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PIPELINE INTERNAL COATINGS

There are 3 basic groups of internal pipeline coatings: -


1. COATING FOR CORROSION CONTROL
Designed to provide for benefits through thickness and chemistry.
Corrosion resistant coatings rely primarily on being a physical and chemical barrier
between the steel substrate and the internal environment. The corrosive species that
will typically be encountered in pipeline/transmission line service are CO2, H2S, O2,
chlorides, and acidic compounds. Elevating temperature and/or pressure can
exacerbate all of these factors. for every increase of 18 °F (10 °C) in temperature, the
rate of a given reaction will double.”2
NACE determined that for a coating to be considered for corrosion protection from
the corrosive species typically encountered in the oil and gas industry, a minimum of
5 mils of coating thickness is needed.3 It is also necessary that the coating film be
dense; not containing entrained air.
Coating options that protect internal pipe surfaces from the effects of corrosion and
erosion, and reduce friction and turbulence in order to increase flow efficiency. The
coating also acts as a protection while in storage and during transport. Liquid epoxy,
internal fusion bonded epoxy (FBE) and special anticorrosive painting for protection
against corrosion. These options are: Suitable for fresh and salt water immersion
Effective for speeding up production Suitable for corrosive environments Resistant to
many solvents and chemicals Resistant to cathodic disbondment
Pipe coating solution, includes three options for internal coating: TenCoat™ 5000,
TenCoat™ 7000 and TenCoat™ 8000. They are thermosetting coatings that come in
the form of epoxy powder. They are recommended for production and injection
tubing, flowlines, line pipe products and drill pipes
▪ The primary reason of applying internal coatings is to reduce the friction and
therefore enhance flow efficiency.
▪ Increased efficiency is achieved through lowering the internal surface roughness
since the pipe friction factor decreases with a decrease in surface roughness.
▪ In actual pipeline operation the improved flow efficiency will be observed as a
reduction in pressure drop across the pipeline.
▪ The presence of free water in the system is one of the reasons to cause the
corrosion of inner pipeline.
▪ An effective coating system will provide an effective barrier against corrosion
attack.
Caution: -
It is not recommended that scraper pigs be run as the risk of causing mechanical
damage to the coating increases. Intelligent pigs can be and have been run through
internally plastic coated lines without issue.

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2. COATING FOR HYDRAULIC IMPROVEMENT
Flow (Hydraulic Improvement) coats: designed to provide for benefits through a
smooth consistent surface. thickness and chemistry.
● The physical roughness of a pipe surface will affect the physical properties of flow.
● Flow improvement coatings do not provide sufficient long term corrosion control
● “Recommended Practice for Internal Coating of Line Pipe for Non - Corrosion Gas
Transmission Service” (coating in non-corrosive environments, it must be a minimum
of 1.5 mils in thickness)
● Benefits to be derived from internally coated line pipe are:-
• Improved flow characteristics.
• Corrosion protection during the period preceding construction.
• The enhancement of visual inspection of the internal pipe surface.
• The improvement of pigging efficiency.
3. COATING TO PREVENT DEPOSIT FORMATION
The ability of certain internal plastic coatings to mitigate paraffin and scale
Paraffin precipitation is purely thermal in nature, but adherence to a surface is both
thermal and mechanical. A surface cooler than the WAT (wax appearance
temperature) and cooler than the surrounding fluid will provide a place for the
paraffin to precipitate and begin to deposit.
Having a rough surface profile for mechanical binding allows this precipitated
paraffin to remain adhered to the surface. Internal plastic coatings help mitigate
paraffin deposition by offering a small level of insulation to the steel surface as well
as offering a minimally rough surface making any paraffin that might precipitate pass
through the system versus becoming mechanically bound to the surface.
There are several factors that will cause the formation of scale deposits: -
● Pressure drops.
● Temperature changes.
Pressure drops, temperature changes and contact time all alter the solubility of the
scale in the produced water. Lowering that solubility will cause the scale to crystallize
and form a deposit.
● Mixing of incompatible waters.
Mixing of incompatible water can also alter the solubility, and bring cations and
anions together that were initially not present in sufficient amount in either water
alone to cause a deposition problem.
● pH changes.
As the pH rises, becomes more alkaline, the solubility of calcium carbonate and
calcium and iron phosphate decreases. The hydroxide ion, associated with higher pH,
will help the scale crystallization reaction.
● Agitation and contact time.
Agitation can bring into contact cations with anions as well as scale molecules to
increase the probability of scaling.

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An internal plastic coating mitigates scale formation and deposition in several ways: -
♦ By preventing corrosion in the system, iron based scales will be prevented (unless
there is free iron in the system – which is rare).
♦ The internal coating has a smooth surface which mitigates the precipitated scales
ability to adhere to the surface.
The prevention of asphaltene precipitation has proven difficult due to wide variations
in both the asphaltene molecule and the associated resin that keeps it in solution.
There are 4 ways to deal with asphaltene deposition: -
● Solvent removal
● Mechanical removal.
● Dispersants.
● Inhibitors.
COATED LINE PIPE WELDABLE CONNECTION SYSTEM
When internally coated line pipe is welded together; there will be a small area at the
end of the pipe that will experience coating degradation. What overcame this issue
was the development of a proprietary sleeve system that isolates this area of damage
behind the internally coated sleeve. The sleeve is manufactured from cold drawn
mechanical steel and is also internally coated for corrosion mitigation. The sleeve
itself is held into place either by tabs that become consumed in the weld or by a chill
ring that is tied into the root pass of the weld.
These sleeve systems still allow for intelligent pigging to be performed through the
pipe but the operator needs to ensure that the gauge pig run prior to the intelligent pig
is sized to pass through the internal of the sleeve.

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Some of kind of internal coatings: -
1. Anti - scaling Internal Coating
Product Description: -
● Is a modified epoxy coating, for different tubing and surface pipelines.
● Due to specific surface structure, coating has excellent anti-scaling and anti-
corrosion properties. - Material smooth surface provide reduce of wear and tear,
improvement of flow efficiency more than 25%
Typical Properties
Parameter Typical Value
Color Green
≥2L/μm (Falling sand method), Taber
Abrasive Resistance
abraser ≤45mg/(1000g.1000rpm,CS17)
pH Range 4-13
Adhesion More than B
Hardness ≥4H
Flexibility 1 Class
Impact Resistance ≥5J
Acid Resistance (10%HCl+3%HF,50℃) ≥20h,No bubbles, No adhesion loss
90 Days, 10% HCl, 10% H2SO4, 10%
NaCl, 10% NaOH immersion at 23 ℃
90 Days, crude oil, oilfield water
Corrosion Resistance
immersion at 80 ℃
90 Days, gasoline, diesel, kerosene
immersion at 23℃;
Operation Temperature ≤150℃ (302 ℉)
Operation Pressure Limited by pipe yield strength
Coating Thickness 100-200μm
Water injection, sewage wells, tubing,
casing, gathering and transportation
Recommended Use
pipelines, pumps, well head equipment…
etc.
Water, sewage, Sweet corrosive
Recommended Environment
environment
Restrictions >150 ℃(302 ℉)

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Package Size.
20L steel barrel.
Transportation and Storage.
Flammable. The product must be transported and stored in accordance with national
regulations. Product barrel should be tightly closed, undamaged, avoid direct sun and
rain. Storage should be well ventilated, dry and cool, away from source of fire and
living place, storage temperature should not exceed 33 ℃.
Safety and Handling.
Flammable. Handle with care. Before and during use, observe all safety labels on
packaging and paint containers. For detailed information on the health and safety
hazards and precautions for use of this product, refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet
“MSDS TC-3000A” and follow all local or national safety regulations. Use in well
ventilated areas. Avoid inhalation, avoid contact with skin and eyes, and do not
swallow. Spillage on the skin should immediately be removed with suitable cleaner,
soap and water. Eyes should be well flushed with water and medical attention sought
immediately. Take precautions against possible risks of fire or explosions as well as
protection of the environment.

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2. Anti - paraffin Internal Coating
Product Description
● Is internal anti-paraffin coating that can be used for tubing, casing and gathering
pipeline. - Specific surface structure provides excellent corrosion protection and anti-
paraffin performance.
● Coating can be used at high temperatures (≤180 ℃)
● Material smooth surface provide reduce of wear and tear, improvement of flow
efficiency more than 25%
Typical Properties
Parameter Typical Value
Color Tan
≥2L/μm (Falling sand method), Taber
Abrasive Resistance
abraser≤45mg/(1000g.1000rpm,CS17)
pH Range 4-13
Adhesion More than B
Hardness ≥4H
Flexibility 1 Class
90 Days, 10% HCl, 10% H2SO4, 10%
NaCl, 10% NaOH immersion at 23 ℃
90 Days, crude oil, oilfield water
Corrosion Resistance
immersion at 80 ℃
90 Days, gasoline, diesel, kerosene
immersion at 23℃
Operation Temperature ≤150 ℃ (302 ℉)
Operation Pressure Limited by pipe yield strength
Coating Thickness 100-200 μm
Crude oil, water, sewage, sweet corrosion
(CO2), moderate corrosive environment,
CO2 partial pressure≤10MPa Oil wells,
Recommended Use
water injection wells, gathering pipelines,
CO2 injection wells, well head
equipment, pumps…etc.
Restrictions >150 ℃(30 2℉)

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Package Size.
20L steel barrel.
Transportation and Storage .

Flammable. The product must be transported and stored in accordance with national
regulations. Product barrel should be tightly closed, undamaged, avoid direct sun and
rain. Storage should be well ventilated, dry and cool, away from source of fire and
living place, storage temperature should not exceed 33 ℃.
Safety and Handling Flammable.
Handle with care. Before and during use, observe all safety labels on packaging and
paint containers. For detailed information on the health and safety hazards and
precautions for use of this product, refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet “MSDS
TC-3000B” and follow all local or national safety regulations. Use in well ventilated
areas. Avoid inhalation, avoid contact with skin and eyes, and do not swallow.
Spillage on the skin should immediately be removed with suitable cleaner, soap and
water. Eyes should be well flushed with water and medical attention sought
immediately. Take precautions against possible risks of fire or explosions as well as
protection of the environment.

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3. H2S, CO2 Resistant Internal Coating
Product Description: -
● Is internal protective coating that can be used for tubing, casing and gathering
pipeline.
● Material has good adhesion, abrasion resistance, anti - paraffin and anti-corrosion
resistance. - Material has excellent resistance to the H2S, CO2 containing solutions.
● Material smooth surface provide reduce of wear and tear, improvement of flow
efficiency more than 25%.
Typical Properties
Parameter Typical Value
Color Green
≥2 L/μm (Falling sand method),Taber
Abrasive Resistance
abraser ≤45mg/(1000g.1000rpm,CS17)
pH Range 2-13
Adhesion More than B
Hardness ≥5H
Flexibility 1 Class
Impact Resistance ≥5J
Acid Resistance (10%HCl+3%HF,50℃) ≥20 hrs,No bubbles, No adhesion loss
90 Days, 10% HCl, 10% H2SO4, 10%
NaCl, 10% NaOH immersion at 23℃;
Passed
Corrosion Resistance 90 Days, crude oil, oilfield water
immersion at 80 ℃; Passed
90 Days, gasoline, diesel, kerosene
immersion at 23℃; Passed
Operation Temperature ≤150 ℃ (30 2℉)
Operation Pressure Limited by pipe yield strength
Coating Thickness 150-200 μm
Brine treatment system, crude oil pipe
Recommended Use line, acid fracturing and gathering
pipelines
Recommended Environment Acid environment (contents H2S, CO2)

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Material Performance
Temperature Pressure Test Environment Time
300℉/149℃ 10000psi/70MPa pH=12. 48 hrs
350℉/177℃ 10000psi/70MPa 5 3% CO2/97% methane 48 hrs
350℉/177℃ 6500psi/45MPa 5% NaCl 72 hrs
300℉/149℃ 6500psi/45MPa Hydrocarbon mixture 48 hrs
200℉/93℃ 2900psi/20MPa 12% HCl + 3% HF acid mixture 24 hrs
CO2 partial pressure=2MPa,
320℉/160℃ 10000psi/70MPa 168 hrs
Injection water
300℉/149℃ 5000psi/34.5MPa H2S partical = 1.0MPa, 168 hrs
Injection water CO2 partial pressure=3MPa,
320℉/160℃ 6500psi/45MPa 168 hrs
injection water
Package Size.
20L steel barrel.
Transportation and Storage.
Flammable. The product must be transported and stored in accordance with national
regulations. Product barrel should be tightly closed, undamaged, avoid direct sun and
rain. Storage should be well ventilated, dry and cool, away from source of fire and
living place, storage temperature should not exceed 33 ℃.
Safety and Handling .
Flammable. Handle with care. Before and during use, observe all safety labels on
packaging and paint containers. Use in well ventilated areas. Avoid inhalation, avoid
contact with skin and eyes, and do not swallow. Spillage on the skin should
immediately be removed with suitable cleaner, soap and water. Eyes should be well
flushed with water and medical attention sought immediately. Take precautions
against possible risks of fire or explosions as well as protection of the environment.
Note.
The information in this data sheet is not intended to be exhaustive, for your reference
only. The information contained in this data sheet is liable to modification from time
to time in the light of experience and our policy of continuous development. Please
contact us and request the latest version prior to using the product.

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4. Epoxy - phenolic internal coating for injection tubing, casing and gathering
pipeline
Product Description –
● Material has excellent corrosion resistance, especially against acid wash solutions.
● Material can be used in severe environment of oil and water treatment systems etc.
● Material smooth surface provide reduce of wear and tear, improvement of flow
efficiency more than 25%
Typical Properties
Parameter Typical Value
Color Green
Abrasive Resistance ≥2L/μm (Falling sand method)
pH Range 2-13
Adhesion More than B
Hardness ≥5 H
Flexibility 1 Class
Impact Resistance ≥5J
Acid Resistance(12%HCl+9%HF,25℃) ≥48 hrs
90 Days, 10% HCl, 10% H2SO4, 10%
NaCl, 10% NaOH immersion at 23
℃;Passed
Corrosion Resistance 90 Days, crude oil, oilfield water
immersion at 80 ℃; Passed
90 Days, gasoline, diesel, kerosene
immersion at 23 ℃; Passed
Operation Temperature ≤150 ℃ (302 ℉)
Operation Pressure Limited by pipe yield strength
Coating Thickness 150-200μm
Natural gas wells, water injection wells,
Recommended Use gathering and transportation pipeline
system
High temperature and pressure,
Recommended Environment
environment with frequent acid washing

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Material Performance
Temperature Pressure Test Environment Time
300℉/149℃ 10000psi/70MPa pH=12.5 48 hrs
300℉/149℃ 10000psi/70MPa 3% CO2/97% methane 48 hrs
350℉/177℃ 6500psi/45MPa 5% NaCl 48 hrs
300℉/149℃ 6500psi/45MPa Hydrocarbon mixture 48 hrs
200℉/93℃ 2900psi/20MPa 12% HCl + 3% HF + inhibitor 24 hrs
300℉/149℃ 29000psi/34.5MPa CO2 partial pressure=3MPa, injection water 360 hrs
Package Size .

20L steel barrel.


Transportation and Storage.
Flammable. The product must be transported and stored in accordance with national
regulations. Product barrel should be tightly closed, undamaged, avoid direct sun and
rain. Storage should be well ventilated, dry and cool, away from source of fire and
living place, storage temperature should not exceed 33 ℃.
Safety and Handling.
Flammable. Handle with care. Before and during use, observe all safety labels on
packaging and paint containers. Use in well ventilated areas. Avoid inhalation, avoid
contact with skin and eyes, and do not swallow. Spillage on the skin should
immediately be removed with suitable cleaner, soap and water. Eyes should be well
flushed with water and medical attention sought immediately. Take precautions
against possible risks of fire or explosions as well as protection of the environment.
Note: -
The information in this data sheet is not intended to be exhaustive, for your reference
only. The information contained in this data sheet is liable to modification from time
to time in the light of experience and our policy of continuous development. Please
contact us and request the latest version prior to using the product

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5. Internal Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coating (Epoxy Powder Protective
Internal Coating).
Product Description –
● Is a thick modified epoxy - phenolic powder coating.
● Material has excellent adhesion, abrasion and chemical resistance.
● Can be used as corrosion protection in the water, oil, medium acid and alkaline,
high mineralized, containing CO2 and H2S, corrosive environment.
● Material surface is smooth with high gloss, improves flow efficiency.
Typical Properties
Parameter Typical Value
Color Green
Operation Temperature ≤2 04 ℃ (400 ℉)
Operation Pressure Limited by pipe yield strength
Coating Thickness 175~375μm (7~15mils)
Production tubing, downhole equipment,
Recommended Use
ground equipment and line pipe
High temperature, high pressure sweet /
Recommended Environment sour oil and gas wells, water injection
wells, CO2 tertiary oil recovery systems
H2S pressurw ≥10 MPa,Operation
Restrictions
temperature >204 ℃ (400 ℉)

Material Performance

Temperature Pressure Test Environment Time


300℉/149℃ 10000psi/70MPa pH=12.5NaOH 48 hrs
300℉/149℃ 5000psi/35MPa 10% CO2/90% CH4 48 hrs
27% CO2/73% CH4,
300℉/149℃ 5000psi/35MPa 72 hrs
5% NaCl water solution
3% CO2/97% CH4 280
150℉/65℃ 2000psi/14MPa
5% NaCl solution H2S satureted days

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Package Size.
Net weight 30kg.
Transportation and Storage.
Flammable. The product must be transported and stored in accordance with national
regulations. Product barrel should be tightly closed, undamaged, avoid direct sun and
rain. Storage should be well ventilated, dry and cool, away from source of fire and
living place, storage temperature should not exceed 25 ℃. Relative humidity should
not exceed 65%.
Safety and Handling.
Flammable. Handle with care. Before and during use, observe all safety labels on
packaging and paint containers. Use in well ventilated areas. Eyes should be well
flushed with water and medical attention sought immediately. Take precautions
against possible risks of fire or explosions as well as protection of the environment.
300 ℉/149 ℃ 150 ℉/65 ℃ 6500 psi/45 MPa 2000 psi/14 MPa 72h 28days
Note: -
The information in this data sheet is not intended to be exhaustive, for your reference
only. The information contained in this data sheet is liable to modification from time
to time in the light of experience and our policy of continuous development. Please
contact us and request the latest version prior to using the product.

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6. Heavy Duty Anti - wear Powder Protective Coating for Suck Rod Tubing
System
Product Description –
● Is a thick epoxy powder internal protective coating for tubing.
● Have excellent wear resistance, adhesion and flexibility, which be strong
recommend to use in suck rod wear system to protect tubing The coating abrasion loss
is less than 100μm after 6ⅹ105 times of suck rod alternate motion.
● Can be used as corrosion protection coating in the water, oil, medium acid and
alkaline, high mineralized, containing CO2, corrosive environment.
● Material surface is smooth with high gloss, improves flow efficiency.
Typical Properties
Parameter Typical Value
Color Black
Operation Temperature ≤120 ℃ (250 ℉)
Operation Pressure Limited by pipe yield strength
Coating Thickness 250-500 μm(10-25 mils)
Production tubing, downhole equipment,
Recommended Use
ground equipment and line pipe
Medium temperature sweet / sour oil and
Recommended Environment gas wells, water injection wells, CO2
tertiary oil recovery systems
Operation temperature >120 ℃ (250 ℉),
Restrictions
sour service environment
Package Size.
Net weight 30kg.
Transportation and Storage.
Flammable. The product must be transported and stored in accordance with national
regulations. Product barrel should be tightly closed, undamaged, avoid direct sun and
rain. Storage should be well ventilated, dry and cool, away from source of fire and
living place, storage temperature should not exceed 25 ℃. Relative humidity should
not exceed 65%.
Safety and Handling.
Flammable. Handle with care. Before and during use, observe all safety labels on
packaging and paint containers. Use in well ventilated areas. Eyes should be well
flushed with water and medical attention sought immediately. Take precautions
against possible risks of fire or explosions as well as protection of the environment.
Note: -
The information in this data sheet is not intended to be exhaustive, for your reference
only. The information contained in this data sheet is liable to modification from time
to time in the light of experience and our policy of continuous development. Please
contact us and request the latest version prior to using the product

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