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Power flow control with FACTS

Alexandre Oudalov

November 10, 2005


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Content

„ Cascading outages. Power flow control. FACTS devices

„ Research and Development in the field of FACTS in


ABB. New hardware concepts: SVC Light + Energy
storage, Dynamic Flow Controller (DynaFlow). New
control and coordination algorithms for multiple FACTS
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 2

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Tendencies in power transmission sector
Basic tendencies in transmission
networks
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Power transmitted per km of HV line


Construction of HV lines
The amount of power transactions

1990 2000 2010


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Cascading outages

Area I Area II

Thermal Limit
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 4

100%

1 2 3 4 5
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Cascading outages

Area I Area II

Line outage
Thermal Limit
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Congestion
100%
Cascading line tripping

Power system stability loss

1 2 3 4 5
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Cascading outages

Area I Area II

Line outage
Thermal Limit
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 6

Congestion
100%
Cascading line tripping

Power system stability loss

1 2 3 4 5
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Cascading outages

Area I Area II

Line outage
Thermal Limit
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 7

Congestion
100%
Cascading line tripping

Power system stability loss

1 2 3 4 5
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Power flow control

Area I Area II

Thermal Limit
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100%

1 2 3 4 5
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Power flow control

Area I Area II

Thermal Limit
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100%

1 2 3 4 5
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FACTS for power flow control
Power electronics based controllers
TCSC SSSC

UPFC
V1 V2
P= sin ( δ 1 − δ 2 )
X 12
TCPAR / TCPST
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 10

Power flow equation

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FACTS for power flow control
Power electronics based controllers
SVC STATCOM

TCVR
V1 V2
P= sin ( δ 1 − δ 2 )
X 12
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 11

UPFC

Power flow equation

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FACTS for power flow control

TCSC PST SVC


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Parameter SVC TCSC PST UPFC

P - ** *** ***
Q
*** ** - ***
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FACTS, what is next?

„ New unified power flow


controller concept

„ Energy storage combined


with FACTS
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 13

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ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 14 DynaFlow – the latest FACTS technology

New power flow control solution as a combination of existing products


„ Dynamic active and reactive power flow control
„ Power oscillation damping to alleviate angle stability limits
„ Less costly than a UPFC, $UPFC >> $DFC >$PST
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DynaPow - Energy Storage for Power Modulation

„ Combination of energy storage


technologies with SVC-Light
„ Platform for dynamic reactive and active
power
„ Active power compensation
~
„ 10-100 MW
„ 10-100 MWh =
„ 1 sec – hours
BLACK BOX:
„ Applications
„ Power oscillation damping, power quality. TODAY
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 15

Capacitors
10 MW for seconds. 10-2-100 s
„ Load leveling, frequency regulation, peak
shaving. 25 MW for minutes. In 1-2 Y Advanced
101-103 s Batteries
„ Emergency power supply, spinning
~
reserve. 50 MW for hours. =
In 5-10 Y Hydrogen
> 103 s Fuel Cells
H2

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Coordinated control of FACTS devices

Area I Area II

FACTS
Load Shedding
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N load
min Cost Σ (ΔPload i ) = ∑ ΔP load i ⋅ Cost i
ΔPLoadi
i =1

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Summary

„ Blackouts have put network reliability on top of agenda.


Improvement will require combination of technical and
regulatory improvements
„ Network improvements will prioritize a better flow control
„ New FACTS devices for effective power flow control are
under development (DynaFlow, DynaPow)
„ New control and coordination systems (wide-area based)
and algorithms are under development
ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 17

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ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research - 18

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