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I/O PSYCHOLOGY

Lecture 1

− Org psych is the application of psychological principles to the workplace


− Elevator pitch – a brisk way to describe org psych -> “org psych specialise in analysing people
at work and organisations devising strategies to recruit, motivate, develop, change and
inspire.“
− Taylorism - take job and break it down into parts and then you can specialise in the parts
− Robert Yerkes- probably first IO psych and brought it to WW1. Assessing recruits for army.
What positions would they have? PTSD.
− Hawthorne Studies; motivation. People went into workplace and improved lighting to see if
their morale would improve

MAIN THEMES:

1. Treating people fairly


- Selecting people for jobs
- Providing training
- Rewarding promotions
- Addressing harassment and bullying

2. Making jobs more interesting


- Designing jobs people will find satisfying
 Rewarding work
 Safe, efficient work areas (Human Factors)

- Motivating employees to perform

- Creating teams that work well together


 Combining diverse talents and perspectives
 Team building

3. Helping people be more productive


- Designing work patterns that enhance efficient behaviour
- Providing skills training and development. Do they have the skills to enable
them to do certain tasks?
- Helping to meet challenges of competition
- Moving past downsizing
KEY CONCEPTS - several different levels :

o Individual employee

o Individual works in a team/group (is group functioning well together?)

o Group in organisation (is org productive?)

Scientist- practitioner?

o “All professional activities conducted or prg psych should be based on scientifically


validated knowledge”

- Decisions need to be based on data


- Form hypothesis about the problem and test them
- Use valid and reliable assessments
- Contribute to research and development to improve the quality and
effectiveness

4 kinds of ORG RESEARCH (PROBLEM WITH ORG RESEARCH: often conducted at universities but

organisations are out in the real world – external validity)

WORKER JOB FIT: HOW PARTICULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSON FIT WITH

CHARACTERISTICS OF JOB

JOB ANALYSIS

- a systematic practice used for defining a job (describes the job not the person)

- specifies tasks, duties and responsibilties in job


- then extended to person specification: e.g. skills, characteristics etc.
- the core of IO psych
- important because:
 Defining criteria
 Selection
 Restructuring
 Job appraisals
 Legal obligations
 HR planning
 Training and development
 Classifying jobs

 KSAO’s - Knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics

- Primary function -> to identify the required characteristics of the successful worker for a
specific job
- SOMETIMES KSATI’s - Knowledge, skills, abilities, temperament and interests

 Skills can be trained

 PERFORMING A JOB ANALYSIS

2 main groups :

A. Job oriented methods


 Conditions of work
 Results of work
 What the worker achieves rather than the actual behaviour
B. Worker oriented methods
 Focus on worker behaviours
 Establish generalised descriptions of behaviour

Quantitative Methods

o CIT: critical inciedent Technique.

- Identifies specific behaviours


- First used by air force in WWII
- Identified with interviews, workshops and questionnaires.

o Repertory Grid Technique

- Generation of suitable incumbents (high and low performers)


- eliciting personal constructs, i.e. what people think about a given topic
Lecture 2

EMOTIONS ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR AT WORK

Emotions at work

 Affect: a state that is consciously assessable. Feeling= affect. Mood= affective state.
Descriptive term of feeling.
 Emotions are a reaction to an event. Situational. Fluctuate moment to moment-
short term

Positive vs negative affect in tone

 Positive affect: denotes experiences of pleasurable feelings and positive


engagement
 Negative affect: denotes experiences of unpleasant feelings and negative
engagement

- High arousal- low affect= anxiety

Factor Analysis - talking about big 5 personality traits. Using stats to find out what reflects

constructs

Trait level

- people who have

a) negative affect - e.g. more mentally unstable and neurotic - tend

to experience more anxiety and depression. Tend to experience more work stress. Perceive

things that happen in environment as negative. Can be confounding variable. Perceive things

as negative therefore experience negativity. more health complaints. Lower job satisfaction.

Higher turnover.

b) positive affect is associated with social activity, exercise,

satisfaction and commitment, turnover intentions, higher job and task performance.

MILLER types of emotions at work :

a) Emotional Labor: inauthentic emotion in interaction with customers and clients.

(draining). People who deep level act- try to make themselves feel the emotions

they are supposed to display are less burntout than people who act only on the

surface.
b) Emotional Work: authentic emotion in interaction. If you can display authentic

emotion at work each day its invigorating.

c) Emotion with work: emotion stemming from interactions. Any emotion related to

working with co-workers. E.g. conflict in team.

d) Emotion at work: emotion from non work sources experiences in the workplace. E.g.

fight with kids on the way to work but still pissed off at work.

e) Emotions towards work: any emotion which is targeted at work. E.g. task that day is

complex and frustrating, might have negative feelings toward that task that day.

Affective Events Theory: identifying how important emotions are at work on a day to day

basis compared to general job attitudes. Model identified that emotions felt on a day to day

basis lead to eventual feeling about their general job.

ATTITUDES: evaluative statements or judgements concerning obkects, people or events.

o Like or dislike- affect componement.

o Cognitive element- belief about object or person.

o Behavioural- intention to behave in way that is consistent with affective and

cognitive component. E.g. don’t like job, its boring, so 'ill do nothing.

 Three important assumptions that underlie attitude

1) Hypothetical construct- not real thing its something we describe to help us

understand how people think about things. not tangible its how we understand

peoples feelings.

2) One dimensional- attitude is about one sort of belief or one intenion to behave in

a certain way. If more, then there are more attitudes

3) Attitudes lead to behaviour. Relationship between two intentions is as high

as .6 or .7.

 Study of attitudes form 1950s:

- how they're formed, affective component is hard to change once formed. This is

because this comes about through a process of conditioning. = daily experiences link
and form a whole attitude.

 Does behaviour always follow from attitudes:

o Cognitive dissonance: not always that attitude lead to behaviour. Sometimes reverse

is true. Feeling of discomfort.

o Dissonance: incompatible. If strong enough, either attitude or behaviour will change.

- If someone is so uncomfortable they might withdraw, engage in


counterproductive behaviours or leave. OTHERWISE, they'd have to change
attitude about work. If no positive elements provided, withdrawal behaviours will be
engaged.

o Desire to reduce dissonance depends on


- Importance of elements (self determination theory)
- Degree of individual influence: more able they are to resolve
the more they will try
- Rewards revolved: if more rewards to work out issue they
will be more motivated to work it out

MODERATING VARIABLES

Most powerful moderators of the attitude-behaviour relationship are:

1. Predicting behaviour from attitude.


 Important attitudes have a strong relationship to behaviour
 Closer match between attitude and behaviour the stronger the relationship.
 More frequently someone expresses an attitude or someone else expresses attitude
around them, the better predictor as its normative.
 High social pressure reduce the relationship and may cause dissonance.
 Attitudes based on personal experience are stronger predictors.

2. Psychological Empowerment: degree of influence you have over job and how meaningful

 4 Relational and Motivations Aspects (if have all 4 will have positive reaction toward job)

1. Meaning: work they do is significant.

2. Competence: feeling that they can do their job well. Can meet demands of
challenges they face

3. Self determination: having control or influence about work

4. Impact: feel as thought hey have some way to influence organisations decisions
and rules etc.
 Psych empowerment: EMPOWERMENT RESEARCH BY KOBERG: 612 tech,
professional and managerial hospital employees:
- people who were with the company longer, more empowerment- probably

due to being with the company longer they have worked out how to impact

the company more they understand the company. Those who said leader

was more approachable has more empowerment. Work group was good

had worth were empowered. Higher up their position has more control so

more empowered.

- people who were empowered were less likely to leave, more turnover, more effective,
more satisfied

 JOB ATTITUDE: JOB INVOLVEMENT

How identified an employee feels with their job.

Work more hours, more meaningful. More involved has high

relationship = .45.

Tied up in self worth.

 ORG COMMITMENT

Identifying with a particular org and its goals while wishing to

maintain a membership in the origanisaiton.

 THREE COMPONEMENT MODEL

1. Affective: generally like org, positive about org

2. Continuence commitment: staying because pay is

better. Economic value

3. Normative- moral or ethical obligations. E.g. grad

position gave you a chance os will stay a little

longer.feel as though they have to.

- Highly correlated with job satisfaction

PERCIEVED org support (POS): degree to which worker thinks org values their

work and cares about their well being. Observed with rewards are fair, involved in decision

making, and their supervisors are supportive.

o High POS related to higher Organisational Citizenship Behaviours (OCB); if theyre


valued more and have more POS they are more likely to go above and beyond doing extra
jobs etc.

EMPOLOYEE ENGAGEMENT = ENTHUSIASM X ATTITUDE = IS JUST LIKE OR DISLIKE.

o Approaches

1. Harness to role: cognitive, emotional and physical. Practical engagement.

Positive and fulfilling: absorption (happily working so time flies), vigor (enjoy

work so it's exciting so they have high arousal) and dedication (proud of their

wrok)

JOB SATISFACTION: individuals attitude towards his or her job (came about after Hawthorne

studies).

 Measured in 2 levels

i. Global: overall broad reaction to the job. Reflects overall feelings.

ii. Facet: lots of questions about job specifically. More about what their feelings are toward
individual aspects of their jobs.

 Several ways to measure job satisfaction


- Job description index
- Job satisfaction survey
- Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire

 Theoretical Approaches to JS

- 2 factor theory: management lit

- Subtractive theory: someones job satisfaction is based on their ideal

satisfaction against what they actually have

- Instrumentality theory: if job is fulfilling someones needs and theyre being

challenges that they can meet, then they’ll be satisfied

- Social influence: if in a group or org theres a norm, itll influence everyone

and everyone will be satisfied

- Equity: will judge how much theyre putting into job against how much

theyre getting out. If same, satisfaction

- Theory or work adjustment: if work is fulfilling, people will become more

adjusted and have more job satisfaction.


 Influence job satisfaction

Characteristics of job

Feedback

Job control

 Consequences:

Less absenteeism
Customer satisfaction- satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and
loyalty
OCB: fairness
Turnover: satisfied employees are less likely to quit

Lecture 3: Motivation – set of energetic forces

What is Motivation- 3 parts

I. Direction: what you choose to do or focus effort on. Choices


II. Intensity: effort. How much effort you put into target of motivation
III. Persistence: how long you sustain the effort.

- Why do we care about motivation? Determines whether group or person will be productive.

Maslows Needs Heirachy

- People are driven by basic needs that they satisfy, they move up the heirachy. Basic

rate of pay or security- then once satisfied, supervisor might be more important so

seek better relationship to satisfy belonging.

- Implications and evidence: support that basic needs must be met for people to be satisfied

ERG THEORY

o Extension to maslow

o Got rid of heirarchy and focuses on 3 needs

- Existence: security and basic needs


- Relatedness: belonging
- Growth: satisfy need for achievement and development.
- Support: lacks empirical support

Mcgregor Theory X and Theory Y

o 2 different types of managers, the way they think determines treatment of staff which determines
staff outcome
X; leader assumes that employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid

responsibility. Always on their case = authoratiarian. Results in controlling culture

Y: leader assumes that employees are creative, seek responsibility and can

exercise direction. = developmental. Nicer work environment.

Herzberg Motivation and Hygiene Theory (2 factor)

o Hygiene: factors like conditions, salary. Things do not make people more satisfied

just less dissatisfied

o Motivators: recognition, opportunities for growth

Herzberg KITA (kick in the ass). Kick in the ass isn’t motivation being

observed it's movement. Motivation can't be seen physically- it's inside the

person.

 Theory fails to account for individual differences and situational variables


 needs to consider cultural and professional differences. NOT GOOD AT PREDICTING

ANYTHING.

RECENT THEORIES

McCellands Theory of Need

 More empirical support than Maslow


 Needs:
1 Need for achievement: excel (tend to perform better when have a high drive
for need). Don’t need to have high achievement focud to be good manager
2 Need for power: like to have control (tend to be good managers).
3 Need for affiliation: sense of belonging fulfilled.
 Not in a heirachy. All simultaneous.