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Introduction to Oil & Gas

9th Week Lecture


By
AP Dr Nasir Shafiq
Civil Engineering Department

Pipe Lines and Tankers


Learning objectives

 The objectives of this chapter is to give the


basic understanding of the means of
transportation of hydrocarbons, which are:
 Pipelines, and
 Tankers
Learning outcome

 At the end of this chapter, students should


be able to demonstrate the following:
 Difference between a pipeline and a tanker and
their application for transportation of
hydrocarbons.
 Different types of pipe lines and the respective
application.
 Different kind of tankers and their purposes
Produced Oil & Gas are required to
transport (move out) from one part of
the world to the other.

Why?
How?
Why?
Oil & Gas value-chain
Proved oil reserves at end 2008
Thousand million barrels
Proved natural gas reserves at end 2008
Trillion cubic metres
Why oil & gas are moved out?

 Natural gas and crude oil must be moved


from the production site to refineries/gas
processing plant and from there to
consumers/end-users.
 Earlier slides show the worldwide oil & gas
trade movement according to the
consumption and demand in various
countries/region.
How oil & gas are moved out?

 These movements (crude and/or refined


products) are made using a number of
different modes of transportation.
 Crude oil and refined products are
transported across the water in barges and
tankers and/or underwater pipelines
 On land crude oil and products are moved
using pipelines, trucks, and trains.
How oil & gas are moved out?

 Similarlypipelines are used to move gas


from the field to consumers.
Gas produced from onshore and offshore
facilities is transported via gathering
systems and inter- and intra-state pipelines
to residential, commercial, industrial, and
utility companies.
How oil & gas are moved out?

 In order to transport natural gas in


areas not served by pipelines, the gas
is liquefied to reduce its volume.
When the gas is liquefied, it shrinks to
l/600 of its gaseous volume.
Crude oil tanker
Oil pipeline
Oil pipeline
Pipelines Definition

 A pipeline system is defined as a


pipeline section extending from an
inlet point (may be an offshore
platform or onshore compressor
station) to an outlet point (may be
another platform or an onshore
receiving station).
Pipelines Definition
Pipelines types, classification
and categories
Pipelines can be categorised as:
 Onshore, and
 Offshore
The onshore and/or offshore pipelines have THREE
(3) types:
1. Trunk or gathering
2. Transmission or transportation
3. Distribution
Pipelines: Types

 These lines are used to transport oil from


field pressure and storage to large tank
where it is accumulated for pumping into the
long distance called trunk line.
 Gathering pipelines typically consist of lines
ranging from 4″- 8″ inside diameter,
operating pressure is higher than oil flow
lines.
Pipelines: Types

 Gathering system throughput varies widely


depending on:
 Number of field storage tanks.
 The producing capacity of well in each field.
Trunk Lines

 From large central storage, oil is moved through


large diameter, long distance pipeline called trunk
line to refineries.
 Pump are required at the beginning of the trunk
line and pumping stations must also be spaced a
long the pipeline to maintain pipeline pressure at
the level required to overcome friction, change in
the elevation and other losses.
Trunk Lines

 Crude trunk lines operate at higher pressure than


gathering systems. These lines are made of steel
and individual sections are joined by welding.
 These lines are almost buried below ground
surface are coated externally to protect against
corrosion.
Transmission/Transportation

 Transportation Pipelines - Mainly long


pipes with large diameters, moving
products (oil, gas, refined products)
between cities, countries and even
continents.
Transmission/Transportation

 These transportation networks include


several compressor stations in gas lines
or pump stations for crude and multi-
products pipelines.
 The large diameter may range from
24 to 60 inches
 Example Trans ASEAN line
OFFSHORE LINES
Distribution Lines

 Distribution Pipelines - Composed of several


interconnected pipelines with small diameters,
used to take the products to the final consumer.
Feeder lines to distribute gas to homes and
businesses downstream. Pipelines at terminals for
distributing products to tanks and storage facilities
are included in this group.
Distribution Lines
Oil Pipelines
 Crude oil is collected from field gathering systems
consisting of pipelines that move oil from the wellhead to
storage tanks and treatment facilities where the oil is
measured and tested.
 Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes with
inner diameter typically from 10 to 120 cm (about 4 to 48
inches).
 Most pipelines are buried at a typical depth of about 1 - 2
meters (about 3 to 6 feet).
 From the gathering system the crude oil is sent to a
pump station where the oil delivered to the pipeline.
Oil Pipelines

 The pipeline may have many collection and


delivery points along route. Booster pumps are
located along the pipeline to maintain the
pressure and keep the oil flowing usually flows at
speed of about 1 to 6 m/s.
 The delivery points may be refineries, where the
oil is processed into products, or shipping
terminals, where the oil is loaded onto tankers.
Oil Pipelines

 A pipeline may handle several types of crude oil. The


pipeline will schedule its operation to ensure that the
right crude oil is sent to the correct destination.
 The pipeline operator sets the date and place when
and where the oil is received and when the oil will
arrive at its destination.
 Crude oil may also move over more than one pipeline
system as it journeys from the oil field to the refinery or
shipping port.
 Storage is located along the pipeline to ensure smooth
continuous pipeline operation.
Natural Gas Pipelines

 Natural gas pipelines are used to move gas


from the field to consumers. Gas produced
from onshore and offshore facilities is
transported via gathering systems and inter-
and intra-state pipelines to residential,
commercial, industrial, and utility companies.
 For natural gas, pipelines are constructed of
carbon steel and varying in size from 2 inches
(51 mm) to 56 inches (1,400 mm) in diameter,
depending on the type of pipeline.
Natural Gas Pipelines

 The gas is pressurized by compressor stations


and is odorless unless mixed with an odorant
where required by the proper regulating body.
 Most natural gas pipelines operate using a
complex have become so automated that they
are capable of operating under command of a
computer system that coordinates the
operation of valves, prime movers, and
conditioning equipment.
Pipelines Components

 Pipeline networks are composed of several


pieces of equipment that operate together to
move products from location to location.
 The main elements of a pipeline system are
shown in the figure on the next slide.
Pipelines Components
Pipelines Components

 Initial Injection Station - Known also as


Supply or Inlet station, is the beginning of
the system, where the product is injected
into the line.
 Storage facilities, pumps or compressors
are usually located at these locations.
Pipelines Components

 Compressor/Pump Stations - Pumps for


liquid pipelines and Compressors for gas
pipelines, are located along the line to move
the product through the pipeline.
 The location of these stations is defined by
the topography of the terrain, the type of
product being transported, or operational
conditions of the network.
Pipelines Components

 Partial Delivery Station - Known also as


Intermediate Stations, these facilities allow the
pipeline operator to deliver part of the product
being transported.
 Block Valve Station - These are the first line
of protection for pipelines.
 With these valves the operator can isolate any
segment of the line for maintenance work or
isolate a rupture or leak.
Pipelines Components

 Block valve stations are usually located every


20 to 30 miles (48 km), depending on the type
of pipeline.
 Even though it is not a design rule, it is a very
usual practice in liquid pipelines.
 The location of these stations depends
exclusively on the nature of the product being
transported, the trajectory of the pipeline and/or
the operational conditions of the line.
Pipelines Components

 Regulator Station - This is a special type of


valve station, where the operator can release
some of the pressure from the line. Regulators
are usually located at the downhill side of a
peak.
Pipelines Components

 Final Delivery Station - Known also as Outlet


stations or Terminals, this is where the product
will be distributed to the consumer. It could be
a tank terminal for liquid pipelines or a
connection to a distribution network for gas
pipelines.
Pipelines Installation

 Onshore
 Buried
 Overhead
 Hanging
Buried Lines
Overhead Lines
Overhead Lines
Pipeline Bridge
Pipelines Installation

 Offshore
 On sea floor
 Buried into a trench
Offshore Pipelines Installation
Offshore Pipelines Installation
Offshore Pipelines Installation
Pipelines Inspection

 Crude oil contains varying amounts of wax, or


paraffin, and in colder climates wax buildup
may occur within a pipeline.
 Often these pipelines are inspected and
cleaned using pipeline inspection gauges
pigs, also known as, scrapers or Go-devils.
Pipelines Inspection
Tankers

 Oil tankers, also known as petroleum


tankers, are ships designed for the bulk
transport of oil.
 There are two basic types of oil tanker:
 the crude tanker and the
 product tanker
 Crude tankers move large quantities of
unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction
to refineries.
Tankers

 Product tankers, generally much smaller, are designed


to move petrochemicals from refineries to points near
consuming markets
 Crude oil tankers are used to transport crude oil from
fields in the Middle East, North Sea, Africa, and Latin
America to refineries around the world.
 Oil tankers are often classified by their size as well as
their occupation. Tanker sizes are expressed in terms
of deadweight (dwt) or cargo tons. The smallest
tankers are General Purpose which range from 10 to
25,000 tons.
Tankers Types and Capacity

 The Large Range and Very Large Crude Carriers


(VLCC) are employed in international crude oil trade.
As of 2006:
 The world tanker fleet had 4,186 vessels with a carrying
capacity of 358.8 Mdwt.
 84% of the tanker fleet were owned by independent
tanker companies.
 The average age of the fleet was 11.9 years.
 68% of the vessels are double hull ships.
 Tankers move approximately 2 billion tons of oil every
year. Second only to pipelines in terms of efficiency,
the cost of tanker transport amounts to only two or
three U.S. cents per gallon.
Tankers Types and Capacity

 The Large Range and Very Large Crude


Carriers (VLCC) are employed in international
crude oil trade.
 As of 2006:
 The world tanker fleet had 4,186 vessels with a
carrying capacity of 358.8 Mdwt.
 84% of the tanker fleet were owned by independent
tanker companies.
Tankers Types and Capacity

 The average age of the fleet was 11.9 years.


 68% of the vessels are double hull ships.
 Tankers move approximately 2 billion tons of oil
every year. Second only to pipelines in terms of
efficiency, the cost of tanker transport amounts to
only two or three U.S. cents per gallon.
Tankers Architecture

 Oil tankers generally have from 8 to 12 tanks.


 Each tank is split into two or three independent
compartments by fore-and-aft bulkheads.
 The tanks are numbered with tank one being
the forward most.
 Individual compartments are referred to by the
tank number, such as "one port", "three
starboard", or "six centre."
Tankers Architecture

 A cofferdam is a small space left open between


two bulkheads, to give protection from heat,
fire, or collision.
 Tankers generally have cofferdams forward and
aft of the cargo tanks, and sometimes between
individual tanks.
 A pump-room houses all the pumps connected
to a tanker's cargo lines. Some larger tankers
have two pump-rooms. A pump-room generally
spans the total breadth of the ship.
Tankers Architecture
Tankers Architecture
Tankers Architecture (Hull Design)
Tankers Architecture (Hull Design)

 A major component of tanker architecture is the


design of the hull or outer structure.
 A tanker with a single outer shell between the
product and the ocean is said to be single-
hulled.
 Most newer tankers are double-hulled, with an
extra space between the hull and the storage
tanks.
Tankers Architecture (Hull Design)

 Hybrid designs such as double-bottom and


double-sided combine aspects of single and
double-hull designs.
 All single-hulled tankers around the world will be
phased out by 2026, in accordance with the
International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships, 1973.
Tankers: Architecture (Hull Design)

 In 1998, the Marine Board of the National Academy


of Science conducted a survey of industry experts
regarding the pros and cons of double-hull design.
Some of the advantages of the double-hull design
that were mentioned include:
 ease of ballasting in emergency situations,
 reduced practice of saltwater ballasting in cargo tanks
decreases corrosion,
Tankers: Architecture (Hull Design)

 increased environmental protection,


 cargo discharge is quicker, more complete and
easier,
 tank washing is more efficient, and
 better protection in low-impact collisions and
grounding.
Tankers: Architecture (Hull Design)

The same report lists the following as some


drawbacks to the double-hull design:
 more expensive to build,
 more expensive in canal and port expenses,
 ballast tank ventilation difficult,
 ballast tanks need continual monitoring and
maintenance,
 increased transverse free surface,
 more surfaces to maintain,
Floating, production, storage and
Offloading (FPSO)
 Floating storage and offloading units or FSOs are used
worldwide by the offshore oil industry to receive oil from
nearby platforms and store it until it can be offloaded onto oil
tankers.
 A similar system, the Floating production storage and
offloading unit, or FPSO, has the ability to process the product
while it is onboard.
 These floating units reduce oil production costs and offer,
mobility, large storage capacity, and production versatility.
 FPSO and FSOs are often created out of old, stripped-down
oil tankers, but can be made from new-built hulls.
Floating, production, storage and
Offloading (FPSO)
 Shell España first used a tanker as an FPSO
was in August 1977. An example of a FSO that
used to be an oil tanker is the Knock Nevis.
 These units are usually moored to the seabed
through a spread mooring system.
 A turret-style mooring system can be used in
areas prone to severe weather.
 This turret system lets the unit rotate to minimize
the effects of sea-swell and wind.
Tankers Floating, production,
storage and Offloading (FPSO)
LNG Tankers

 Tankers equipped with pressurized, refrigerated, and


insulated tanks are used to transport natural gas
liquids and liquefied natural gas (LNG).
 Natural gas is liquefied at the destination point and
transported by special LNG cryogenic tankers to its
destination. At the delivery point the LNG is
re-gasified and charged into a gas pipeline system.
LNG Tankers

 In order to liquefy the gas its temperature is lowered


to -259°F (-162°C).
 Natural gas is kept in refrigerated and insulated tanks
to maintain in its liquefied state during transport.