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NEE 425

POWER SYSTEM
OPERATION
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION COURSE OUTLINE: (ELECTIVE) POWER SYSTEM
OPERATION
Power System Operation
A. Basic Terminology and Concepts.
(1) Types of Current
(2) Energy and Power
B. Basic Parts of Electrical Power System
(1) Basic Elements of a Power System.
(2) What is a power plant?
(3) Heat Rate and Efficiency.
(4) Gas Turbines.
(5) Steam Turbines.
(6) Generators.
(7) Hydro generation.
C. Electrical Power System Model
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION COURSE OUTLINE: (ELECTIVE) POWER SYSTEM
OPERATION
1. Power System Planning
A. Power Delivery Fundamentals
(1) Transmission problems/limits/losses.
(2) HVDC transmission.
(3) Power delivery components.
(4) Delivery issues.
(5) Reliability and performance.
(6) Regulatory drivers.
(7) The consumer.

2. Power System Operation and Control


A. Integrated System Operations
B. Operation of the transmission grid.
C. Interconnection economics.
D. Congestion management.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION COURSE OUTLINE: (ELECTIVE) POWER SYSTEM
OPERATION
3. Power System Dynamics and Stability
A. Power System Development and Operation
(1) Demand forecast
(2) Generation planning
(3) T & D network planning
(4) Power System design criteria
(5) PQ requirements and equipment
B. Substation Design
(1) Power primary equipment
(2) Control and Protection
(3) Earthing
(4) SCADA
(5) Standards and Code of Practice
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION COURSE OUTLINE: (ELECTIVE) POWER SYSTEM
OPERATION
4. Power System Market Operation
A. Power Market Fundamentals
(1) Energy and Capacity.
(2) Ancillary services.
(3) Transmission.
(4) Regulatory overview.
B. Power Economics
(1) Cost of energy and pricing
(2) Losses of energy due inefficiency
(3) Optimisation of design, models/programmes.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION A. Basic Terminology and Concepts.

POWER SYSTEM:

An electric power system is a network of


electrical components used to supply, transmit
and use electric power. An examples of which is
the network that supplies a region’s homes and
industry with power – for sizable regions, this
power system is known as the grid and can be
broadly divided into the generators that supply
power, the transmission system that carries the
power from generating centers to the load
centers and the distribution system that feeds
the power to nearby homes and industries.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION POWER SYSTEM:

Like any other industry, the electric power


system may be thought of as consisting of three
main divisions:

1. manufacture, production or generation,


cogeneration,
2. delivery or transmission and distribution,
3. consumption.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

A. Direct Current Systems


Direct current systems usually consist of
two or three wires. Although such distribution
systems are no loner employed, except in very
special instances, older ones now exist and will
continue to exist for some time.

B. Alternating Current Systems


(1) Single-phase Two-wire Systems
The simplest and oldest circuit consists of
two conductors between which a relatively
constant voltage is maintained, with the load
connected between the two conductors
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

(1) Single-phase Two-wire Systems

(2) Single-phase Three-wire Systems


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

(3) Series System

C.(1) Two-phase Four-wire Systems


Two-phase systems are rapidly becoming
obsolete, but a good number of them exist and
may continue to exist for some time.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

(2) Two-phase Four-wire Systems


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

(3) Two-phase Three-wire Systems


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

(4) Two-phase Five-wire Systems


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

D.(1) Three-phase Four-wire Systems


The three-phase four-wire system is perhaps
The most widely used. It is equivalent to three
single-phase two-wire systems supplied from the
same generator.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

D.(1) Three-phase Four-wire Systems


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

(2) Three-phase Three-wire Systems


If the load is equally balanced on the three-
phases of four-wire system, the neutral carries no
current and hence could be removed.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

(2) Three-phase Three-wire Systems


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

E. (1) Six-phase Six-wire Systems


Six-phase systems consist essentially of two
three-phase systems connected so that each
phase of one system will be displaced 180° with
reference to the same phase of the other system.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Types of Current.

E. (2) Six-phase Seven-wire Systems


A seventh, or neutral, wire may be brought out
from the common junction of the double-wye
connection.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION Comparative Efficiencies of AC Systems.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION

BASIC POWER SYSTEM REPRESENTATION


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION

BASIC POWER SYSTEM REPRESENTATION


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION

Figure 3. Typical Electrical System From Generator to Customer


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION

Figure 4. Typical Transmission and Distribution System


POWER SYSTEM OPERATION

Electrical Power Systems involve:


1. Electrical power sources, such as generators.
2. Distribution of electrical power, mainly by specialized
conductors.
3. Control of electrical power by various methods.
4. Electrical power conversion systems or loads, such as
electrical lights and motors.
5. Measurement of electrical-power-related quantities with
specialized equipment.