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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin

Form 3 – Chapter 1 – Respiration [Notes Completely]


1.1 Human Breathing Mechanism
*The Human Respiratory System and The Structure of the Human Lung

*Names the parts of the human respiratory system and the human lung
1-Nasal Cavity 鼻腔 6-Blood Capillaries 血管
2-Trachea 气管 7-Rib cage (f2 chp8) 肋骨
3-Bronchus 支气管 8-Intercostal muscle 肋骨肌
4-Brochoile 细支气管 9-Diaphragm 膜
5-Alveolus 肺泡 10-Thoracic cavity 胸腔
*The breathing mechanism (pathway of inhalation and exhalation)
Inhalation:
________________________________________________________________
Exhalation:
________________________________________________________________
*Process of inhalation and exhalation
Inhalation (breathe in) Exhalation (breathe out)
SIMILARITIES
Involves the intercostal muscles, rib and diaphragm
DIFFERENCES
Air is sucked into/taken Air is forced out/passed
Definition
into the lungs. out the lungs.
Contract Intercostal muscles Relax
Upwards and outwards Rib swing Downwards and inwards
Contracts and flattens Diaphragm Relaxes and curves upwards
Increases Volume of thoracic cavity Decreases

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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
Decreases Pressure of thoracic cavity Increases
Outside the lungs/body is Outside the lungs/body is
higher than the air pressure lower than the air pressure
in the thoracic cavity to Atmospheric pressure in the thoracic cavity to
forces the air enter the pushes the air out of the
lungs. lungs.

**Model of the human


respiration system and the Glass tube / Y-glass tube
(trachea/bronchus)
parts in real human.
Inhalation Exhalation
bell jar
(thoracic cavity)

Balloon
(lung)

Rubber sheet
(Diaphragm)

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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
Khalid prepared a model of the respiratory system as shown in diagram X below.
Diagram Y shows parts of the human respiratory system.

Which of the following shows the correct representation of the parts of the human
respiratory system by the glass tube, balloon and rubber sheet respectively?
Parts of the model Glass tube Balloon Rubber sheet
Answer:
---Additional Notes (Review Form 1 Chp 5.3) ---
1- Oxygen is needed by all living organisms for the respiration process.
2- Respiration involves the oxidation of glucose (food).
3- The products of respirations are energy, carbon dioxide and water vapour.
4- The body gets oxygen that is needed for respiration.
5- Inhaled air – the air that is breathed in during respiration.
6- Exhaled air – the air is breathed out during respiration.
7- Glucose (food) + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water vapour + energy
8- Composition of air in respiration
Composition (%)
Content
Inhale air Exhale air Alveolar air
Nitrogen 78 78 -
Oxygen 21 16 14
Carbon dioxide 0.03 4 6
Inert gases + other substance 0.97 0.97 -
Water vapoor Lesser/ More (Saturated) .
Temperature Variable 34oC 37oC

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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
1.2 Transport of Oxygen in The Human Body
1- Alveolus contain blood capillaries.
2- Function of red blood cells is transport oxygen. (form 1 chp 2)
3- We need to get oxygen from the air into the blood and we need to remove waste
carbon dioxide from the blood into the air.
4- Moving gases like this is called gas exchange.
5- Red blood cells transport oxygen from the alveoli into the blood capillaries and
release the oxygen to other cells.

* Diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood capillaries.


a) Diffusions is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to
a lower concentration.
b) Gas exchange in the lungs takes place inside the alveoli by diffusion.
c) The alveolus is an efficient tissue for gas exchange because it is:
i- Large surface
ii- Moist surface
iii- Thin alveolar walls (one cell layer thick)
iv- Alveolar walls covered by an extensive network of blood capillaries.
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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
* Transport oxygen by the red blood cells.
a) Oxygen is transported to other cell by red
blood cells in form of oxyhaemoglobin.
b) Haemoglobinb is the blood pigment
containing iron (haem) and protein (globin).
c) In the lungs where the air has a higher
concentration of oxygen, oxygen combines
with haemoglobin in the blood to form
oxyhaemoglobin which in bright red in colour.
______________+________=___________
d) Blood containing oxyhaemoglobin is
then transported to the heart to be
distributed to all the body cells.

* Diffusion of oxygen from the blood capillaries into the other cells.
a) Oxygenated blood contains oxyhaemoglobin (high oxygen concentration and low
carbon dioxide load)
b) Body cells has lower oxygen concentration than the oxygenated blood.
c) When oxygenated blood in the capillaries arrives at the cells where the oxygen
concentration is low, oxyhaemoglobin decomposes, releases the oxygen and colours turns
into dark red. ________________=________________+___________
d) Oxygen that released diffuses into the cells and is used for respiration.
---Additional Notes (Review Form 1 Chp 2.3) ---
1- Function of red blood cell
Red blood cell - carry oxygen to different parts of the body

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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
2- Functions of respiratory system
System Function Organs
Respiratory System Inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide Nose, trachea, lungs
3- Red blood cell has only ______________ and _____________.
4- Special note: Red blood cell is __________________ shape.
5- Cancer of leukaemia: -less red blood cells, more white blood cells

---Additional Notes (Extra notes) ---


1- Respiration releases energy from glucose so that life processes can carry on.
2- Aerobic respiration needs oxygen and anaerobic respiration does not need oxygen.
3- The respiratory system is adapted for gas exchange.
properly called ventilation).
*Aerobic respiration
1- Glucose and oxygen react together in cells to produce carbon dioxide and water
and releases energy.
2- The reaction is called aerobic respiration because oxygen from the air is needed
for it to work.
3- Here is the word equation for aerobic respiration:
glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water
*Anaerobic respiration
1- During hard exercise, not enough oxygen can reach your muscle cells.
2- Aerobic respiration is replaced with anaerobic respiration.
3- This does not need oxygen for it to happen.
4- Here is the word equation for anaerobic respiration in humans:
glucose → lactic acid
*Aerobic and anaerobic respiration comparison
The table compares the main features of aerobic and anaerobic respiration:
Differences Aerobic Anaerobic
Needs oxygen? Yes No
Needs glucose? Yes Yes
Product(s) formed Carbon dioxide and water Lactic acid

1.3 The Importance of a Healthy Respiratory System


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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
---Additional Notes (Review Form 1 Chp 5.5 and Form 3 Chp 1.3) ---
1- Air pollution occurs when air contains pollutants and it is the result of human action.
2- Pollutants damage the respiratory system and causes breathing problems.
3- Tar, nicotine and haze are example of air pollutants.
**Sources and effects of air pollution which are harmful to the respiratory system.
Pollutant, Harmful
Source Substance Effect
Nicotine is the drug that causes
bronchitis and addiction to
- Cigarette smoke cigarette smoking.
- Burning of waste Smoke Tar contains carcinogens
- Forest fires (Tar and Nicotine), (substances that cause cancer) that
- Exhaust smoke Soot, Smog damages liver, lung cancer and
from vehicles causing the smoker`s cough.
Damages the respiratory system
and causes breathing problems
Lung cancer
Damages liver
Carcinogens
Causes the growth of cancerous
cells in the body
- Cigarette smoke
Irritates the respiratory tract
Kills cells of the air passage
Irritates and Chemical
Causing the smoker`s cough
Causes emphysema.
Damages the lungs
May cause lung cancer
- Quarries Dust, Haze, Causes breathing problems
- Exhaust fumes Prevent red blood cells from
Carbon Monoxide
- Gases from
combining with transporting
factories oxygen and haemoglobin.
- Cement, timber
and asbestos Sulphur dioxide can cause bronchitis
factories Sulphur dioxide, and damage cells in the lung.
Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide can cause
permanent damage to the lungs.
- Spraying D.D.T.
Damages the liver
to kill mosquitoes Chemicals such as
Causes death if a large quantity is
- Agricultural pesticides D.D.T
inhaled
activities
** Diseases of the respiratory system

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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
1- Asthma is caused by the narrowing of the fine airways (bronchi and bronchioles)
due to the contraction of muscles in their walls. This is perhaps because of sensitivity
to air pollutants including smoke. A patient will find it difficult to breathe, wheezing
and feeling tightness in the chest.
2- Bronchitis is caused by the inflammation of the lining of the bronchioles. This may
be due to infection by bacteria or viruses or chemicals such as those found in tobacco
smoke. 'Smoker's cough' is an early sign of chronic bronchitis. In several cases, the
patient may turn blue which is especially noticeable at the lips and fingers due to poor
oxygenation of blood.
3- Lung Cancer is cause by change in the cells inside the lung such that they divide
out of control and produce lumps of cells (tumours) which interfere with the normal
functions of the lungs. This disease may not have any symptoms. When it is detected,
the cancer cells may have spread from the lung to other organs.
4- Emphysema is a condition in which the structure of the alveoli is broken down by
coughing. This reduces the surface area for gas exchange. The patient cannot take in
enough oxygen and become very short of breath.
5- Heart disease caused by nicotine that raises the blood pressure and increases the
level of 'bad' cholesterol in the blood. This makes a smoker more likely to suffer from
a stroke or a heart attack.
** To study the effects of smoking on the lungs

Bicarbonate
U-tube indicator/
universal
indicator/

After the cigarette was lighted and the vacuum pump was started:
1- The thermometer records a higher reading.
2- The white cotton wool black and brownish.
3- The bicarbonate indicator in the chemical flask change colour from red to yellow.
Conclusion:
1- Cigarette smoke can increase the temperature of lungs.
2- Chemicals in cigarette smoke blackens the lungs.
3- Chemicals in cigarette smoke are acidic and can damage the lungs.
Exercise 1:

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Science Form 3 – Chapter 1 Notes Prepared by Kelvin
a) What happens to the white cotton wool at the end of the experiment?
____________________________________________________________________
b) What does the white cotton wool represent?
____________________________________________________________________
c) What is the colour of the bicarbonate solution at the beginning of the experiment?
____________________________________________________________________
d) What happens to the bicarbonate indicator solution at the end of the experiment?
____________________________________________________________________

Exercise 2:
Effect Beginning of experiment End of experiment
Temperature 27oC 30oC
Colour of cotton wool White Brownish
Colour of universal indicator Green Yellow
a) Why the thermometer reading at the end of the experiment?
____________________________________________________________________
b) What can you infer about the change in the universal indicator
____________________________________________________________________
c) What is the conclusion for this experiment?
____________________________________________________________________
d) State two method used by the government to decreases the number of smoker.
i. _________________________________________________________________
ii. _________________________________________________________________

**Ways to improve air quality


Indoor Outdoor
Avoid smoking indoors. Avoid open burning leaves and rubbish.
Make sure there is a steady supply Walk, ride a bicycle, car-pool or use public
of fresh air. transport.
Reduces the number of motor vehicle.
Minimise the use of air Fit a catalytic converter to the exhaust pipe.
conditioning. Recycle, reduce and reuse waste materials.
Keep clothes, carpets bed and Encourage the use of liquid petroleum gas
floor dust-free. (no dust) and unleaded petrol.
Maintain a low humidity to Implement laws and regulations to control air
prevent mould growth. pollution.

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