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4. CONCLUSION sented and its characteristics are investigated.

The application of Koch


A nonuniform inverted-L slotted double-sided array antenna has been fractal geometry at the edges of octagonal monopole provides desired
proposed and fabricated for LTE and WLAN application. The antenna miniaturization and wideband phenomena due to its self-similar and
space filling properties. The two octagonal fractal antennas are placed
having 4 3 2 radiating array with mitered quarter wave transmission
orthogonal to each other and used to construct UWB MIMO antenna.
line printed on both sides of FR4 substrate. It is observed that double- An L-shaped stub is used in the ground plane of the geometry to provide
sided array with nonuniform inverted-L slots suppresses the side lobe an improvement in the isolation. The band rejection in wireless local
less than 220 dB at both frequencies where the upper side excited for area network band is achieved by etching a C-shaped slot from the
5.8 GHz while the lower side for 2.6 GHz. An optimized air gap monopole of the individual antenna. The compact dimension 40 3
between the substrate and reflector improved the reflection coefficient 25 mm2 of the antenna exhibits nearly omnidirectional radiation pattern,
and gain at both frequencies. The maximum gain recorded is about a low envelope correlation coefficient (<0.01), with good S-parameters
7.12 dB at 2.6 GHz and 10.1 dB at 5.8 GHz, respectively. Good over the entire UWB frequency range. The measured results show good
agreement observed between the measurement and simulated result agreement with the simulated one. V C 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

for reflection coefficient, E-plane, and H-plane at both frequencies. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 57:1919–1925, 2015; View this article
online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI 10.1002/mop.29220

REFERENCES
Key words: ultrawideband antenna; fractal geometry; band-notch
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Antennas Propag Mag 39 (1997), 13–20.
2. J.R. Panda and R.S. Kshetrimayum, A printed 2.4 GHz/5.8 GHz 1. INTRODUCTION
dual-band monopole antenna for WLAN and RFID applications with
a protruding stub in the ground plane, In: NCC National IEEE con- The ultrawideband (UWB) technology is growing very rapidly
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3. Z. Wang, H. Wang, M. Wei, and Q. Li, The design and implementa- quency band at very low power level. UWB system attracted
tion of double side printed patch antenna, In: International Confer- the interest of researchers from academia and industry after the
ence on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT), authorization of unlicensed use of 3.1–10.6 GHz band, by Fed-
Nanjing, 2008, pp. 1869–1871. eral Communication Commission (FCC) in 2002 [1]. Neverthe-
4. N. Zakaria, S.K.A. Rahim, T.S. Ooi, K.G. Tan, A.W. Reza, and less, UWB system faces multipath fading problem due to
M.S.A. Rani, Design of stacked microstrip dual-band circular polar-
reflection and diffraction between the receiver and the transmit-
ized antenna, Radioengineering 21 (2012), 875–880.
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5. P.Q Mariadoss, M.K.A. Rahim, and M.Z.A. Abd Aziz, Butler matrix
using circular and mitered bends at 2.4 GHz, In: International Con- output (MIMO) technology [2]. In this technique, multiple
ference on Communication, 2005. antennas are used to transmit and receive signals with different
6. J.-F. Huang and F.-J. Wu, Wideband printed and double-sided dipole fading characteristics, which in turn leads to improvement in
four elements array antenna on 5.2GHz UNII band, In: IEEE Inter- system reliability and channel capacity [3]. However, the use of
national Workshop on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, Identification, multiple antennas in a smaller area will cause for the degrada-
Xiamen, Fujian, 2007, pp. 23–27. tion of antenna characteristics due to mutual coupling among
7. D.M. Pozar and B. Kafuman, Design considerations for low side lobe antenna elements. Several UWB MIMO antennas have been
microstrip arrays, IEEE Trans Antenna Propag 38 (1990), 1176–1185. reported in the literature for UWB systems [4,5].
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The UWB systems faces electromagnetic interference prob-
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Technol Lett 56 (2014), 1860–1862.
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C 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


V

A COMPACT OCTAGONAL FRACTAL


UWB MIMO ANTENNA WITH WLAN
BAND-REJECTION
Shrivishal Tripathi,1 Akhilesh Mohan,2 and Sandeep Yadav1 Figure 1 Geometry of the proposed fractal UWB MIMO antenna.
1
CoE-Information and Communication Technology, Indian Institute of [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
Technology Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342011, India; Corresponding wileyonlinelibrary.com]
author: shrivishal@iitj.ac.in
2
Electronics and Electrical Communication Department, Indian
Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India

Received 28 January 2015

ABSTRACT: In this article, a compact octagonal-shaped fractal ultra- Figure 2 Recursive Generation of Koch structure (a) Iteration-0, (b)
wideband (UWB) multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna is pre- Iteration-1, and (c) Iteration-2

DOI 10.1002/mop MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2015 1919
stub is introduced between the two monopoles, which enhance
the isolation between the antenna elements. The prototype of
UWB MIMO antenna is fabricated and measured results show
good agreement with the simulated one.

2. ANTENNA DESIGN

2.1. Antenna Configuration


The geometry of the proposed UWB MIMO antenna with
WLAN band rejection is shown in Figure 1. It is fabricated on
Figure 3 Evolution of the FM of antenna structure with the applica- FR4 substrate (dielectric constant of 4.4, loss tangent of 0.02),
tion of Koch geometry at the edges of octagonal geometry (a) initiator, with dimensions of 40 3 25 3 1.6 mm3. The octagonal-shaped
(b) after first iteration and, (c) after second iteration FM are placed orthogonal to each other, both fed by 50 X
microstrip line. The orthogonal orientation of these two antenna
in the UWB range such as IEEE 802.11 wireless local area net- elements helps to achieve better isolation between them [14].
work (WLAN) from 5.15–5.85 GHz. To achieve WLAN band The Koch fractal geometry is applied at the edges of octagonal
rejection in the UWB range, different methods have been used shape monopole to achieve the desired miniaturization and
such as etching the different shaped structures either from the wideband characteristics.
radiator portion or from the ground plane of the UWB antenna. The generation of Koch fractal geometry is shown in Figure 2.
Some of these are split-ring resonators [6], open loop resonators The iteration wise evolution of FM is presented in Figure 3.
[7], and U-shaped structures [8]. However, the application of Here, the octagonal shape works as an initiator and the Koch
these techniques for band rejection could cause additional geometry works as a generator in the design of monopole of the
mutual coupling between radiating structures and this affects the antenna. Furthermore, rectangular slots of dimensions Ls2 3 Ws2
band rejection behavior too. Hence, the design of a compact are introduced in the ground plane to achieve the UWB opera-
UWB MIMO antenna with band-notch characteristics and low tional bandwidth. To obtain better isolation at lower frequency
mutual coupling is a challenging task. The UWB antenna with edge of UWB band, an L-shaped stub is extended from the
band-notch characteristics in WLAN band are reported in [9,10]. ground plane between the two monopoles. It increases the effec-
Moreover, these antenna structures are large in dimensions and tive current path and introduces an additional resonance at
difficult to integrate with modern portable UWB applications. 2.6 GHz, which in turn improves isolation in UWB band. The
The application of fractal geometry in antenna design pro- band rejection in WLAN band is obtained by etching C-shaped
vides miniaturization and wideband phenomena because of its slot from the FM of the UWB MIMO antenna. The analysis and
self-similarity and space filling properties [11–13]. The space design of the proposed UWB MIMO antenna is carried out
filling property helps to increases the effective electrical path using Ansoft HFSS ver.13. The optimized dimensions are as
length of the antenna in a given small area [11,12]. Several frac- follows: L 5 25 mm, W 5 40 mm, R 5 4.6 mm, Wm 5 2.6 mm,
tal geometries such as Koch snowflake [12], hexagonal-shaped Lg 5 8.5 mm, T 5 0.3 mm, d 5 0.8 mm, L1 5 1.2 mm,
[11], and Sierpinski triangle [11,12] are used to design UWB L2 5 3.4 mm, L3 5 7 mm, L4 5 2.6 mm, L5 5 15.5 mm,
antenna. L6 5 1 mm, L7 5 6.25 mm, W1 5 6.2 mm, W2 5 9.2 mm,
In this article, a compact MIMO UWB antenna with WLAN Ls1 5 3.5 mm, Ws1 5 1 mm, Ls2 5 1.5 mm, Ws2 5 5 mm,
a band-notch characteristic is presented. To achieve the com- Ls3 5 1 mm, Ws3 5 1.5 mm, Ls4 5 2 mm, Ws4 5 8 mm,
pactness and wideband phenomena, Koch fractal geometry is Ls5 5 1 mm, and Ws5 5 2 mm.
applied at the edges of octagonal-shaped monopole. The band
rejection in WLAN band is obtained by introducing the C- 2.2. Effect of L-Shape Ground Stub
shaped slot in the fractal monopole (FM) of the structure. The Figure 4 shows the effect of L-shaped stub on the S-parameters
rectangular slots are introduced in the ground plane to achieve of the antenna. It is observed from Figure 4(a) that the imped-
the UWB operational band. A decoupling L-shaped grounded ance bandwidth S11 < 210 dB improves significantly at lower

Figure 4 Simulated S-parameters variation of proposed fractal UWB MIMO antenna with and without ground stub (a) S11 and S22 and (b) S21 and S12.
[Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

1920 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2015 DOI 10.1002/mop
Figure 5 Simulated surface current distribution (a) at 4 GHz without L-shape stub when port1 is excited, (b) at 4 GHz with L-shape stub when port1
is excited, (c) at 4 GHz without L-shape stub when port2 is excited, (d) at 4 GHz with L-shape stub when port2 is excited, (e) at 9.6 GHz without L-
shape stub when port1 is excited, (f) at 9.6 GHz with L-shape stub when port1 is excited, (g) at 9.6 GHz without L-shape stub when port2 is excited,
and (h) at 9.6 GHz with L-shape stub when port2 is excited. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.
com]

and higher frequencies in the UWB operating band after the is observed from Figure 4(b) that the decoupling bandwidth
introduction of L-shaped ground stub, which helps to obtain the response is suppressed significantly at lower frequency after the
operating bandwidth from 3.3–10.8 GHz with three resonant fre- introduction of L-shape ground stub, which in turn helps to
quencies at 4, 6.4, and 9.6 GHz, whereas impedance bandwidth achieve decoupling bandwidth from 2.4–14 GHz.
response of S22 < 210 dB improves at higher frequencies. These The effect of L-shaped ground stub can be expressed in
improvements can be attributed due to increment in the surface terms of the surface current distributions of UWB MIMO
current path. It is noticed that isolation of more than 15 dB is antenna at 4 and 9.6 GHz resonant frequencies. It is observed
required in UWB MIMO antenna for good performance [5,9]. It from Figures 5(a) and 5(b), when port 1 is excited, that at

DOI 10.1002/mop MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2015 1921
Figure 6 Simulated surface current distribution at 5.5 GHz notch frequency (a) port 1 is excited and (b) port 2 is excited. [Color figure can be viewed
in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

Figure 7 Photograph of the fabricated UWB MIMO antenna (a) front view and (b) rear view. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which
is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

4 GHz resonant frequency, significant amount of surface current 9.6 GHz, stub blocks the flow of currents from FM2 to FM1
is coupled to the ground stub, which leads to the reduction of when compared with the case without the stub and with the
surface currents at FM2 of the antenna from FM1. Thus, incre- stub.
ment in impedance bandwidth and decoupling bandwidth at low
frequency is also observed. When port 2 is excited at 4 GHz, 2.3. Effect of C-Shaped Slot
Figures 5(c) and 5(d) show that significant amount of current is The band rejection characteristics over the WLAN (5.15–
coupled to the stub and flow of surface current from FM2 to 5.825 GHz) notch band is obtained by etching C-shaped slot
FM1 is reduced significantly. Figures 5(e) and 5(f) show that at from the FM of the antenna. The length of the slot is calculated
9.6 GHz, when port 1 is excited, the surface current intensity at mathematically by the following expression:
both the FMs increases as compared with lower resonant fre-
quency, which leads to improvement in S11 and S21 in the UWB
c
spectrum as well as radiation characteristics of the antenna. L¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  2L1 1L2 12L3 (1)
Similarly, for Figures 5(g) and 5(h) when port 2 is excited, at 2fnotch eeff

Figure 8 Comparison of simulated and measured S-parameters result (a) S11 and S22 and (b) S21 and S12. [Color figure can be viewed in the online
issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

1922 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2015 DOI 10.1002/mop
Figure 9 Radiation characteristics of the UWB MIMO antenna in E-plane and H-plane at 4.0 GHz (), 6.4 GHz (), and 9.6 GHz () (a) port 1 is
matched and (b) port 2 is matched. [Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com]

where, c is speed of the light, eeff is the effective dielectric con- whereas actual length is 16.6 mm, which is close to calculated
stant as calculated in [15], and L is the length of the slot. The length. It can be observed from simulated surface current distri-
calculated length of the C-shaped slot using (1) is 16.2 mm, bution of antenna at 5.5 GHz notch frequency in Figure 6 that
when port1/port2 is excited, the surface current is concentrated
near the C-shaped slot only.

Figure 10 Measured gain of the proposed UWB MIMO antenna.


[Color figure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
wileyonlinelibrary.com] Figure 11 ECC of the proposed UWB MIMO antenna

DOI 10.1002/mop MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2015 1923
TABLE 1 Fidelity Factor of the Proposed Antenna

Probe Positions (x-z Fidelity Probe Positions (x-y Fidelity


Plane) Factor Plane) Factor
h 5 08, u 5 08 0.7752 u 5 08, h 5 908 0.8648
h 5 308, u 5 08 0.8842 u 5 308, h 5 908 0.6660
h 5 608, u 5 08 0.8352 u 5 608, h 5 908 0.8738
h 5 908, u 5 08 0.7180 u 5 908, h 5 908 0.9013
h 5 1208, u 5 08 0.8859 u 5 1208, h 5 908 0.9222
h 5 1508, u 5 08 0.8979 u 5 1508, h 5 908 0.9466
h 5 1808, u 5 08 0.6604 u 5 1808, h 5 908 0.9252

transmission for reliable transmission in a communication chan-


nel. In case of a 2 3 2 MIMO antenna, its value should be less
than 0.4 b/s/Hz for reliable transmission [18,19] and it is calcu-
lated using the correlation matrix as follows [19]:

Figure 12 Capacity Loss of the proposed UWB MIMO antenna  


Closs ¼ 2log2 det wR (3)

where wR is the correlation matrix of the receiving antenna and


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
expressed mathematically as:
To verify the concept of present UWB MIMO antenna, the proto-
" #
type of the antenna is fabricated and is measured using Agilent q11 q12  
E5071C vector network analyzer. The photographs of the fabri- wR ¼ ; qii ¼ 12 jSii j2 1jSij j2
cated UWB antenna with its top and bottom view are shown in q21 q22
Figure 7. The simulated and measured S11, S22, and S21 of the
UWB MIMO antenna are shown in Figure 8.The measured S11 and
and S22 results are in good agreement with simulated results. The  
mutual coupling behavior of antenna is less than 215 dB. Thus, qij ¼ 2 Sii Sij 1Sji Sij ; for i; j51 or 2:
the presented UWB MIMO antenna satisfies the desired character-
istics in the UWB operating range, so the antenna is an appropriate Figure 12 shows the capacity loss changes with the variation of
choice for portable UWB MIMO system. frequencies. It is observed that the capacity loss value are always less
Figure 9 shows the measured radiation pattern in E-plane than 0.3 b/s/Hz in the UWB operating range, except for WLAN notch
(xz-plane) and H-plane (yz-plane) at different resonant frequen- band, where it is higher than the threshold value of 0.4 b/s/Hz.
cies. It is observed that radiation pattern is quasi-omnidirectional
in H-plane. Figure 9(a) shows the radiation pattern at resonant fre- 4. TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS
quencies when port 1 is excited, whereas port 2 is terminated using The time domain characteristic provides a better understanding of
a 50 X matched load. Figure 9(b) displays the radiation pattern antenna, which processes short pulses of large bandwidth. The level
when port 2 is excited and port 1 is terminated with a 50 X of distortion introduced by the antenna to its input signal is calcu-
matched load. The radiation pattern at higher frequencies shows lated in terms of fidelity factor, as given in [20]. The default Gaus-
small distortion compared with lower frequencies due to the sian modulated pulse of CST of spectrum range 3.1–10.6 GHz is
reflection at edges from the FM of antenna. The bends and curves selected as input signal, which satisfies the FCC indoor and outdoor
of fractal geometry cause for the change in current path, which in power mask [21]. The probe is defined in the elevation and azi-
turn leads to enhancement in radiation characteristics of the muthal plane at a distance of 300 mm, to accomplish the far field
antenna [16]. Figure 10 shows the measured gain of the proposed criteria for every 308 from 08 to 1808. The value of fidelity factor
antenna for both ports in the UWB band. The gain response is >0.5 is quite acceptable for well matching in UWB MIMO antenna
within 3 dB variation range outside WLAN notch band. The gain [22]. Table 1 shows the fidelity factor variation in the UWB spec-
response is suppressed significantly in the notch band. trum range from 0.66 to 0.94. These results show that the proposed
The envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) is an essential antenna structure has good pulse preserving capability.
parameter to estimate the diversity performance of a MIMO
antenna and calculated using S-parameters [17]: 5. CONCLUSION
A compact fractal UWB MIMO antenna with WLAN band-
jS11 S12 1S21 S22 j2 notched characteristics is presented in this article. The applica-
qe ¼ (2)
ð12ðjS11 j2 1jS21 j2 ÞÞð12ðjS22 j2 1jS12 j2 ÞÞ tion of Koch geometry provides miniaturization and wideband
phenomena. The L-shaped ground stub helps to improve the iso-
Figure 11 represents the ECC of the proposed UWB MIMO lation between orthogonally placed FM antennas. The band
antenna. It is observed that ECC value is less than 0.01 across rejection at 5.5 GHz notch band is obtained by etching C-
the entire UWB range due to its efficient design, whereas for shaped slot from the monopole antenna. Moreover, the applica-
good diversity performance, its value should be less than 0.5 tion of fractal geometry helps to obtain the stable radiation pat-
[14]. This indicates the good diversity performance is achieved tern at higher resonant frequencies in the UWB band. The
by the proposed UWB MIMO antenna. proposed antenna has a compact dimension of 40 3 25 mm2.
Similarly, in a rich multipath environment, quality of UWB This design approach provides a good solution for wideband
MIMO system is estimated in terms of capacity loss (b/s/Hz) compact antenna with excellent antenna characteristics. Thus,
also. This parameter is used to define the upper bound of rate of the proposed antenna is suitable for UWB MIMO applications.

1924 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2015 DOI 10.1002/mop
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V lower cut off frequency of the proposed antenna. Agarwall et al.

DOI 10.1002/mop MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2015 1925
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