessary for many reasons; personal, social, health,

psychological or simply as a way of life. Keeping a good standard of hygiene helps to prevent

the development and spread of infections, illnesses and bad odours. Body image influences self-

esteem, confidence and motivation. Those who already have low self esteem and especially those

with depression often neglect personal hygiene which perpetuates the problem of poor body

image.Many forms of modern media including magazines, fashion, TV, film and the internet

present a certain body image as being "acceptable" or "expected" (Jo Johnson2016 ).


Conceptual Paradigm

1.What is the demographic profile


of the respondents in terms of : a.
Age b. Sex c. Civil Status d.
College/Department
2. What are the level of knowledge
and the extent of personal hygiene
practices among ACES' students in
taking care of their: a. Hands b.
Face c. Skin d. Hair e. Teeth f. Feet

Analysis of Level of
Knowledge and the
Extent of Personal
Hygiene Practices
among ACES' students
through the
administration of
questionnaire

To conduct a seminar
about the proper
personal hygiene
practices

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigmshowing the study of effects of the level of knowledge and extent

of personal hygiene practices among ACES’ students.


Scope and Limitation

This study focuses among ACES students’ level of knowledge and the extent of personal

hygiene practices. The research study will be conducted in Alpha Cenatauri Educational System

Inc.(ACES) located at K-18 Road Ilayang Dupay Lucena City. The respondents are limited to all

students who are enrolled during academic year 2017-2018 under the course of college of

education and college of criminology.

The output of the study which was based from the result of the survey which a program

or seminar about personal hygiene and practices.

Significance of the Study

The result of this study is highly significant to the following:

To the students of ACES, this study will help them to be aware of their personal hygiene and

therefore for them to know the proper way of cleaning their selves.

To the School Administrators, this study will give them idea on providing their students

interventions or programs that will enhance their students’ personal hygiene

To the Future Researchers, this study will serve as reference and can provide the needed

information for further research on awareness and practices on personal hygiene.

Definition of Terms

Hygiene - conditions or practices conducive to maintaining health and preventing disease,

especially through cleanliness.


Knowledge - the fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through

experience or association.

Personal hygiene- involves those practices performed by an individual to care for one's bodily

health and well being, through cleanliness.


LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE AND THE EXTENT OF PERSONAL HYGIENE
PRACTICES AMONG ACES’ STUDENTS

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty


Of the College of Criminology
Alpha Centauri Educational
System Inc.

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


For the Degree of Bachelor of Science
In Criminology

Borja, John Albert R.


Ladiana, Arjay L.
Lagrazon, Jomari

March 2018
CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES

Personal hygiene refers to the measures people take to keep their bodies clean. Neglect of

personal hygiene can have a detrimental effect on physical and psychological health and the

comfort of an individual. Many factors influence people with regard on personal hygiene

practices. It is important for nurses to appreciate that emphasis on cleanliness varies according

to an individual’s personal preference, culture, religious values and lifestyle. Other factors may

affect an individual’s hygiene practices include : stage of development, level of independence,

physical and intellectual capabilities, emotional state, economic status, knowledge of

significance of hygiene, availability of facilities, and environment and climate. Nurses should

respect individual preferences and cultural norms and, whenever possible, enable an individual

to follow their usual routine of personal cleansing (Berman al 2015). For example, if an

individual prefers to shower every second day, these practices are best continued.(Gabby

Koutoukidis et al, 2016)

Proper personal hygiene is a critical component of your food safety program. Good

personal hygiene practices can reduce or eliminate many of the contamination problems found in

food service establishments. Remember poor personal hygiene is one of the major contributors to

foodborne illness and outbreaks. We can break down components of a good personal hygiene

program into three categories that focuses on: employee habits and practices; preventing

contamination of food from employees hands; and proper work attire. An obvious requirement

when it comes to good personal hygiene is enforcing that employees bathe on a daily basis. In

addition, employees must be in the habit of washing their hands regularly and thoroughly. While

working with food, employees may not smoke , eat, drink, chew gum near food or equipment.
Specific procedures for washing hands are outlined below. Employees must keep fingernails

clean, unpolished and short. They may neverwear false fingernails or nail extensions, unless they

are wearing gloves in good condition at all times. (Lisa M. Berger et al, 2010)

Hygiene practices are unique to each client. Nurses provide individualized care based on

needs and these practices. Hygiene practices are influenced by bodt image, personal preferences,

social and cultural practices, knowledge and socio-economic status. Body image is the

individual’s perception of physical self, including appearance, function, and ability. Body image

linked to the person’s attitude, mood, emotions, and values. Personal preferences include the

timing of bathing, products used in bathing, and how bathing is performed. For examplesome

men shave before bathing ,whereas others shave after bathing. Social and cultural practices and

beliefs come from family, religious, and personal value developed during maturation. Clients

learn hygiene practices in early childhood. Later, hygiene practices are influenced by

socialization outside the family. For example, teenagers often follow the trends in personal

hygiene accepted bt their peers. Knowledge is the client’s understanding of the hygiene and

health relationship is influenced by knowledge.(Lois White et al, 2010)

Previous hand hygiene studies have indicated that children with proper hand washing

practices are less likely to report gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms. Hand washing with

soap has been reported to reduce diarrheal morbidity by 44% and respiratory infections by 23%.

However, globally, the rates at which hands are washed with soap range from only 0-34% of the

time. A study conducted by the Global Public–Private Partnership for Hand Washing (PPPHW)

which included several sub-Saharan African countries (i.e. Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania, and

Uganda) reported that 17% of participants washed their hands with soap after using the toilet,
while 45% used only water.Lack of resources, namely soap and water, as well as inadequate

sanitation facilities may be two of the main reasons why children do not wash their hands.

Overall in rural Ethiopia, only 8% have access to adequate sanitation facilities . In the rural

Amhara region of the country, only 21% of latrines had hand washing facilities, none of which

contained soap, and less than 4% of households had access to adequate sanitation facilities.In

addition to having proper resources and facilities, hygiene practices are heavily influenced by

students’ knowledge and attitudes towards hygiene.(A Vivas, 2010)

The foundations of lifelong responsibility for the maintenance of personal hygiene are

laid down in childhood, which is important for a healthy childhood, for a healthy adulthood and

for the development of positive values about health and the use of health services.Poor health

among school children is resulted from the lack of awareness of the health benefits of personal

hygiene. Diarrhoeal diseases, skin diseases, worm infestations and dental diseases are most

commonly associated with poor personal hygiene. One of the major problems faced by school

children are infections. The primary causes of infections are contaminated water and poor

sanitation, as well as poor hygienic practices. Lack of personal hygiene coupled with poor

sanitation favor person-to-person transmission of infection. Infection and malnutrition form a

vicious circle and retard children's physical development. Repeated attacks of infections often

compound the existing poor health of children, compromising children's attendance and

performance at school and not uncommonly, can result in death. (M.Sarkar,2013)

School children are particularly vulnerable to neglect of basic personal hygiene. The

objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge and practices of basic personal

hygiene among school children aged 6-14 years in Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria. This is a school
based cross-sectional descriptive study conducted from September 2009 to February 2010 among

primary school children in Abraka selected by multistage sampling technique. The study

instrument was a pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The average

knowledge and practice scores related to basic personal hygiene recorded among the school

children studied were 74.6 % and 54.9 % respectively. This high level of knowledge related to

basic personal hygiene exhibited by the children was not totally reflective of their practices of

basic personal hygiene; as 29.4 %, 37.0 % and 46.3 % of them washed their hands after using the

toilet, wash their uniform daily and wash their hands after playing respectively. The result of

physical inspection of the children revealed that 17.9 %, 45.2 % and 57.4 % of them had dirty

hair, dirty uniform and dirty nails respectively. This study have shown that although a sizeable

number of the children studied had adequate knowledge related to basic personal hygiene, their

practices related to same was poor. (Oyibo, P. G., 2012)

Personal hygiene is the self-care by which people attend to such functions as bathing,

toileting, general body hygiene and grooming. Hygiene is highly personal matter and is

determined by individual values and practices. Hygiene involves care of the skin, hair, nails,

teeth, oral and nasal cavities, eyes, ears, perinal and the genital areas. It serves a number of

purposes. Personal hygiene has a significant role to play in every society. Every culture develops

and maintains its standards and methods of maintaining personal cleanliness. Habits are formed

for performing actions to keep the body clean and functioning normally. It is usually necessary to

make adjustments in hygienic habits when a person becomes a patient in a hospital. Each person

will need assistance in adjusting his personal hygienic practices to the hospital situation. Good

personal hygiene helps the patient to feel clean and refreshed. He can be at ease with himself and
will able to welcome visitors and hospital without any embarrassment.(The Board of Nursing

Education Nurses League, Christian Medical Association of India, 2008)

Most people prefer privacy while carrying out personal hygiene activities but this is not

always easy to achieve. Although most hospital/care home/ward areas have bed screens or

curtains that can be pulled around the bed area or a washbasin cubicle, these do not provide the

sane level of privacy as a self-contained bathroom. Curtains alone do not shield noise and

conversation or ensure complete privacy. It is therefore important to endeavour to ensure that

noise be kept to a minimum and any conversation between individuals is done quietly. This will

help to reduce embarrassment for the patient, privacy and protect patient confidentially.

(Iggulden et al, 2009)

Personal Hygiene has a significant role in every society. Every culture develops and

maintains its standard and methods of maintaining personal cleanliness. Habits are formed for

performing actions to keep the body clean and function normally. Personal hygiene includes all

those personal factors, which influenced the health and well being of an individual. It consists of

the body maintenances regarding bathing and washing, care of hair, nails, feet, teeth, nose, ears,

mouth cleanliness clothing, postures, exercise, recreation, rest and relaxation, sleep habits and

nutrition. Personal hygiene defined is’ the healthy practices and lifestyle, which helps the

maintenance and promotion of individual health physically, emotionally, socially and spiritually.

The importance of good personal hygiene is for the maintenance of physical hygiene in a state of

health is a physical value and individual responsibility. It also helps to promote individuals’

comfort, safety, and well-being.(Clement, 2012)


Personal hygiene is an important consideration in the holistic care of both the healthy

child and one who has specific needs and compromise due to illness, surgery and hospitalisation.

A good standard of hygiene is an integral component of daily life and is necessary to maintain

dignity and self-esteem as well as to prevent infection. It is essential that maintaining such as

standard continues during a child’s time in hospital. Maintaining hygiene can also assist to

promote normality in a sick child, enhance comfort and aid psychological well-being. For any

child in hospital, the importance of involving the family in car is paramount in relation to all

areas, including the personal and hygiene needs of the child. Parents/carers should be encouraged

to participate in the basic care of their children as much as child’s condition allows. An example

of the importance of assessment can be shown by the frequency of hygiene practices a child

undergoes. How often care-giving practices are carried out is influenced by many factors such as

individual preference, normal routine, age, culture and most importantly in the sick child ,the

physiological state relating to illness.(Susan Macqueen et al, 2012)

Related Studies

The study of Muhammad ZubairHussan (2011) that is entitled “A Study About Personal

Hygiene Practice In School Going Children Of Class 1-5 Of Lahore,Pakistan”. The present study

is conducted to understand the knowledge of primary school children about personal hygiene

class (1-5). For this purpose Fourteen (14) private schools were selected from six Towns. Ravi

Town, Shalimar Town, Data GunjBakhsh Town, Gulberg Town, Samanabad Town, Iqbal Town

of city District Govt. Lahore, the sample was selected from these areas Wapda Town, Iqbal

town, Sabzazaar, Gulshan Ravi, Defence, Township, Shadmaan, Samanabad, Shahdra and

Shalimaar.A total sample of 252 children of which 125 were females and 127 were males was
selected by using purposive sampling technique. Questionnaire has been used as data collection

tool. The objective of this study is to find out the knowledge about personal hygiene and hygiene

practices in school going children of Lahore.After computing frequency tables it was found that

majority of respondents do not have knowledge of what is personal hygiene moreover they are

not practicing it if they know little about it. They were not even aware about proper hand

washing as well as brushing teeth method.

The study ofMd. MazharulHossain (2012), entitled A study on knowledge, attitude and

practice aboutPersonal hygiene and disease awareness of east westUniversity students in Dhaka

City.The most important aspect of maintaining good health is personal hygiene. Personal

hygieneis keeping the body clean and helps prevent the spread of germs. Maintaining good

healthalso includes nutrition, leisure/recreation opportunities, sleep and exercise. Hygiene is

apersonal matter. Hygiene practices, taught during childhood by mother, father or

teachers,mostly through practicing, need to be continued by the individual after childhood.

Correctadoption of these habits has a direct impact on a person future health can be affected by

manyfactors including beliefs, values, habits, socio-economic and cultural factors, level

ofknowledge personal preferences.This study was done on 83 students of pharmacy department

of East West University. In thisstudy it is identified that most of the students are high middle

class family. Father is the mainearning member of their family (87.95%). 36% mother and both

in 7.23% and others are2.45%. Earning members occupation percentage like Govt. service

31.35%, 31.33% privatejob, businesses are 32.53% and others are 9.64%. Monthly income of

their family 40.96%said above 50,000. But above 30,000 only 18.07% and above 25,000 only

18.07%.
The study of SL Tan (2013)that is entitledA qualitative study on personal hygiene

knowledge and practices among foodhandlers at selected primary schools in Klang valley area,

Selangor, Malaysia.Food handlers in the selected schools demonstratedthat they had basic

knowledge on good personalhygiene. Their knowledge is crucial because lack ofpersonal

hygiene has been shown to be significantcontributory factors to food-borne illness in variousfood

retails and in domestic.Although hand washing was the most familiarpractices performed by the

respondents (30.7%),further important findings were made on theirknowledge on proper hand

washing. Most of the foodhandlers (88%) failed to describe good hand washingpractices with

drying hands been the most missedstep. Studies have proven that it is essential to carehand

cleanliness because hands can be an importantvehicle for transmitting microorganism to food

dueto poor personal hygiene. Thisstudy also revealed similar findings, that althoughall

respondents had received training (100%) anddemonstrated significant knowledge on good

personalhygiene, these did not always translate into goodpractices such as did not wash hands

after eating ordrinking (36%), did not dry hands after washing (8%)and did not use glove at all

times (4%). The study alsodemonstrated that although food handlers may havebasic knowledge

on good personal hygiene, most ofthem do not grasp the essential aspects of hygienesuch as hand

washing procedure, and some cannotlink the values of glove use with contamination orbare hand

contact with foods.

The study of EAJ Cook (2015)that is entitledEffectiveness of an educational intervention

on personal hygieneamong school children in slum area of Kolkata, India. An extensive

nationwide school health education study in UnitedStatesfound similar major deficiencies in the

health knowledge of the elementary, secondary and abovestudents, which corroborated well with

our study. A study in rural schools of India.showed similar posteducational knowledge mean
score increment as compared to pre educational level. That primary schoolstudents generally had

poor to average knowledge of health aspects at the baseline was seen in a study fromIndia. The

students scored average in health knowledge but were weaker in attitude and weakest in

practicecorroborating well with study on several school districts of Los Angeles. In present study

knowledge, attitudeand practice scores were higher among higher age group students and the

students of the higher classes, similarto findings in a study in an elementary school. A declining

trend of all the scores was seen in the study schoolduring follow up visit corroborating with a

study conducted in Hyderabad. The students in the higher classesscored better both before and

after study, which corroborated with the finding of a study in Australia. Parentalliteracy

influenced the pre and post intervention knowledge score in both schools, was similar to the

findings ofa study in Greece.

The study of Mubashir B A (2014)that is entitledImpact of Health Education on the

Knowledgeand Practice Regarding Personal Hygieneamong Primary School Children in Urban.

The present study showed that hand washing practice before and after defecation increased

significantly. The knowledge of using soap for washing hands also significantly increased. Our

findings were supported by the studies conducted at national and international level. Our findings

weresimilar to the findings of Schmidt et al findings in East London, UK, White C et al in

Colorado USA wherehand washing increased significantly in control group , Greene LE et al

findings that reported increase in useof soap for washing hands before eating and after defecation

in Western Kenya and was statistically significant.Our findings were similar to the study

conducted by Aiello AE et al in USA where hand washing knowledge increased, Reilly CEO et

al in Western Kenya where hand washing knowledge increased and was statisticallysignificant,

Riaz M et al behaviour intervention in Bangladesh showed increase in knowledge about


handhygiene and was statistically significant. In our study the knowledge about brushing

increased and was statistically significant.

Synthesis

The proponents that the literature and studies presented here are related to the current study.

Gabby Koutoukidiset. al(2016), Lois White et. al(2010),The Board of Nursing Education Nurses

League, Christian Medical Association of India(2008), Clement (2012) stated the factors that

affects the individuals’ personal hygiene practices which includes their personal preference,

culture, religious values and culture. It is also a self-care which promote individual’s comfort,

safety and well-being. M.Sarkar(2013), Oyibo, P. G. (2012) also stated that personal hygiene is

part of our life which is very important to be maintained especially when their childhood started.

On the other hand agreed Lisa M. Berger et al (2010),A Vivas(2010), Iggulden (2009) that

personal hygiene practices is very important to us because it can prevent or reduce many of the

contamination problems found in food service estalishments. Muhammad ZubairHussan (2011)

also used the variable of personal hygiene practices but it was among the children which found

that majority of the children do not have the knowledge of what is personal hygiene. Md.

MazharulHossain (2012) found that personal hygiene is rely on the class of family they have. SL

Tan (2013) this study used the same variable but it among the food handlers in primary school.

EAJ Cook (2015) used the Effectiveness of an educational intervention on personal

hygieneamong school children. Mubashir B A (2014) used the Impact of Health Education on

the Knowledge and Practice Regarding Personal Hygiene among Primary School Children.
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the method and design on how the study will be conducted by the

researcher leading to the leading to the intended recipient of the study. The method included the

following: research design, locale of the study, research population and sample, research

instrumentation, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design

The descriptive method will be used in the study of level knowledge and the hextent of

personal hygiene practices among ACES students. Descriptive method involves the description,

recording, analysis and interpretation of the present nature, composition or processes of

phenomena. The focus is on prevailing conditions or how a person, group or thing behaves or

functions in the present. It often involves some type of comparison and contrast. It aimed to

identify the variables involved in research problem. Through this method, the researchers were

able to identify the answers on the different questions that they formulated in doing the research

study.

Research Locale

The study will be conducted at Alpha Centauri Educational System Inc. (ACES) located at K18

Diversion Road, IlayangDupay, Lucena City. It provides quality education and offers two
courses in higher education namely: Bachelor of Science in Criminology, Bachelor of Science in

Secondary Education Major in English and Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education. Living

up to the gleam of it's name, Alpha Centauri, the brightest star in the southern constellation,

ACES Inc. continues to lead in education industry with vigor and determination, fostering

commitment to service, unity, excellence and integrity in Southern Tagalog region. The

researchers were chosen ACES as their research locale to determine the level of knowledge and

the extent of personal hygienepractices among ACES students.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study were the tertiary level students of Alpha Centauri

Educational System Inc. who are qualified to answer the formulated questionnaires by the

researchers. The criterion was set by the researchers that the respondents should be a regular

student of ACES for the easy administration and retrieval of the instrument. It was composed of

100 students in all Departmental Courses offered in the said school.

Research Instrument

The researchers is thinking a self-made questionnaire as the main instrument in the

conduct of the study. This was duly validated by experts in order to ensure case in

administration. The instrument consisted of four(4) parts;

The first part is the demographic profile of the respondents; this includes all the information that

will be used in the study. It includes gender and age of the respondents. The researchers will
make a questionnaire to know the level of knowledge and the extent of personal hygiene

practicesamong the respondents along the following parts of the body: a. Hair b. Face c. Skin d.

Hands d. Feet e. Teeth

Data Gathering Procedures

A letter seeking permission to conduct a study will be drafted and addressed to the

administrator containing the purpose, intended respondents and areas of inclusion in the study

with the guarantee of treating information obtained from the respondents with utmost care and

confidentiality.

Upon receiving the permission the distribution of the questionnaire commenced the researchers

personally approached the ACES student and explain to them the purpose of this study at the

same time gave copies of the questionnaire to them. The researchers will double check for

possible unanswered statement and it will return to the respondents to answer. The results will

retrieve on the same day. Subsequently, the data gathered will tabulate, analyze and interpret.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The data to be collected will be tallied for analysis. The weighted mean will be computed

to qualitatively describe the self-management of the respondents view on important matter of the

research topic.

In Sub-problem no.1
Percentage distribution will be used to illustrate the first sub-problem in demographic profile.

P=F/N X100

Where P= Percentage

F= Frequency

N= Total no. of Respondents

The researchers will use a range of description to describe the response to be taken from the

sample these are follows.

4 - Adhered to Great Extent


3 - Adhered to Moderate Extent
2 - Adhered to Least Extent
1 – Adhered to No Extent

In Sub-ProblemNo.2 & 3
For sub-problem no2. To identify the respondent’s level of knowledge and practices on

personal hygiene in terms of : a. Care of the hands b. Care of the Face c. Care of the Skin d. Care

of the Hair e. Care of the Teeth f. Care of the Feet, weighted arithmetic means was used.

Weighted mean is the point of the source of scale that is equal to the sum of the product of the

frequency and weight divided by the total number of respondents per item. This is the index of

central tendency that is usually referred to as an average. It is done using this formula.
Weighted Arithmetic Mean

WAM = ∑fw N

Where :

Wam = is the weighted mean

∑ fw = is the sum of the product of the frequency and weight

N = is the total numbers of respondents

The data interpretation of the weighted mean are listed below

1.0 - 1.75 - No Extent (NE)

1.76 – 2.50 – Least Extent (LE)

2.51 – 3.25 – Moderate Extent (ME)

3.26 – 4.00 – Great Extent (GE)

For Sub-Problem No.4 $ 5, T-test

For the hypothesis, a T- test for uncorrelated or independent sample means will be used.

This statistical treatment will be used to determine the age, gender, and civil status accounted

for the level of knowledge and the practices on personal hygiene of ACES students. The formula

is :
Where :

x1 = Mean of first set of values

x2 = Mean of second set of values

S1 = Standard deviation of first set of values

S2 = Standard deviation of second set of values

n1 = Total number of value in first set

n2 = Total number of values in second set

For Sub-Problem No.6, Pearson-r

For Sub-Problem no.6, this will be utilized to determine the significant relationship

between level of knowledge and the extent of personal hygiene practices.

Where: N = number of pairs of scores

Ʃxy = sum of the products of paired scores

Ʃx = sum of x scores

Ʃy = sum y scores

Ʃx2 = sum of squared x scores

Ʃy2 = sum of squared y scores