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THE OVERSEER OF UPPER EGYPT IN EGYPTS OLD KINGDOM

A prosopographical study of the title-holders and a re-examination of the position within the Old Kingdom bureaucracy.

Volume I: Text

Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Honours in Ancient History by Thérèse Clarke FCA (Ireland), CA (Australia).

Department of Ancient History, Faculty of Arts Macquarie University 16 October 2009

“Myth and history are close kin inasmuch as both explain how things got to be the way they are by telling some sort of story. But our common parlance reckons myth to be false while history is, or aspires to be, true. Accordingly, a historian who rejects someone else’s conclusions calls them mythical, while claiming that his own views are true. But what seems true to one historian will seem false to another, so one historian’s truth becomes another’s myth, even at the moment of utterance.”

William H. McNeill Opening Words – Part One Mythistory and Other Essays, 1985.

DECLARATION

I, Thérèse Clarke, certify that the work in this thesis entitled “The Overseer of Upper

Egypt: A prosopographical study of the title-holders and a re-examination of the position within the Old Kingdom bureaucracy” has not previously been submitted for a

degree nor has it been submitted as part of the requirements for a degree to any other university or institution other than Macquarie University.

I also certify that the thesis is an original piece of research and that it has been written by me. Any help and assistance that I have received in my research work and the preparation of the thesis itself have been appropriately acknowledged.

In addition, I certify that all information sources and literature used are indicated in the thesis.

45% of this thesis was submitted in draft form to my supervisor, Professor Naguib Kanawati.

Date:

16 October 2009

Signature:

Thérèse Clarke FCA (Ireland), CA (Australia)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & DEDICATION

This study is dedicated to my husband and best friend, Victor Clarke. Without Victor’s love and support, none of this would have been possible. I was encouraged to leave the world of financial services behind and re-engage with the ancient world, to feel it was worthwhile and important, not only to me but to him.

There have been others who have been important in this journey: My mother – Mary Morrissey who is unstinting in her love and support, whom I admire immensely. My sisters Colette, and Clare – without your thoughtfulness, this would have been all so much harder. You have both been engaged in your own lives, but never forgot to say something right when you knew I needed it. Dawn and Barbara in Denver, thanks for your emails and the times we’ve been able to talk, your support means a great deal to me.

My friends at Macquarie University have been incredibly important as people to bounce ideas off, to talk to when things got tough and to have coffee with. Rob Perssön, you are an amazing friend, incredibly kind and understanding. Thanks for always being there when I needed someone to bounce ideas off or to talk about whatever was to hand. I do not know how I would have made it through Honours without your friendship and support. Claire Hainey thanks for the hugs and kind words. Amber Hood, Beverley Miles, Todd Gillen, Clare Rowan and everyone in Tele’s Angels – you are all wonderful and always willing to help. Beth Thompson thanks for being a shoulder to cry on. Ronika Power thanks for being a mentor to me and for being willing to drop everything if I needed it. Dr Alexandra Woods thanks for being a friend, a mentor and latterly a great teacher. You have always been willing to help and talk – something I have always appreciated, even if I don’t say anything. Kathy & Bob Parker, you have been wonderful friends – always ready to listen and provide a kind word. For inspiration, I need only think of Dr Camilla Di Biase-Dyson.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & DEDICATION

Dr Susanne Binder thanks for your wise words, and the same thanks are due to Dr Linda

Evans. Associate Professors E. Christiana Köhler & Boyo Ockinga, thank you for the

opportunity to learn from you. Professor Marnie Hughes-Warrington (now of Monash)

thanks for your teaching at Macquarie and for encouraging me to find my own voice. I cannot

imagine how I would write history if I hadn’t had the benefit of your teaching, support and

encouragement. Professor Kanawati, what can I say that hasn’t been said of you? You have

inspired and encouraged – all the while allowing me to find my way to narrate history. You

have never stopped encouraging me to find the answers in myself and in Egypt. Thanks for

taking me to excavate in Saqqara, it was a time I will truly never forget and was immensely

privileged to be part of your team.

Writing and research are very challenging experiences. What everyone above has in common

is their willingness to support me in this journey, whether I was in a good mood or a bad one,

whether my allergies were getting me down or not and especially when I am regularly victim to

them. I value their friendship and guidance in ways that I cannot express in this short note but

I hope I have given some indication of my appreciation of their support. This dedication

started with and will end with my husband and best friend. Just in case you don’t know it,

Victor….I love you very much. Thanks so much for being part of this adventure!

A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS & D EDICATION Dr Susanne Binder thanks for your wise word s, and

Thérèse Clarke Pyrmont, 16 October 2009

Volume I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION

3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS & DEDICATION

4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

6

FIGURES, PLATES, TABLES & MAPS

8

ABBREVIATIONS/CONVENTIONS

10

i

Abbreviations

10

ii

Grammatical Conventions used in translation and transliteration

11

iii

Chronology

12

  • 1. PRELIMINARIES

 

14

  • 1.1 PURPOSE

14

  • 1.2 PREVIOUS SCHOLARSHIP

15

  • 1.3 CD ROM CONTENTS

19

  • 2. PROSOPOGRAPHY

 

20

  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION

20

  • 2.2 REFERENCING/BIBLIOGRAPHY/DATING FOR TITLE-HOLDERS

20

  • 2.3 INFORMATION ON TITLE-HOLDERS

22

  • 3. THE TITLE: OVERSEER OF UPPER EGYPT

122

  • 3.1 HISTORICAL REVIEW

 

123

 
  • 3.1.1 Inception of the role

123

  • 3.1.2 The imy-rA 5maw in Dynasty V

124

  • 3.1.3 The administrative divisions of Upper Egypt

125

  • 3.1.4 Responsibilities of the imy-rA 5maw.

126

  • 3.1.5 The imy-rA 5maw in Dynasty VI

130

  • 3.1.6 The imy-rA 5maw after Dynasty VI

133

  • 3.2 THE imy-rA

5maw WITHIN THE BUREAUCRACY

134

  • 3.3 SUMMARY

135

  • 4. ANALYSIS

 

137

  • 4.1 EPIGRAPHIC EVIDENCE

137

  • 4.2 FAMILIAL CONSIDERATIONS

143

  • 4.3 LINKS TO THE KING/RESIDENCE

148

 
  • 4.3.1 Titles implying trust and confidence of the King

149

  • 4.4 RANKING/HONORIFIC TITLES

153

  • 4.5 RELIGIOUS TITLES

 

155

  • 4.6 EPITHETS SUGGESTING TIME IN THE CAPITAL

156

  • 4.7 INTERACTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND RELIGIOUS TITLES

156

  • 4.8 TITLES RELATED TO THE GOVERNMENT OF UPPER EGYPT

157

  • 4.9 ELEVATION TO THE RANK OF VIZIER

160

4.10

SUMMARY

163

Volume I

TABLE OF CONTENTS

5. CONCLUSIONS

164

BIBLIOGRAPHY

174

CD ROM LOCATED INSIDE BACK COVER OF VOLUME I

VOLUME II: MAPS AND APPENDICES

FIGURES, PLATES, TABLES & MAPS

FIGURES

FIGURE 1

The False Door of ab-iHw [09] showing both versions of his title as Overseer

of Upper Egypt: Fischer, (1968: 204, Figure 40).

FIGURE 2

CG1578. Stela of 2wy [41] from Abydos with his wife, the female Vizier,

Nbt. Fischer, (2000: 37, Figure 27).

PLATES

PLATE 1

False Door of the King’s Son and Overseer of Upper Egypt, Wnis-anX

[12]. Field Museum Negative A111074c.

http://www.fieldmuseum.org/tut/popups/IAE8. Website viewed 18

August 2009.

PLATE 2

The Vizier and Overseer of Upper Egypt, Ra-Spss [35]. Lepsius, C.R.,

(1897-1913), Denkmäler aus Äegypten und Äethiopien, 12 BD, (Leipzig): LD

(Plates) II: 61b.

PLATE 3

Overseer of Upper Egypt, KAi-Hp 7ti [53] wooden statue at the British

Museum, EA29594.

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database

/search_object_details.aspx?objectid=125469&partid=1&IdNum=29594&

orig=%2fresearch%2fsearch_the_collection_database%2fmuseum_no pr __

ovenance_search.aspx. Website viewed 26 August 2009.

FIGURES, PLATES, TABLES & MAPS

TABLES

CHAPTER 4

TABLE 4.1

Overseer of Upper Egypt and title variants

TABLE 4.2

Distribution of imy-rA 5maw title variants by Dynasty

TABLE 4.3

Overseer of Upper Egyptian Grain

TABLE 4.4

Holders of Hry-sStA titles

TABLE 4.5

Frequency of principal honorific titles

TABLE 4.6

Government of Upper Egypt

TABLE 4.7(A)

Elevation to Vizier – Dynasties V – IX

TABLE 4.7(B)

Elevation to Vizier – Dynasty VI in detail

TABLE 4.8

Functional titles important in elevation to Vizier from the rank of imy-rA

5maw

CHAPTER 5

TABLE 5.1

Chronological listing of the known Overseers of Upper Egypt, including all

known title variants

ABBREVIATIONS & CONVENTIONS

i. Abbreviations

The author/date system has been adopted in this study with the following exceptions which

are referenced using traditional citation conventions:

CG/JE

Catalogue Général des Antiquités Égyptiennes du Musée du Caire/Journal d’Entrée,

Cairo Museum. Publication authors are identified in the Bibliography.

Generally, the title of the publication identifies the holdings documented in

the publication which are numbered CG XXXXX or JE XXXXX.

LD

Lepsius, C.R., (1897-1913), Denkmäler aus Äegypten und Äethiopien, 12 BD,

(Leipzig). Volumes are referred to as LD (Text or Plates) and then the volume

number.

LMP

van Walsem, R., (2008), Mastabase: The Leiden Mastaba Project, (Leuven).

Möller

Möeller, G, (1909-1936), Hieratische Palaographie: die ägyptische Buchschrift in ihrer

Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit, 4 volumes, (Leipzig

& Osnabrück).

PM

Porter, B., & R.L. Moss (assisted by E.W. Burney) (Ed. J. Málek), (1927-

2007), Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, 8 volumes,

(Oxford).

PN

Ranke, H., (1935-1976), Die Ägyptischen Personennamen, 3 volumes, (Gluckstadt,

Hamburg & Locust Valley, NY).

Urk I

Sethe, K., (1933), Urkunden des Alten Reiches, (Leipzig).

Wb

Erman, A. & H. Grapow, (1971), Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage

der deutschen Akademien, 7 volumes, (Berlin).

ABBREVIATIONS & CONVENTIONS

ii. Grammatical Conventions used in translation and transliteration

The following conventions apply: 1

.

Separates stem from grammatical ending, where used by translator.

(

)

Not written in hieroglyphs but added for clarification.

{

}

Editor believes there is an error in the text.

< >

Brackets added.

[

]

Damaged text in original form, brackets added.

Transliteration convention adopted is that of Middle Egyptian. The transliteration generally does

not use z, as is seen in many Old Kingdom translations unless Gardiner sign O34 is used,

where it is also possible to substitute an s. 2

Personal names in this thesis can be translated from the original Egyptian. This has not been

done. Instead, names have been transliterated and an anglicised version of the name may be

provided.

  • 1. Ockinga, (2005: §13).

  • 2. Ockinga, (2005: §5). Also, Allen, (2001: 15) in relation to word processing/computer fonts.

ABBREVIATIONS & CONVENTIONS

iii. Chronology

The chronology adopted in this paper is taken from the Ancient Egyptian Chronology. 3 This study

adopts the position that the Old Kingdom can be defined as the period from Dynasty III

through Dynasty VIII. The chronology for the period relevant to this study only has been

included. It is also true that the dating of certain title-holders in Dynasties VIII/IX is in places

uncertain and open to debate, so this study also includes consideration of known title-holders

from Dynasty IX.

Dynasty/King

ID# (Dynasty/ Sequence Number)

Dating

Five (V)

ca. 2435-2306BCE +25

Userkaf

V.1

Sahure‘

V.2

Neferirkare‘ Kaki

V.3

Ra‘neferf/Neferefr e‘

V.4

Shepseskare‘ Izi

V.5

Neuserre‘ Ini

V.6

Menkauhor

V.7

Djedkare‘ Izezi

V.8

Wenis

V.9

2435-2429BCE

2428-2416BCE

2415-2405BCE

2404

BCE

2403

BCE

2402-2374BCE

+25

+25

+25

+25

+25

+25

2373-2366 BCE +25

2365-2322 BCE +25

2321-2306 BCE +25

  • 3. Hornung et al.: (2006, Appendix VI.2).

ABBREVIATIONS & CONVENTIONS

Dynasty/King

ID# (Dynasty/ Sequence Number)

Dating

Six (VI)

ca. 2305-2118BCE +25

Teti

VI.1

2305-2279BCE

+25

Userkare‘

VI.2

?-?BCE

+25

Pepy I Meryre‘

VI.3

2276-2228BCE

+25

Nemtyemzaef Merenre‘

VI.4

2227-2217BCE

+25

Pepy II Neferkare‘

VI.5

2216-2153BCE

+25

(VI.5E)

(Years 1-20)

(VI.5M)

(Years 21-40)

(VI.5L)

(Years 41-63)

Nemtyemzaef (Merenre) II

VI.6

2152BCE +25

Eight (VIII)

ca. 2150-2118BCE +25

Neferkaure‘

VIII.1

2126-2113BCE

+25

Neferkauhor

VIII.2

2122-2120BCE

+25

Neferirkare‘

VIII.3

2119-2118BCE

+25

First Intermediate Period

ca. 2118-1980BCE +25

(Heracleopolitan) Dynasties Nine & Ten

ca. 2118-1980BCE +25

   

Used as explained above

E

Early in reign

for Pepy II, but also used

M

Middle of reign

by scholars and the author

L

Late part of reign

as relative dating option.

1.

PRELIMINARIES

The Preliminaries chapter deals with the purpose of this study and considers previous

scholarship relevant to the current study. Many scholars have written on the elite officials of

the Old Kingdom, but this study seeks to discuss only one title: that of the Overseer of Upper

Egypt or imy-rA 5maw. The position of imy-rA 5maw, was at the peak of its influence, third in

rank of importance only to the King and the Vizier.

1.1

PURPOSE

If the present study is to contribute to the study of Old Kingdom administration, an attempt

had to be made to identify all the known holders of the title imy-rA 5maw, hence the decision

to include a prosopography as a key component of the study. Information about the decisions

made in the construction of the prosopography is provided at chapter 2. In the past, the

holders of this title have been written about in the context of the wider bureaucracy, as for

example has been the case in the work of Kanawati and Strudwick. 4 No single study has been

devoted to this title, hence the current study.

This study considers the role of the imy-rA 5maw within the Old Kingdom bureaucracy and

examines some important aspects of the titles held by the various imyw-rA 5m’w in an effort

to understand better the roles that these people played in the official aspects of administering

Upper Egypt. Upper Egypt has provided a rich source of information related to

administration but Lower Egypt has not surrendered a similar quality of evidence, hence the

title studied in this paper deals only with Upper Egypt and does not deal with the

administration of Lower Egypt during the Old Kingdom. One would suspect that there must

have been some administration answerable to the Residence but we simply do not have extant

evidence with which to work. We know that there was an Overseer of Lower Egypt during the

Middle Kingdom. Grajetzki suggests that this role was created during Dynasty II when the

  • 4. Kanawati, (1977: passim) & (1980a: passim). Strudwick, (1985: passim).

1.

PRELIMINARIES

Kings resided at Thebes. 5 These officials appear to have had limited responsibilities: they

mainly appear in inscriptions found in Sinai. 6

What this study attempts to achieve is a reconsideration of the role by returning to primary

sources, the royal decrees, the tomb inscriptions and other archaeological evidence that will

allow an attempt to reconstruct the extent of the role’s responsibilities and the way that it

changed over time. Nevertheless, as Janssen has previously commented, the study of

economic history in Ancient Egypt remains in its infancy – there is much work still to be

done, but the paucity of evidence makes progress difficult. 7 Progress has been made in the

study of later periods but much remains to be accomplished in relation to the Old Kingdom.

This study must be read in that context.

  • 1.2 PREVIOUS SCHOLARSHIP

My introductory comments noted that many scholars have written on the Old Kingdom

administration and some have studied the most important titles in detail. It is not possible to

write any form of narrative history without first considering the research undertaken to date

by those scholars and to build upon that work with regard to this single group of titles. I say

group because the title imy-rA 5maw had several variants. 8 This summary of scholarship to

date largely progresses chronologically with reference to the publication date(s) of various

works by scholars.

Kees described the administration of Upper Egypt and the chronology of Pepy II’s Viziers in

1932 and 1940. 9 Both works remain valuable today. Helck wrote his seminal work on the titles

  • 5. Grajetzki, (2009: 109-110).

  • 6. Grajetzki, (2009: 110).

  • 7. Janssen, (1979: 505).

  • 8. Chapter 3, Table 1.

  • 9. Kees, (1932: passim) and Kees (1940: passim).

1.

PRELIMINARIES

of officials in 1954. 10 This work presented the titles held by members of the elite using a

structure that largely reflected the way in which the administration functioned, the various

lines of government. Baer was the first to attempt a systematic understanding of titles and the

manner in which they functioned in terms of bureaucratic ranking. His Rank and Title in the Old

Kingdom: the Structure of the Egyptian Administration in the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties provides a

continuing framework for dating titles and sequences in the Old Kingdom. 11 Baer developed a

framework for understanding the way that titles were recorded by their holders. That

framework continues to be used with amendment for ranking titles. Since Baer, Jones has

published an important corpus of titles and epithets in the Old Kingdom that is indispensible

in using the methodology developed by Baer. 12 On the subject of the administration of Upper

Egypt, Baer wrote only brief comments on the division of Upper Egypt into separate

administrative units. 13

Martin-Pardey has written what many regard as the seminal work on provincial administration

in Upper Egypt: Untersuchungen zur ägyptischen Provinzialvervaltung bis zum Ends des Alten Reiches

(1976). As the title suggests, the study focuses on provincial administration with a particular

focus on Upper Egypt. 14 Apart from the scholarship of Kanawati discussed below, this is the

only specialist work on Upper Egyptian administration. The office of imy-rA 5maw is dealt

with within the analysis of Upper Egyptian administration. 15

Kanawati has published two important works relevant to this study. The first, The Egyptian

Administration in the Old Kingdom (1977), attempts to frame a statistically based methodology for

determining the extent of personal wealth controlled by elite individuals. The major gap in the

  • 10. Helck, (1954: passim).

  • 11. Baer, (1960, reprint 1973: passim).

  • 12. Jones, (2000: 2 Volumes, passim).

  • 13. Baer, (1960, reprint 1973: 281).

  • 14. Martin-Pardey, (1976: 109-201).

  • 15. Martin-Pardey, (1976: 152-170).

1.

PRELIMINARIES

1977 study was the lack of historical narrative surrounding the statistical information. This was

remedied in Governmental Reforms in Old Kingdom Egypt (1980a). Here Kanawati focuses on

changes in the administration through the history of the Old Kingdom. He does this through

analysis of extant inscriptional and archaeological data available on elite officials from both the

Residence and the nomes during the Old Kingdom. There is a particular focus on Upper

Egypt in the study due to the sheer weight of available evidence.

Kanawati, in conjunction with Ann McFarlane, has also published a study on the provincial

administration of Akhmim in Dynasty VI. 16 The authors place the nome within the larger

context of Upper Egypt and provide an updated perspective on its administration in the later

Old Kingdom. This publication builds on the research undertaken for the publications

discussed above and on the excavation results at from various Australian Centre for

Egyptology excavations in Upper Egypt. 17

Strudwick published a significant study of high titles in the Old Kingdom in 1985 entitled The

Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom. It dealt with all the major titles of the elite Old

Kingdom bureaucracy other than the imy-rA 5maw. The title is mentioned in discussion of the

titularies that were held by those promoted to the rank of Vizier but there is no specific

discussion of Upper Egypt or the title alone.

Several other authors have written indirectly about this area, such as Roth who published on

phyles in the Old Kingdom. 18 This has particular relevance to priesthoods held by elite officials

in that royal mortuary cults were organised using the phyle system. 19 The phyle system was

  • 16. Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: passim).

  • 17. A full listing of excavation reports for all excavation sites is available at http://www.egyptology.mq.edu.au/egyptology/publications/ (viewed 5 October 2009).

  • 18. Roth, (1991: passim).

  • 19. Roth, (1991: 77-87).

1.

PRELIMINARIES

used to manage, in many respects, links to the central government, and as a mechanism of

patronage and control. 20 Dendera in the Third Millennium B.C., down to the Theban Domination of

Upper Egypt (1968), by Fischer provides an analysis of provincial administration in Dendera

throughout the Old Kingdom. Fischer also analyses nome interactions with the remainder of

Upper Egypt. 21 As noted by Kanawati & McFarlane, one cannot consider the nome without

dealing with relationships to the remainder of Upper Egypt. 22

More recently, Andrassy has published her study of the Old Kingdom administration which is

chronologically focused and also provides a review of some key titles, but has limited focus on

Upper Egypt or provincial administration in general. 23 Andrassy discusses the institutions of

government rather than titles. 24 Baud’s survey of the royal family and its relationships in the

Old Kingdom is also important in reinforcing the close-knit relationships between the royal

family and high officials. As can be seen from several family trees included at Volume II,

Appendix II to this study, close relationships were maintained between the royal family and

the elite. This served to protect the interests of both parties but also had serious consequences

as the imy-rA 5maw and Vizier Rawr discovered in Dynasty VI. 25 McFarlane published her

study on the importance of the God Min in 1995. 26 This has particular relevance to Upper

Egypt in that the cult centre for Min was based at Coptos and reminds readers of the

importance of the interaction of the royal and elite family relationships along with the links

between the priestly and secular worlds.

  • 20. Roth, (1987: 120

  • 21. Fischer, (1968: vii).

  • 22. Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: viii).

  • 23. Andrassy (2008: 105-112) on provincial administration.

  • 24. Andrassy, (2008: 17-104).

  • 25. See Rawr [34] in the prosopgraphy. Various theories have been proposed as to why his name was erased in his tomb, including a suggestion that he was the father of the Queen that Wni [11] investigated in the reign of Pepy I. See Kanawati, (2003b: Case Study #36) for a suggestion that Rawr [34] may be the Vizier whose name was erased from the Dahshur Decree.

  • 26. McFarlane, (1995: Passim) covers the period to the end of the Old Kingdom.

1.

PRELIMINARIES

The scholarship outlined above has included some focus on the position of the imy-rA 5maw

but time has passed since the publications particularly by Martin-Pardey and Kanawati who

have published the most detailed studies on the governance of Upper Egypt. In the meantime,

Kanawati has undertaken a substantial programme of excavations in Upper Egypt, the

evidence from which is incorporated into this study with the aim of providing an up to date

perspective on the role and its position within the Old Kingdom bureaucracy.

  • 1.3 CD ROM CONTENTS

The CD ROM which is held inside the back cover includes a PDF copy of this document

together with an EXCEL workbook including the detailed tables of titularies for all the known

imyw-rA 5maw. The contents of the Excel workbook have also been provided in PDF and are

included at Volume II, Appendix V.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

2.1

INTRODUCTION

Table 5.1, chapter 5 comprises a chronological summary of the holders of the title of imy-rA

5maw and its variants through out the period of Egypt’s Old Kingdom. The prosopography

below provides the data used to construct that listing. The following points are noteworthy:

The listing is constructed in Egyptian alphabetic sequence.

A reference number is assigned to each title-holder and this is used throughout the

study where that person’s name arises. The reference number is in the form [xx].

Names are given first in transliteration and then anglicized. Generally the

transliterated name is used throughout this study.

Dating has been standardised to that used in the chronology at iii above. A

standardised chronological conversion table is provided at Volume II, Appendix I

between the different chronologies used by scholars and the chronology adopted in

this study.

U.E. and roman numerals are used to designate nomes rather than a full spelling of

nome names where this is relevant in titularies.

2.2

REFERENCING/BIBLIOGRAPHY/DATING FOR TITLE-HOLDERS

A prosopography’s raison d’etre is to establish the evidence available for an individual and to

assist with dating that individual. Therefore, the information provided about each individual

includes dating information from scholars who have studied elite individuals from the Old

Kingdom and developed dating mechanisms for those individuals. The work of these scholars

is well recognised in their development of standardised dating criteria. The scholars’ relevant

publications are detailed below. Additional dating information available is adduced from

publications such as excavation reports. Additionally scholars undertake studies that may be

more limited in scope than the scholarship that forms the main dating criteria, which may

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

better contribute to our understanding of the reasons for dating an individual. Again, the

outcome from such scholarship is included for consideration.

The dating criteria discussed above are explained below.

Consensus Date:

Date selected by author of this study based on consideration of the

data below. Consensus dating is disclosed by reference to the ID#

applied to Kings in various dynasties as noted at iii, above and any

other material matters noted for readers’ attention.

Kanawati ID & Date:

References and dating from various publications by Naguib

Kanawati:

  • - (1977), The Egyptian Administration in the Old Kingdom, (Warminster).

  • - (1980a), Governmental Reforms in Old Kingdom Egypt, (Warminster).

  • - Excavation Report and other publication dating by Kanawati separately

Harpur ID & Date:

disclosed under ‘Other Date’.

Reference and dating from Yvonne Harpur, (1987), Decoration in the

Tombs of the Old Kingdom: Studies in Orientation and Scene Content,

Baer ID & Date:

(London & New York).

Reference and dating from Klaus Baer, (1960, reprint 1973), Rank

and Title in the Old Kingdom: The Structure of the Egyptian Administration

in the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, (Chicago).

Strudwick ID & Date

Reference and dating from Nigel Strudwick, (1985), The

Administration of Egypt in the Old Kingdom: The Highest Titles and Their

Holders, (London).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

LMP ID & Date:

Reference and consensus dating from René van Walsem, (2008),

Mastabase: The Leiden Mastaba Project, (Leuven). The Mastabase

consensus date is van Walsem’s view of the most likely date based

on consensus between at least three dates out of Kanawati /

Cherpion / Harpur / PM / Other dating.

Cherpion Date:

Dating by Nadine Cherpion, (1989), Mastabas et Hypogées d’Ancien

Empire: Le Problème de la Datation, (Brussels).

PM Date:

Dating from Bertha Porter, & Rosalind. Moss (assisted by E.W.

Burney) (Ed. J. Málek), (1927-2007), Topographical Bibliography of

Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, 8 volumes, (Oxford).

Other Date:

Dates for holders not included in any of the publications above.

Includes information from excavation reports and other

publications.

The entry for an individual also includes important titles and epithets that they received during

their career. This information is used in analysis in chapter 4 of this study. The references

included in the entry for each individual represent the evidence gathered about each

individual. They are recorded in author/date format. Readers can find full details of the entry

in the bibliography at the conclusion of this study.

  • 2.3 INFORMATION ON TITLE-HOLDERS

The prosopographical entries for each title-holder follow overleaf.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[01]

Axt-Htp/Akhethotep

 

Location:

D64, west of the Step Pyramid, Saqqara

 

PM:

III 2 : 599-600

PN:

Consensus Date:

V.8-V.9

King:

V1, V.2, V.6, V.8. 27

 

Kanawati ID:

007

Kanawati Date:

V.9M. 28

Harpur ID:

338

Harpur Date:

V.8L-V.9E.

Baer ID:

013

Baer Date:

V.9L.

Strudwick ID:

002

Strudwick Date:

V.9E.

LMP ID:

062A

LMP Date:

V.8-V.9.

PM Date:

V.8-V.9.

Cherpion Date:

V.8. 29

Other Date:

-

Davies, (1901b: 21): V.8.

-

Helck, (1954: 138): V.8.

-

Jacquet-Gordon, (1962: 386): V.8L.

-

Smith (1946, reissue 1978: 191) VM+.

-

Willougby-Winlaw, (2007: 296): V.8L-V.9E

-

Woods, (2007: V2, #016): V8.L-V.9E.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

References:

imy-rA 5maw; tAty sAb TAty; imy-rA sS answ; imy-rA prwy-HD; imy-rA

gs-pr; Hm-nTr MAat; iwn knmwt; mdw rHyt; Xry-tp nsw; sAb aD-mr;

smr-waty; wr mD 5maw.

Davies (1901b: passim).

Hassan, (1975b: passim)

Helck, (1954: TBA).

Jacquet-Gordon, (1962: 386-90 (25S5)).

Kanawati, (1980a: 16).

Kanawati, (2003b: 55).

Kees, (1932: 87).

  • 27. Davies, (1901a:12 & Plates VI; IX; X; XIII; XV; XVIII; XX; XXVIII & XXIX). Jacquet-Gordon, (1962: 387-390 & 392-4).

  • 28. Kanawati, (1980a: 16).

  • 29. Cherpion, (1989: 133), discusses the fact that certain dating criteria persist beyond V.8 (Isesi) into Dynasty VI. It is noteworthy that Cherpion includes the additional commentary on tombs from Dynasty V, not VI.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Kees, (1933: 581).

Mariette, (1889: 359). 30

Reisner, (1936: 408).

Smith, (1946, reissue 1978: 191-2, 201, 246-8, 306, 360).

Willoughby-Winlaw, (2007: #3. V1, 294-6; V2, Figure IV.168).

Woods, (2007: V1 & V2, #016).

  • 30. Mariette, (1889: 359), D64 refers only to Ptahhotep.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[02]

Ibi/Ibi

Location:

Tomb #S8, Deir el-Gebrawi/ U.E. 8 & 12.

 

PM:

IV: 243-4.

PN:

I, 20.10

Consensus Date:

VI.4-VI.5E.

King:

VI.3, VI.4, VI.5.

Kanawati ID:

019

Kanawati Date:

VI.5.

Harpur ID:

643

Harpur Date:

VI.4E.

Baer ID:

032

Baer Date:

VI.5E.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

VI.5E-M. 31

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

VI.

Cherpion Date:

VI.5.

Other Date:

-

Brovarski, (2006: 98): VI.5E.

-

Davies, (1902: V1: 30): VI.4-VI.5E.

-

Kanawati, (2007: 19-22): VI.4.

-

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 299): VI.4-VI.5E.

-

Kees, (1932: 94): VI.5.

-

Woods, (2007: V2, #022): VI.4-VI.5E.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

imy-rA 5maw; imy-rA 5maw mAa; imy-ib n nsw m st.f nbt; imy-is; imy-

rA wp(w)t; imy-rA wp(w)t Htp(w)t-nTr m prwy; imy-rA prwy-HD; imy-

rA sS; imy-rA Snwty; imy-xt Hm(w) nTr Mn-anx Nfr-ka-Ra; iry-pat; aA

8wAw; aD-mr 1r-sbAw-xnty-pt; wr m iAt.f smsw m saH.f; mniw Nxn;

ny mrwt; HAty-a; HAty-a mAa; Hwty-aAt; Hry-sStA; Hry-tp aA U.E.8 &12;

Hry-tp Nxb; HqA Hwt; HqA Hwt mAa; HqA Hwt Mn-anx-Nfr-Ka-Ra; xrp

iAt nbt nTrt; xrp ibttyw 1r; xrp imyw nTrw; xrp nsty; xrp Hwwt Nt;

xrp Sndt nbt; xtmty-bity; xtmty-bity mAa; Xry-Hbt; Xry-Hbt Hry-tp;

Xry-tp nsw; sS mDAt-nTr; smr-waty; smr-waty mAa; smsw snwt; sHd

Hm-nTr Mn anx-Nfr-KA-Ra.

  • 31. Strudwick, (1985: 253) at Table 20 dates Ibi, relying on Davies (1902: V1).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

References:

Brovarski, (2006: 94, 98).

Davies, (1902: V1: 8-23, Plates II-XXI & XXIII)

Kanawati, (1980a: 18-n9, 38-n19, 47-50, 52, 55, 57-n29, 58-n41, 60-n74,

64-6, 68, 70-4, 77, 81-n19, 83,-n61 67 74, 84-n97, 79-90, 92, 94, 97, 100-

n3 18, 102-n60, 116-7, 138, 142).

Kanawati, (2007: 11-73 & Plates 2-37, 41-58 & 67-75).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 66, 69, 75, 84-6, 108, 110-4, 116, 118,

124, 131, 139, 140-n846, 169, 250, 263-n1685, 273-4, 281).

Kees, (1932: 94).

McFarlane, (1995: n1708).

Martin-Pardey, (1976:45-n4, 117-n5, 118-9, 134-n3, 135-n4, 136, 138,

139, 144, 147, 166-n1, 210).

Roccati, (1982: 225-6, §§212-5).

Wilson, (1944: 208).

Woods, (2007: V1 & V2, #022).

Urk I: I142-5.

Proposed Family Tree at Volume II, Appendix II/C

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[03]

Inw-Mnw/Inumin

 

Location:

Teti Cemetery Saqqara.

PN:

 

PM:

I, 151.16 32

Consensus Date:

VI.3E.

King:

VI.3.

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

VI.1L-VI.3E. 33

Harpur ID:

Harpur Date:

Baer ID:

Baer Date:

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

-

Brovarski, (2006: 79): VI.3M. 34

-

Kanawati, (2003a: 66-70): VI.1L-VI.3E.

-

Kanawati, (2003b: 49-50): VI.3.

-

Kanawati, (2006): VI.3E. 35

-

Woods, (2007: V2, #025): VI.1L-VI.3E.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

imy-rA 5maw; imy-ib n nsw (m st.f nbt); imy-rA iswy n Xkr(w) nsw;

imy-rA aw; imy-rA wabty; imy-rA prwy HD; [imy-rA Hwt-wrt]; 36 imy-rA

Snwty; imy-rA gswy-pr; iry-pat; aD-mr 8p; HAty-a; Hry-sStA n pr-dwAt;

Hry-sStA n nsw m swt.f nbt; xtmty-bity; Xry-Hbt; Xry-Hbt Hry-tp; sS

mDAt-nTr; sm; smr-waty; sHD hm-nTr Mn-nfr-Ppy; tATy sAb TAty.

  • 32. Ranke also suggests mnw-inw. PN II, 41 also suggests ini-wi-mnw. See also PNII, 360 (151.16) variations.

  • 33. Kanawati, (2003a: 70).

  • 34. Brovarski, (2006: 79): Mid-Pepy I ‘at the latest’.

  • 35. Kanawati, (2006: 14).

  • 36. Kanawati, (2006: 11), notes that the title does not survive in complete form in the tomb.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

References:

Brovarski, (2006: 79-80).

Kanawati, N., (2000: 25, 31).

Kanawati, (2003a: Case Study #17).

Kanawati, (2003b: 49-50).

Kanawati, (2006: passim).

Woods, (2007: V1 & V2, #025).

Family Tree at at Volume II: Appendix II/C

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[04]

ISTi 7Ti/ Isheti Theti

Location:

Saqqara, West of Step Pyramid.

 

PM:

III 2 : 609-610

PN:

I, 47.11;

 

I, 395.24.

Consensus Date:

VI.5L.

King:

VI.3; VI.5.

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

Harpur ID:

367

Harpur Date:

VI.5 VIII.

Baer ID:

Baer Date:

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

– –

LMP ID:

200

LMP Date:

PM Date:

VI.5L.

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

Strudwick, (1985: 61-n3): VI.5.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

References:

imy-rA spAwt 6A-mHw; smr-w’ty; HqA Hwt Mn-nfr Ppy; HqA Hwt Mn- nfr Mry-Ra; xnty-S Mn-anx-Nfr-kA-Ra; Xry-Hbt.

Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 207-27, 251 & Plates I – XX). 37

Strudwick, (1985: 61-n3).

Museum Collections:

Cairo Museum

JE 88575. 38

JE 88576. 39

JE 88577. 40

JE 88578. 41

JE 88579. 42

JE 88580. 43

  • 37. Droiton & Lauer report on the tomb finds and plans but do not provde a date for the tomb in their commentary.

  • 38. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 215-n2).

  • 39. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 215-n2).

  • 40. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 215-n2, 218 & Plate XIV).

  • 41. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 215-n2, 218-9 & Plate XV).

  • 42. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 215-n2, 216 & Plate XI).

  • 43. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 216-7 & Plate XII).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

JE 88580. 44

JE 88581.

JE 88582. 45

  • 44. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 216-7 & Plate XII).

  • 45. Droiton & Lauer, (1958: 216 & Plate XI).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[05]

Idi/Idi 46

Location:

Abydos / U.E.8

PN:

 

PM:

I, 53.22/3

Consensus Date:

VI.5E-M(?).

King:

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

Harpur ID:

Harpur Date:

Baer ID:

73A

Baer Date:

Dynasty VI.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

-

Brovarski, (1994a: 36): VI.5 47

-

Brovarski, (2006): Late Old Kingdom.

-

Fischer, (1962), Old Kingdom. 48

-

Kanawati, (2003b: 56): VI.4-VI.5.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

References:

imy-rA 5maw; iry-pat; imy-rA niwt mr; tAty sAb TAty mAa; imy-rA sS

nsw; imy-rA Snwty; imy-rA Swy; HAty-a; Hry-tp Nxb.

Brovarski, (1994a: 34-6, 38-9).

Brovarski, (1994b: 108, 111)

Brovarski, (2006: 96).

Fischer, (1962: 65-8 & Plate 18 – Figure 4)

Kanawati, (1980a: 64, 75-6, 78-80, 85-n113, 86-n142, 89, 90, 93, 102-

n51, 146-n61).

  • 46. I suggest that this title-holder is the son of Nbt and 2wy [41] of Abydos and thus is related to the Dynasty VI Royal Family. First to combine the office of Southern Vizier and Overseer of Upper Egypt.

  • 47. Brovarski, (1994: 36 & 39), suggests that CG 1457 and CG 1575 may belong to two separate individuals, both Viziers (his suggestion) dated towards the end of Dynasty VI. The basis for his suggestion is that the writing of the name of Idi is different on both objects. Brovarski suggests that CG 1457 sylistically and paleographically belongs to VI.5M-L (Pepy II). The Brovarski comments are linked to his dating of Wni’s son to the second half of the reign of VI.5. See also Fischer, (1962:65-8) who notes the possibility of the objects belonging to two separate high-ranking officials.

  • 48. Not specifically dated by Fischer, but the commentary is suggestive of an Old Kingdom date.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Kanawati, (2003b: 56).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 118, 121, 224, 253, 267 & 271).

Kees, (1932: 92-3)

Kees, (1940:39-47).

Museum Collections:

Cairo Museum:

CG 1457.

CG 1575.

CG1577.

Proposed Family Tree at at Volume II, Appendix II/C

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[06]

Idi/Idi

Location:

Coptos/Kom el-Koffar 49 / U.E.5

 

PM:

PN:

I, 53.25

Consensus Date:

VIII.2

King:

VIII.2.

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

Harpur ID:

Harpur Date:

Baer ID:

602 50

Baer Date:

VIII.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

-

Mostafa, (1987: 171): VIII.2.

-

Schenkel, (1965: 19): VIII.

-

Strudwick, (2005): VIII.

-

Kanawati, (1982a: 69): VIII.

-

Kees, (1932: 111-2): Heracleopolitan.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

References:

imy-rA 5maw U.E.1-7, imy-rA niwt mr; imy-rA Hm-nTr; iry-pat; HAty-a;

it nTr; mry-nTr; smA Mnw; sDAwty bity; sDt nsw; tAty sAb TAty

Fischer, (1968: 65-8).

Goedicke, (1967: 172-194; 214-5; Abb. 18-22 & 28)

Hayes, (1946: 16-8 & Plate V).

Kanawati, (1980a: 69-70, 76, 96, 112, 114, 124-n53 & n61, 127-n100).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 134, 154, 166-8, 176, 178, 257, 260, 283,

286-8).

Kees, (1932: 111-4).

McFarlane, (1995: # 012).

Martin-Pardey, (1976:163, 221, 227-9).

  • 49. Tomb of his father 5mAi [48].

  • 50. Decrees of Neferkauhor from Koptos.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Mostafa, (1984-5: 422-3, 425-6).

Mostafa, (1987: 169-184).

Schenkel, (1965: 19-23).

Strudwick, (2005: 117, 121-3). Texts 31, 35-9.

Urk I: I299-306.

Weill, (1912: 59-67; Plates 4, 12 & 12)

Museum Collections: 51

Metropolitan Museum, NY

MMA 14.7.11. 52

MMA 14.7.12. 53

Cairo Museum

JE 43053. 54

JE 41894. 55

  • 51. Strudwick, (2005: 121-2, Text 36), present location of decree is unknown.

  • 52. Coptos Decree O.

  • 53. Coptos Decrees P & Q.

  • 54. Coptos Decree I.

  • 55. Coptos Decree R.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[07]

Idw I/Idw I

 

Location:

Dendera/U.E.6

 

PM:

V: 111.

PN:

I, 54.10

Consensus Date:

VI.5E-M.

King:

VI.3, VI.5.

Kanawati ID:

050

Kanawati Date:

VI.5E-M.

Harpur ID:

677

Harpur Date:

VI.3-4E.

Baer ID:

081

Baer Date:

VI.5E.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

VI

Cherpion Date:

VI.5.

Other Date:

-

Fischer, (1968: 95): VI.5M. 56

-

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 74 & 298): VI.4-VI.5E. 57

-

Petrie, (1898: 8): VI.5.

-

Woods, (2007: V2, #031):VI.4-VI.5E.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

imy-rA 5maw; imy-rA 5maw n bw mAa ;HAty-a; sDAwty bity; HqA Hwt;

smr-waty; Hry-tp aA U.E.6; Hry-tp aA n spAt; Spss nsw; smr pr; sAb aD-

mr; wr mD 5maw; HqA Hwt Mn-anx Nfr-kA-Ra; HqA Hwt Mn-nfr Mry-

References:

Ra.

Fischer, (1968:93-101, 115, 117-8, Figure 16 & Plate V).

Kanawati, (1980a: 47-8, 56-7, 66, 74, 78, 100-n3, 103-n74, 142).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 74-5, 114-6, 118, 120, 142, 259-n1649,

262-4).

Kees, (1932: 96).

Martin-Pardey, (1976:138-9, 166-n2, 169).

  • 56. Fischer (1968: 94) reads the dating of Idw I to the mid-reign of Pepy II mainly on titulary considerations after utilising Baer’s development of title sequences. This is after considering archaeological evidence which dates the tomb to the reign of Pepy II. Fischer felt that the tituary fitted more comfortably with Baer’s VI E (years 35-55 of Pepy II).

  • 57. Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 74) note that Idw I does not hold a titulary datable to the second half of the reign of Pepy II (VI.5), but in fact fits into Baer, (1960, reprint 1973)’s Period VI C (Merenre to Pepi II year 15).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Petrie, (1898: 8-10, 17, 19, 45-6, 63-5. Plates V-VI).

Smith, (1946, reissue 1978: 219).

Strudwick, (2005: 347). Text 250.

Woods, (2007: V1 & V2, #31)

Museum Collections:

University Museum, Philadelphia

29-66-594. 58

  • 58. Fischer (1968: 93 & Plate V).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[08]

Idw 4nny/ Idw Shenay

 

Location:

Qasr el-Sayyad/U.E.7

PN:

 

PM:

V: 119-121.

I, 54.11 59

Consensus Date:

VI.5M.

King:

VI.3, VI.4, VI.5. 60

 

Kanawati ID:

053

Kanawati Date:

VI.5L.

Harpur ID:

678

Harpur Date:

VI.5L.

Baer ID:

083

Baer Date:

VI.5E or VI.5L.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

– –

PM Date:

VI.5.

Cherpion Date:

VI.5.

Other Date:

-

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 298): VI.5E-M.

-

Kees, (1932: 96): VI.5.

-

Smith, (1946, reissue 1978: 219): VI.

-

Strudwick, (2005: 188): VI.5.

-

Woods, (2007: V2, #032):VI.5E-M.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

Imy-rA 5maw 61 ; HAty-a; sHD Hm-nTr Mn-anx Nfr-kA-Ra; sHD Hm-nTr Mn-

anx Mry-Ra; sHD Hm-nTr Mn-anx Mr-n-Ra; sDAwty bity; HqA Hwt; smr-

waty; imy-rA xnty-S pr-aA; Hry-tp aA U.E. 7.

References:

Kanawati, (1980a: 95).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 92, 117, 119, 133, 143, 239-n1487, 263-

n1681).

Kees, (1932: 95-6).

LD (Text): 177-8 / LD (Plates) II: 113g, 114a&b.

Montet, (1936: 102-3, 108, 110-125).

Mostafa, (1987: 173).

  • 59. PN I, 54.11: Idw.

  • 60. Priesthoods of pyramids of Kings provide a terminus antequem. In this case, dating cannot be before VI.5/Pepy II.

  • 61. Designated as Overseer of Upper Egypt in his father, 7Awty’s [55] tomb, but not his own.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Smith, (1946, reissue 1978: 219).

Strudwick, (2005: 188-9). Text 105.

Urk I: I115-7.

Woods, (2007: V1 & V2, #32).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[09]

ab-iHw/Ab-ihuw 62

Location:

Dendera/ U.E. 6

 

PM:

PN:

Consensus Date:

– IX.

King:

 

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

IX 63

Harpur ID:

– –

Harpur Date:

Baer ID:

Baer Date:

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

– –

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

-

Brovarski, (1982: 308-9): IX.

-

Fischer, (1968: 204): IX.

-

Peck, (1958: 87-n2): VIII. 64

Selected Titles &

imy-rA 5maw; imy-rA 5maw mAa; iry-pat; HAty-a; sDAwty bity; smr-

Epithets:

waty; Hry-tp aA U.E. 8/6/7. 65

 

References:

Brovarski, (1982: 308-9). 66

Fischer, (1968: 185-8, 195-9, 203-5 Figure 40 & Plate XXIV).

Kanawati, (1980a: 18-n9, 116-9, 121-2, 125-n89, 126-n92).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 96-n506, 118, 152-5, 157, 159, 166, 169-

170, 286, 288-9).

  • 62. Brovarski, (1982: 309), suggests that ab-iHw was not the (un-named) Overseer of Upper Egypt overthrown by anxty-fy. See Vandier, (1950: 186-7), but rather that an un-named nomarch whose False Dorr was found by Petrie (1902: Plate LIV), at Abydos may in fact be anxty-fy’s victim. The problem with Brovarski’s identification of the potential victim, is that the person is a nomarch, but not an Overseer of Upper Egypt.

  • 63. Kanawati, (1982a: 18-n9), but also identifies the likelihood of linkage to the Heracleopolitan Dynasty.

  • 64. Peck, (1958: 87-n2) states that she is not sure of the order of succession and therefore does not propose anything other than a general dating to Dynasty VIII. Whilst acknowledging Fischer for drawing her attention to the False Door – JE 38551.

  • 65. See note below on Brovarski and the order of ab-iHw’s titulary and the particular order of the nomes listed.

  • 66. Brovarski, (1982: 309), suggests that ab-iHw was Overseer of Upper Egypt in Abydos. This suggestion is based on the order of his titulary. Kanawati (1980a: 116), emphasises the religious perspective in relation to the naming of nomes in the titulary. In common with Fischer (1968: 202), Brovarski feels that the nome sequence in his titulary is important from an administrative, not just a religious perspective. It should be noted that Brovarski (1982: 316-n119), largely relies on Fischer (1968) as the basis for his views. I do not have a view on this matter but draw it to the readers’ attention.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

McFarlane, (1995: 361-n1934).

Peck, (1958: 87-n2).

Museum Collections:

Cairo Museum

JE 38551. 67

Figure 1

The False Door of ab-iHw

[09] showing both versions

of his title as Overseer of Upper

Egypt.

2. P ROSOPOGRAPHY McFarlane, (1995: 361-n1934). Peck, (1958: 87-n2). Museum Collections: Cairo Museum JE 38551. Figure
  • 67. Fischer, (1968: Figure 40), illustrated above in Figure 1.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[10]

Wiw Iyw/Wiu Iyu 68

 

Location:

Tomb # 19, Sheikh Said/ U.E. 15

 

PM:

IV: 189-190.

PN:

I, 76.1

Consensus Date:

VI.4-VI.5E.

King:

Kanawati ID:

070

Kanawati Date:

VI.5E-M.

Harpur ID:

635

Harpur Date:

VI.3-4E.

Baer ID:

106

Baer Date:

VI.5E.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

Old Kingdom.

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

-

Brovarski, (2006: 101): VI.4-VI.5E. 69

-

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 300): VI.4-VI.5E.

-

Kees, (1932: 98): VI.5.

-

Woods, (2007: V2, #36): VI.4-VI.5E.

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

References:

imy-rA 5maw; HAty-a; sDAwty bity; HqA Hwt; smr-waty; Xry-Hbt; Xry-tp

nsw; Hry-tp aA U.E. 15.

Brovarski, (2006: 101).

Davies, (1901c: 27-9, Plates 21-24).

Kanawati, (1980a: 74, 89, 95, 98, 125-n89, 145-nn46 & 52).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 73-4, 78-9, 118-9, 122-3, 279).

Kees, (1932: 98).

LD (Text): 122-3 / LD (Plates) II: 113a, c, d, e.

Martin-Pardey, (1976:112-n1, 134-n3, 167).

Woods, (2007: V1 & V2, #36).

  • 68. Son of Mrw-Bbi [25].

  • 69. Brovarski, (2006: 101), relies on Harpur’s dating.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[11]

Wni Iwn 299I/Weni the Elder

 

Location:

Abydos

PM:

V: 72.

PN:

I, 79.9

Consensus Date:

VI.4. 70

King:

VI.3, VI.4.

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

Harpur ID:

Harpur Date:

Baer ID:

110

Baer Date:

VI.5E.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

VI.1/VI.3/VI.4

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

Brovarski, (1994a: 37 & 2006: 94): VI.4

Selected Titles &

Epithets:

Richards, (2002: 94): VI.4.

[HAty-a] imy-rA 5maw xnt m Abw mHt m Mdnit; 71 imy-rA 5maw; imy-rA

5maw mAa 72 ; HAty-a; iry-pat; imy-is; sAw Nxn; Xry-tp Nxb; smr-waty;

smsw n DbAt; sHD Hm-nTr n niwt.f; 73 sAb iry-Nxn 74 ; imy-rA xnty-S pr-

aA; Xry-Hbt Hry-tp; sS mDAt nTr; sDAwty bity; Xry-tp nsw; xrp SnDwt

References:

(nbt); HkA Hwt; tATy sAb TAty.

Brovarski, (1994a: 22-4, 31, 33-4, 37).

Brovarski, (1994b: 103, 106, 113-5).

Brovarski, (2006: 94, 100, 112).

Dixon, (1958: 44-n1).

El-Khadragy, (2002a: 61-7; Plates 1-2; Figures 1-3).

Fischer, (1976: 81-5).

Goedicke, (1955: 181, 183).

  • 70. According to Wni’s biography, he was promoted to the role of Overseer by Merenre.

  • 71. Urk I: I105.

  • 72. El-Khadragy, (2002: Figure 2). Confirmed with copy of biography in this article.

  • 73. Baud, (1999: 293), identifies this as the pyramid town of Pepy I.

  • 74. According to various translations of Wni’s biography, the title is described as ‘mouth of Nekhen’, but more usually is read as iry-Nxn. On this see Fischer, (1996: 43-45).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Goedicke, (1967: 66 & Abb. 5) 75

Kanawati, (1980a: 10, 28-30, 32-3, 40-n58 61, 41-n83, 45, 48, 50, 53-6,

57-n11, 59-n54, 60-n80, 63-5, 70-1, 77, 86-n124, 97, 139, 146-n62).

Kanawati, (2000: 30).

Kanawati, (2003a: 4, 16, 19-20, 83, 151, 155, 170-3, 175, 180-1, 185).

Kanawati & McFarlane, (1992: 47, 93-n488, 118, 206, 222, 239-n1487,

263, 270).

Kees, (1932: 89-92, 94, 100)

Lichtheim, (2006: 18-22).

Mariette, (1880: #522; #529; #533)

Martin-Pardey, (1976:45-n4, 84. 109, 116, 118, 125, 127, 132, 134-n3,

135-n4, 136-n1, 145, 148, 154, 156, 170-1, 185, 187, 195, 198-n1, 200).

Richards, (2002:75-102).

Roccati, (1982: 187-197, §§177-188).

Simpson, (2003: 402-7).

Strudwick, (2005: 103-5). Text 20. 76

Strudwick, (2005: 352-7). Text 256.

Weill, (1912: 43-53). 77

Urk I: I98-110.

Urk I: I209-213. 78

  • 75. Goedicke (1967: 66): Dashur Decree.

  • 76. Dahshur Decree (PM III 2 : 876). Strudwick, (2005, 103) notes that the erasure of some names in the decree may be linked to the harem conspiracy. See also, Kanawati, (2003a: 4) and Wni’s own biography where he mentions the King’s trust in him was such that even as a relatively junior judge, he heard the case alone. One can speculate why the Vizier did not hear the case – perhaps due to involvement in the conspiracy.

  • 77. Weill on the Dahshur decree.

  • 78. Dahshur Decree.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Museum Collections:

Cairo Museum 79

CG 175.

CG 1309.

CG 1310.

CG 1435.

CG 1574.

CG 1670.

CG 1643.

Abydos

Discoveries at Tomb:

Second False Door. 80

Statue of Weni as a boy. 81

Proposed Family Tree at at Volume II, Appendix II/C

  • 79. Richards, (2002: Figure 3) illustrates photographic evidence of all the pieces listed below.

  • 80. Richards, (2002, Figure 15). Described by Richards as finely executed, of white limestone and ‘clearly the product of a royal workshop’.

  • 81. Richards, (2002, Figure 20).

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[12]

Wnis-anx/Wenisankh

 

Location:

Saqqara close to pyramid of his father: V.8 (Wenis).

PM:

III 2 : 616-7.

PN:

I, 63.8. 82

Consensus Date:

V.9.

King:

V.9.

Kanawati ID:

073

Kanawati Date:

V.9 L.

Harpur ID:

378

Harpur Date:

Baer ID:

112

Baer Date:

V.9-VI.1.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

016

LMP Date:

V.9.

PM Date:

V.9.

Cherpion Date:

V.9.

Other Date:

-

Baud, (1999: #32): V.9.

-

Brovarski, (2006: 77): V.9.

-

Schweitzer, (1948: 263): V.9.

-

Willoughby-Winlaw, (2007: 315): V.9.

Selected Titles &

imy-rA 5maw; Hm-nTr MAat (?); Xry-tp nsw; sA nsw.

Epithets:

References:

Aufrère, (1982: 61).

Brovarski, (2006: 77).

Munro, (1993: 21).

Saad, (1941: 687).

Quibell, (1909: 14). 83

Schweitzer, (1948: 263).

Willoughby-Winlaw, (2007: #22. V1, 314-5; V2, Figure IV.197 (I & II)).

Museum Collections:

Field Museum, Chicago

A 24448. 84 Projected Family Tree at at Volume II, Appendix II/B

  • 82. PN reading is anX-Wnis.

  • 83. Blocks now part of the Field Museum, Chicago holding A 24448. Wnis-anx not specifically named in publication on 1907-1908 excavations. See PM III 2 : 616.

  • 84. Brovarski (2006: 77-n39), notes that the chapel and False Door remain unpublished.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Plate 1:

False Door of the King’s Son and Overseer

of Upper Egypt, Wnis-anX[12]. Field Museum, Chicago A24448.

2. P ROSOPOGRAPHY Plate 1: False Door of the King’s Son and Overseer of Upper Egypt,

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[13]

Wnis-anx/Wenisankh

Location:

TT413, Khokha, Thebean Necropolis.

 

PM:

I 2 : 627

PN:

I, 63.8. 85

Consensus Date:

VI.3-VI.5(?).

King:

V.9.

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

VI.5M-L.

Harpur ID:

682

Harpur Date:

VI.7.

Baer ID:

112A

Baer Date:

V.9M-VI.1M.

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

VI.

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

-

Davies, (1918: 23): VIE.

-

Kees, (1932: 89): VI.3.

-

Saleh, (1977: 17): VL/VIE. 86

-

Smith (1946, reissue 1978: 226): VI.

-

Winlock (1943: 250 & 1947: 3): VI.

Selected Titles &

Xry-tp nsw; imy-rA 5maw; imy-rA Snwty; Hry-tp aA n spat.

Epithets:

References:

Aufrère, (1982: 61). 87

Davies, (1918: 23 & Figure 34).

Kanawati, (1980a: 68 &91).

Kees, (1932: 89).

Martin-Pardey, (1976: 153– n1, 166– n2).

Saleh, (1977: 12-17; Color plates Aa; Ab & Af; Figures 3-11 & Plates 2-

6(1)).

  • 85. PN reading is anX-Wnis.

  • 86. Saleh, (1977: 17) notes that names made from compounding of King’s names tend to be given to people born during or very shortly after the relevant King’s reign.

  • 87. Aufrère, (1982: 30), notes that in the case of non-royal personages, the use of a King’s cartouche in a name should not be taken as conclusive proof of dating. Kanawati, (1980a: 136), discusses this issue in relation to Wnis-anx.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

Winlock, (1943: 250 & Plate XXXIII).

Winlock, (1947: 3 & Plate 1).

Museum Collections:

Metropolitan Museum of Art:

MMA 22.3.325. 88

  • 88. MMA 22.3.325 fragment shows title of Overseer of Upper Egypt.

2.

PROSOPOGRAPHY

[14]

Wsr/Weser

Location:

Khozam/U.E. 5

 

PM:

PN:

I, 85.6

Consensus Date:

IXE.

King:

Kanawati ID:

Kanawati Date:

IXE 89

Harpur ID:

Harpur Date:

Baer ID:

Baer Date:

Strudwick ID:

Strudwick Date:

LMP ID:

LMP Date:

PM Date:

Cherpion Date:

Other Date:

-

Borchardt, (1964: 123-4): MK.

-

Fischer, (1964: 40-3): VIII / FIP. 90

Selected Titles &

Epithets: