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PERALATAN &

PERLENGKAPAN
PELEDAKAN
FIRE TRIANGLE
1 Oxygen 2
Supply

Explosion

3 4
Heat /
Detonation
Pressure
EXPLOSIVES CHARACTERISTICS

What must I consider?

Physical Properties Energy / Strength


Water Resistance Storage Life
Critical Diameter Detonation Velocity
Sensitivity / Desensitisation Fumes
Temperature Effects Density
Price
WATER RESISTANCE

Good 1 Detonators
2 PENTEX Primers
3 Packaged Powergel
4 Powergel Coal
5 Energan Coal
6 ANFO / AMEX
Poor
DENSITY

Flexigel 0.5 to 1.1


Loose poured ANFO 0.8
Pneumatic ANFO 0.95
Energan Coal 1.15
Powergel Coal 1.20
Powergel Buster 1.25
PENTEX 1.7
SENSITIVITY
Explosive: Examples:
Plain (open) detonator Lead azide
Closed detonators Exel. det.
Digital dets i-kon
Detonating cord Cordtex
Cast boosters Pentex
Surface Delays ConnectaDets
Exel tubing Lead-in line
ANFO AMEX
Det. sensitive emulsion Powergel Buster
Bulk Powergels Powergel Coal
CRITICAL DIAMETER

Minimum recommended

Primer

Fail

Critical diameter
ANFO Energy & Sensitivity
100
Sensitivity

80

Energy
Energy %

60 more fuel

5.6 %
40 Sensitivity
OK
less fuel
20

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Fuel Oil %
ENERGY RATINGS
RWS ANFO Powergel
Same mass
1kg 1kg 1.5kg
1kg

ANFO Powergel 76 mm 76 mm
RWS = 100 RWS = 101
Fragmentation Energy
Relative Weight / Bulk ( = Total energy)
Same volume
100 % 171 %
RBS
1kg 1.5 Heave Energy

ANFO Powergel 100 % 148 %


RBS = 100 RBS = 151
OXYGEN BALANCE
Nitrates (02) Fuels
O22 Balanced C02
correct fuel N2
H20

O22 Negative C0
too much fuel
N2
H20

O22 Positive C02


too much oxygen
N0x
H20
ANFO / Emulsion Blends
Heavy ANFO
ANFO
Pour / auger loaded

High heave
Energy ~170 %

Powergel
Pumped
Water resistant
E.P.
High shock
Energy ~165 %
Initiation System Components

• Initiator or Starter System


• Surface System
• In-hole Delay System
Initiation System Components
LIL Electric
Starter
PED
the key.... Fuse

Surface
the distributor....

In hole
the transmission....
Exel Nonelectric
Detonator Systems
Detonator Assembly

Delay Detonator
Sleeve showing
Non-Electric Detonators
length and Det.
Ultrasonic seal 24
Metres
batch info.

Colour coded
12
ms 0
m

40
s

Signal tube
J-Hook
Signal Tube Construction

0
0 92%
92% Cyclo
Cyclo tetra
tetra methylene
methylene tetra
tetra nitramine
nitramine
8%
8% Paint
Paint Fine
Fine Aluminium
Aluminium
0
0 Coreload
Coreload Limits
Limits 19
19 mg/m
mg/m +/-
+/- 22
Signal Tube Functioning

EXEL Tube
Flame Front

Shock Wave preceding Flame Front

HMX / Al dust
EXEL Non-electric Detonator

Signal tube

Rubber plug
Main crimp

Conductive cup
Delay Crimp
Delay elements

Lead Azide Primary charge


PETN Base charge
Detonator Strengths

MS
MS -- LP
LP TLD
TLD -- MSC
MSC GOLDet
GOLDet
CONNECTADet
CONNECTADet

#8 #~2
.125g
.125g Lead
Lead Azide
Azide 0.2
0.2 g
g Pb
Pb
#8* 0.45
0.45 g
g PETN
PETN Azide
Azide
.125g
.125g Lead
Lead Azide
Azide
0.78
0.78 g
g PETN
PETN
Detonator Winding Formats

F100
3.6, 4.9,
6.1, 9, 12m

F80 Spools
Exel Non-electric Detonator
TM

Non-Electric Detonators
ENDURADet
24 Metres
45
metre
EXPLOSIVE DANGER
30, 36,
12
ms 0

Initiating Explosives Systems Pty Ltd


m
40

15,18,24m 45, 60m


s
Initiator or Starter System

Lead in Line (LIL)


Connectaline
Lead in Line (LIL)

Lead in Lines
• 150 meters
• 300 meters
• 500 meters
• *2800 meters
Lead in Line (LIL)

• 150, 300 or 500 m of yellow signal tube (2800* m)

• # 8 strength detonator in connector block

• Fired by a mushroom starter kit /electronic starter

• Can initiate signal tube or Cordtex

• Can be used to initiate multiple blasts


LIL Application

1
7
17
Using Connectaline

Tape
Surface System

• Connectadets

• Millisecond Connector

• Trunkline delay detonators


Exel Connectadet

25
4.9 17ms
25 ms
42 ms

3.6 - 18m 65 ms
100 ms
150 ms
EXPLOSIVES
DANGEROUS

zSix tube block


zSignal Tube ONLY
Exel Connectadet Detonator
Construction
Signal tube
Rubber bush
Crimp

Free Space

Isolation cup
Main element
Explosive charge
(210 mg of Lead Azide)
Exel Connectadet Block Capacity
Exel Connectadet

• Low strength detonator


• Colour coded j-hook,connector block, signal tube
• 3.6 to 18 m in coil or sleeve
• Fires signal tube in both directions
• Aligns tube (6 max) at right angles
• Need not be buried
Millisecond Connector

Delay
Delay Range
Range
Yellow
Yellow EXEL
EXEL
25ms signal 9ms
signal tube
tube 9ms
17ms
17ms
Plastic
Plastic 25ms
25ms
Cleat
Cleat Blocks
Blocks Nonelectric
Nonelectric delay
delay 42ms
42ms
detonator
detonator 65ms
65ms
100ms
100ms
125ms
125ms
150ms
150ms
175ms
175ms
# 8 Strength cap 200ms
200ms

To
To Fire
Fire Detonating
Detonating cord
cord ONLY
ONLY
Millisecond Connector

• 2 # 8 strength detonators in separate colour


coded plastic cleats

• 80 cm yellow signal tube

• Provide delay timing within Cordtex


trunklines
Exel Trunkline Delay

Delays 17 to 100ms
Lengths 3.6 to 18m
17ms
25 ms
42 ms
65 ms
DANGER

100 ms
Exel Trunkline Delay

• #8 strength delay detonator


• 3.6 to 18 m signal tube in coil or sleeve
• Colour coded j-hook and connector block
• Used as a surface delay where Cordtex
detonating cord downlines are preferred
• Used also as surface delay for constant Exel MS
in-hole delay
Connectadet Hook-up
D Connect control row E
Last!

C
C
Coon
nnneecctt
Echelons
Echelons P
Pllaaccee A
C
C''DDeettss aatt
h
hoolleess
B
Start here
Rear of shot
In Hole Delay System

• Exel Millisecond Delay

• Exel Long Period Delay

• Enduradet

• Goldet

• Pentex Boosters
Exel Millisecond Delay

Delay # Delay (ms) J-Hook Colour


0 0

7
1 25
2 50
3 75
9
4.

4 100
5 125
6 150
3.6m to 24m 7 175
8 200
9 250
10 300
11 350
DANGER

12 400
13 450
Pink 14 500
15 600
Tube
Exel Millisecond Delay

• Pink signal tube in coils or in sleeve


• #8* delay detonator with 2.4 to 30 meters signal
tube
• J-hook colour coded and delay stamped
• 9 ms to 600 ms delay 0 to 15 for standard range.
• Used as in-hole delay with surface delay systems
Exel Long Period Delay
Exel Long Period Delay

• Yellow signal tube in coils

• 2.4 to 6.1 meters long

• #8* strength delay detonator from .025 to 9.6


seconds

• J-hook colour coded and delay stamped

• Used for development mining


Enduradet

8 star detonator
Standard Delays 1-30 (25 - 4350 ms)
Extended Range to 36
Lengths 9 - 80 m
F100/F80/Spool
Goldet

Original Delay 25/400 ms


Det strengths #2 and #8*
Length : 6 - 24 m
F80
Pentex Booster
Pentex Booster

• Mixture of PETN, TNT, barytes and NaNO3


• Cylindrical with cord/detonator well
• Sensitised by detonating cord
• Initiated by detonating cord and Exel in-hole
detonator
• Used commonly with bulk explosives
Detonating
Cord Systems
Detonating Cords

Uniflex
Uniflex 3.6
3.6 g/m
g/m

Powerflex 55 g/m
g/m
Powerflex
Trunkcord
Trunkcord 55 g/m
g/m

Redcord
Redcord 10
10 g/m
g/m

Shearcord
Shearcord
70
70 g/m
g/m
Detonating Cord Construction

Overwrap
PETN core Yarns

Centre Cottons

Polyprop’ Yarns
Waxed Overcoat
Plastic Over Extrusion
Cordtex 3.6W

• Cordtex 3.6W is a waxed 3.6 g/m detonating cord


designed primarily as a minimal energy downline. It is
compatible with all 'Pentex® Power Plus' boosters.

• Cordtex 3.6W has a pink wax finish, with two black


identifying yarns.

• Cordtex 3.6W can be used as a trunkline and is


compatible with MSC delay connectors.

• Cordtex 3.6W should not be used in conjunction with


bulk or packaged 'Powergel' explosives in small to
medium diameter blastholes
Cordtex 5W

• Cordtex 5W is a waxed 5 g/m detonating cord designed


as a premium quality downline and trunkline. It is
compatible with all boosters sensitive to 5 g/m
detonating cords.

• Cordtex 5W has a yellow wax finish, with two black


identifying yarns

• Cordtex 5W is eminently suitable for use as a trunkline


and is compatible with MSC delay connectors

• Cordtex 5W should not be used in conjunction with bulk


or packaged 'Powergel' explosives in small to medium
diameter blastholes.
Cordtex 5P

• Cordtex 5P is a plastic 5 g/m charge weight detonating


cord with good handling characteristics. It is used
primarily as a low cost trunkline and as a downline in non-
rigorous applications.

• Cordtex 5P has a green plastic finish.

• Cordtex 5P is compatible with MSC's.

• Cordtex 5P should NOT be used in conjunction with bulk


explosives in medium to small diameter blastholes
Cordtex 10P

• Cordtex 10P is a nominal 10 g/m detonating


cord used for specialist applications

• Cordtex 10P is a plastic finish cord with a bright


red plastic finish.
MS Connectors

Detonating cord

Millisecond Connector
(MSC)
Detonating Cord Knots

Double Clove Hitch Reef Knot


Cutting Detonating Cord

Plastic Jaw
Detonating cord Misfires

Shrapnel

Wet
Wet
Detonating Cord / EXEL

Not connected

Shrapnel damage
to tubing.
Detonating Cord / EXEL

Poor Geometry
Tubing Cut -off
Cut-off
Detonating Cord / EXEL

Near Knots

Not Within
200mm!
Detonators / EXEL

Detonator Shrapnel

Explosives
Compatibilities

• Goldet surface detonators will not reliably initiate


detonating cord.
• Connectadet will not also reliably initiate detonating
cord
• Cordtex 10 is not recommended for initiating signal
tubes
• Use Cordtex 5 only for powerplus boosters
Compatibilities
Electric
Detonators
Electric Detonator Construction
Base charge ”Protected”
Shorted & sheathed

Crimp Fusehead
Closure Plug Metal foil

Legwires
Solder
Shell Bridgewire
What electrical to fire a Det?

Batteries, power sources

Electric equipment, cables

Steel pipes, rail, conductors

Lightning, ground currents

Firing cables, leads near power lines


Electrical Hazards - Surface

1High Voltage
1Induction 1Lightning
1Power Cable
Ground Current
1Radio 1Earth Leakage
1Mobiles
1Electric Pump

1Stray Current 1Batteries


Misfire
• Cross over failure - clipping 2 or more tubes
together; double looping?
• Punctured tube - moisture ingress
– Mechanical, shrapnel
• Firing Exel and detonating cord together
• Improper hook up/not hooked up
• Gas desensitisation (Methane, N2, CO, CO2)
• Product failure
Avoiding Misfires

• Use Clip and Slide Technique


• Never double wrap tubes into block
• Always CHECK hook up before firing
• Always bury Starter Detonator
Detonator Sensitivity

0 Intact Detonators - 20kgm


0

0 Damaged?????
0

Heat
PETN 120 -130 °C
What Impact to fire a Det?

Rock falls
Pinch in machine
Drop object, tools
Drive, walk, crush
Rough charging
What Heat to Fire a Det?

Hot Blastholes - reactive ground


Hot exhaust
Fires, welding
Impact Initiation of Signal Tube

Too late to
run now!!
Tensile Initiation of Signal Tube

I hope the
insurance is paid
up.
Snap, Slap and Shoot Initiation
Snap … Slap … Shoot
What If ?

What would happen


if a detonator fired in
a 150mm tin can?
Det in Tin
Det What If ?

What would happen


if a detonator fired in
your hand?
Detonator Fired in Hand