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CHAPTER

3 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET

Forces in Fluids
By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a
better understanding of this chapter.

SECTION 1
Vocabulary
In your own words, write a definition for each of the following terms in the space
provided.
1. fluid

2. pressure

3. pascal

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


4. atmospheric pressure

5. density

6. Pascal’s principle

Notes
Read the following section highlights. Then, in your own words, write the highlights in
your ScienceLog.
• A fluid is any material that flows and that takes the shape of its container.
• Pressure is force exerted on a given area.

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Forces in Fluids, continued

CHAPTER 3
• Moving particles of matter create pressure by colliding with one another and with the
walls of their container.
• Fluids exert pressure equally in all directions.
• The pressure caused by the weight of Earth’s atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure.
• Fluid pressure increases as depth increases. ▼
• Fluids flow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. ▼
• Pascal’s principle states that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will

be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
• Hydraulic devices transmit changes of pressure through liquids.

SECTION 2
Vocabulary
In your own words, write a definition for each of the following terms in the space provided.
1. buoyant force
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

2. Archimedes’ principle

Notes
Read the following section highlights. Then, in your own words, write the highlights in
your ScienceLog.
• All fluids exert an upward force called buoyant force.
• Buoyant force is caused by differences in fluid pressure.
• Archimedes’ principle states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight
of the fluid displaced by the object.
• Any object that is more dense than the surrounding fluid will sink; any object that is
less dense than the surrounding fluid will float.

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Forces in Fluids, continued

SECTION 3
Vocabulary
In your own words, write a definition for each of the following terms in the space
provided.
1. Bernoulli’s principle

2. lift

3. thrust

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


4. drag

Notes
Read the following section highlights. Then, in your own words, write the highlights in
your ScienceLog.
• Bernoulli’s principle states that fluid pressure decreases as the speed of a moving fluid
increases.
• Wings are often shaped to allow airplanes to take advantage of decreased pressure in
moving air in order to achieve flight.
• Lift is an upward force that acts against gravity.
• Lift on an airplane is determined by wing size and thrust (the forward force produced by
the engine).
• Drag opposes motion through fluids.

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CHAPTER

3 CHAPTER REVIEW WORKSHEET

CHAPTER 3
Forces in Fluids
USING VOCABULARY
To complete the following sentences, choose the correct term from each of the pair of
terms listed below, and write the term in the space provided. ▼
1. increases with the depth of a fluid. ▼
(Pressure or Lift) ▼
2. A plane’s engine produces to push the plane forward.
(thrust or drag)
3. Force divided by area is known as . (density or pressure)
4. The hydraulic brakes of a car transmit pressure through fluid. This is an example of
. (Archimedes’ principle or Pascal’s principle)
5. Bernoulli’s principle states that the pressure exerted by a moving fluid is
the pressure of the fluid when it is not moving.
(greater than or less than)

UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS
Multiple Choice
6. The curve on the top of a wing
a. causes air to travel farther in the same amount of time as the air below the wing.
b. helps create lift.
c. creates a low-pressure zone above the wing.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

d. All of the above


7. An object displaces a volume of fluid that
a. is equal to its own volume.
b. is less than its own volume.
c. is greater than its own volume.
d. is more dense than itself.
8. Fluid pressure is always directed
a. up. c. sideways.
b. down. d. in all directions.
9. If an object weighing 50 N displaces a volume of water with a weight of 10 N, what is
the buoyant force on the object?
a. 60 N
b. 50 N
c. 40 N
d. 10 N

STUDY GUIDE 161


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Forces in Fluids, continued

10. A helium-filled balloon will float in air because


a. there is more air than helium.
b. helium is less dense than air.
c. helium is as dense as air.
d. helium is more dense than air.
11. Materials that can flow to fit their containers include
a. gases.
b. liquids.
c. both gases and liquids.
d. neither gases nor liquids.

Short Answer
12. What two factors determine the amount of lift achieved by an airplane?

13. Where is water pressure greater, at a depth of 1 m in a large lake or at a depth of 2 m


in a small pond? Explain.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


14. Is there buoyant force on an object at the bottom of an ocean? Explain your
reasoning.

15. Why are liquids used in hydraulic brakes instead of gases?

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Forces in Fluids, continued

CHAPTER 3
CONCEPT MAPPING
16. Use the following terms to create a concept map: fluid, pressure, depth, buoyant force,
density.




Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING


17. Compared with an empty ship, will a ship loaded with plastic-foam balls float higher
or lower in the water? Explain your reasoning.

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Forces in Fluids, continued

18. Inside all vacuum cleaners is a high-speed fan. Explain how this fan causes dirt to be
picked up by the vacuum cleaner.

19. A 600 N clown on stilts says to two 600 N clowns sitting on the ground, “I am exert-
ing twice as much pressure as the two of you together!” Could this statement be true?
Explain your reasoning.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


MATH IN SCIENCE
20. Calculate the area of a 1,500 N object that exerts a pressure of 500 Pa (N/m2). Then
calculate the pressure exerted by the same object over twice that area. Be sure to
express your answers in the correct SI unit.

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Forces in Fluids, continued

CHAPTER 3
INTERPRETING GRAPHICS
Examine the illustration of an iceberg below, and answer the questions that follow.

a ▼

b

21. At what point (a, b, or c) is water pressure greatest on the iceberg?

22. How much of the iceberg has a weight equal to the buoyant force?
a. all of it
b. the section from a to b
c. the section from b to c
23. How does the density of ice compare with the density of water?
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

24. Why do you think icebergs are so dangerous to passing ships?

READING CHECK-UP
Take a minute to review your answers to the ScienceLog questions at the beginning of this
chapter. Have your answers changed? If necessary, revise your answers based on what you
have learned since you began this chapter. Record your revisions in your ScienceLog.

STUDY GUIDE 165


NMANBM_03_158-165_1st 10/30/00 1:42 AM Page 158

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Name _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________
CHAPTER

3 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET

Forces in Fluids
By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a
better understanding of this chapter.

SECTION 1
Vocabulary
In your own words, write a definition for each of the following terms in the space
provided.
1. fluid any material that can flow and that takes the shape of its container

2. pressure the amount of force exerted on a given area

3. pascal the SI unit for pressure; equal to the force of one newton exerted over an area of one
square meter

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


4. atmospheric pressure the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere

5. density the amount of matter in a given space; mass per unit volume

6. Pascal’s principle the principle that states that a change in pressure at any point of an enclosed
fluid is transmitted equally to all parts of that fluid

Notes
Read the following section highlights. Then, in your own words, write the highlights in
your ScienceLog.
• A fluid is any material that flows and that takes the shape of its container.
• Pressure is force exerted on a given area.

158 HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


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Name _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________

Forces in Fluids, continued

CHAPTER 3
• Moving particles of matter create pressure by colliding with one another and with the
walls of their container.
• Fluids exert pressure equally in all directions.
• The pressure caused by the weight of Earth’s atmosphere is called atmospheric pressure.
• Fluid pressure increases as depth increases. ▼
• Fluids flow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. ▼
• Pascal’s principle states that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid will

be transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
• Hydraulic devices transmit changes of pressure through liquids.

SECTION 2
Vocabulary
In your own words, write a definition for each of the following terms in the space provided.
1. buoyant force the upward force that fluids exert on all matter; buoyant force opposes gravita-
tional force
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

2. Archimedes’ principle the principle that states that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is
an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces

Notes
Read the following section highlights. Then, in your own words, write the highlights in
your ScienceLog.
• All fluids exert an upward force called buoyant force.
• Buoyant force is caused by differences in fluid pressure.
• Archimedes’ principle states that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight
of the fluid displaced by the object.
• Any object that is more dense than the surrounding fluid will sink; any object that is
less dense than the surrounding fluid will float.

STUDY GUIDE 159


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Forces in Fluids, continued

SECTION 3
Vocabulary
In your own words, write a definition for each of the following terms in the space
provided.
1. Bernoulli’s principle the principle that states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, its
pressure decreases

2. lift an upward force on an object (such as a wing) caused by differences in pressure above and
below the object; lift opposes the downward pull of gravity

3. thrust the forward force produced by an airplane’s engines; thrust opposes drag

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


4. drag the force that opposes or restricts motion in a fluid; drag opposes thrust

Notes
Read the following section highlights. Then, in your own words, write the highlights in
your ScienceLog.
• Bernoulli’s principle states that fluid pressure decreases as the speed of a moving fluid
increases.
• Wings are often shaped to allow airplanes to take advantage of decreased pressure in
moving air in order to achieve flight.
• Lift is an upward force that acts against gravity.
• Lift on an airplane is determined by wing size and thrust (the forward force produced by
the engine).
• Drag opposes motion through fluids.

160 HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


NMANBM_03_158-165_1st 10/30/00 1:42 AM Page 161

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Name _______________________________________________ Date ________________ Class______________
CHAPTER

3 CHAPTER REVIEW WORKSHEET

CHAPTER 3
Forces in Fluids
USING VOCABULARY
To complete the following sentences, choose the correct term from each of the pair of
terms listed below, and write the term in the space provided. ▼
1. Pressure increases with the depth of a fluid. ▼
(Pressure or Lift) ▼
2. A plane’s engine produces thrust to push the plane forward.
(thrust or drag)
3. Force divided by area is known as pressure . (density or pressure)
4. The hydraulic brakes of a car transmit pressure through fluid. This is an example of
Pascal’s principle . (Archimedes’ principle or Pascal’s principle)
5. Bernoulli’s principle states that the pressure exerted by a moving fluid is
less than the pressure of the fluid when it is not moving.
(greater than or less than)

UNDERSTANDING CONCEPTS
Multiple Choice
6. The curve on the top of a wing
a. causes air to travel farther in the same amount of time as the air below the wing.
b. helps create lift.
c. creates a low-pressure zone above the wing.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

d. All of the above


7. An object displaces a volume of fluid that
a. is equal to its own volume.
b. is less than its own volume.
c. is greater than its own volume.
d. is more dense than itself.
8. Fluid pressure is always directed
a. up. c. sideways.
b. down. d. in all directions.
9. If an object weighing 50 N displaces a volume of water with a weight of 10 N, what is
the buoyant force on the object?
a. 60 N
b. 50 N
c. 40 N
d. 10 N

STUDY GUIDE 161


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Forces in Fluids, continued

10. A helium-filled balloon will float in air because


a. there is more air than helium.
b. helium is less dense than air.
c. helium is as dense as air.
d. helium is more dense than air.
11. Materials that can flow to fit their containers include
a. gases.
b. liquids.
c. both gases and liquids.
d. neither gases nor liquids.

Short Answer
12. What two factors determine the amount of lift achieved by an airplane?
Thrust and wing size determine the amount of lift achieved by an airplane.

13. Where is water pressure greater, at a depth of 1 m in a large lake or at a depth of 2 m


in a small pond? Explain.
Water pressure is greater at a depth of 2 m in a small pond. Pressure increases with depth,

regardless of the amount of fluid present.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


14. Is there buoyant force on an object at the bottom of an ocean? Explain your
reasoning.
Yes; the object displaced fluid. The buoyant force on the object equals the weight of the water

displaced. In this case, however, the weight of the object was larger than the buoyant force, so the

object sank.

15. Why are liquids used in hydraulic brakes instead of gases?


Liquids are used in hydraulic brakes because liquids cannot be compressed easily. Gases are

compressible.

162 HOLT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


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Forces in Fluids, continued

CHAPTER 3
CONCEPT MAPPING
16. Use the following terms to create a concept map: fluid, pressure, depth, buoyant force,
density.

A fluid


exerts ▼

buoyant force

which varies with which is caused by


differences in

density pressure

which
increases with

depth
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

CRITICAL THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING


17. Compared with an empty ship, will a ship loaded with plastic-foam balls float higher
or lower in the water? Explain your reasoning.
The ship will float lower in the water because the plastic-foam balls will add to the total mass of

the ship but will not increase the volume. Therefore, the overall density of the ship will increase,

causing the ship to sink a little.

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Forces in Fluids, continued

18. Inside all vacuum cleaners is a high-speed fan. Explain how this fan causes dirt to be
picked up by the vacuum cleaner.
The fan causes the air inside the vacuum cleaner to move faster, which decreases pressure. The

higher air pressure outside of the vacuum then pushes dirt into the vacuum cleaner.

19. A 600 N clown on stilts says to two 600 N clowns sitting on the ground, “I am exert-
ing twice as much pressure as the two of you together!” Could this statement be true?
Explain your reasoning.
Yes, the statement could be true. Pressure is equal to force over area, that is, an amount of force

applied over a certain area. The clown on stilts is exerting force over a much smaller area than the

two clowns on the ground are. Therefore, it is possible that the clown on stilts is exerting twice as

much force as the other two clowns are.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.


MATH IN SCIENCE
20. Calculate the area of a 1,500 N object that exerts a pressure of 500 Pa (N/m2). Then
calculate the pressure exerted by the same object over twice that area. Be sure to
express your answers in the correct SI unit.
1500 N
" ! 3 m2
500 Pa
1500 N
" ! 250 Pa
6 m2

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Forces in Fluids, continued

CHAPTER 3
INTERPRETING GRAPHICS
Examine the illustration of an iceberg below, and answer the questions that follow.

a ▼

b

21. At what point (a, b, or c) is water pressure greatest on the iceberg? c

22. How much of the iceberg has a weight equal to the buoyant force?
a. all of it
b. the section from a to b
c. the section from b to c
23. How does the density of ice compare with the density of water?
Ice is less dense than water.
Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

24. Why do you think icebergs are so dangerous to passing ships?


Only a small portion of an iceberg floats above water, as shown in the image. A ship may actually

be closer to running into a massive block of ice underwater than it would appear on the surface.

If the ship is not turned or stopped in time, it could collide with or scrape the iceberg.

READING CHECK-UP
Take a minute to review your answers to the ScienceLog questions at the beginning of this
chapter. Have your answers changed? If necessary, revise your answers based on what you
have learned since you began this chapter. Record your revisions in your ScienceLog.

STUDY GUIDE 165