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Mechanical Properties of Glass

# *A. Varshneya, “Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses”, Society of Glass Technology (2006)

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Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features

r

# Log K = Log (Yc ½)

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0 r
r

# Stiffness = S 0= (dU 2/dr 2) r=r0Elastic Modulus = E = S / r 0

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# Strength – Governs Load Bearing Capacity Toughness – Governs Crack Propagation

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P

# P

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Strain = L / L
P
L
L

# P

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Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

Infinitesimal cube represents triaxial state of stress.

#  xy= [2(1+) / E] ( xy)  yz= [2(1+) / E] ( yz)  zx= [2(1+) / E] ( zx)

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## (c) Hydrostatic pressure.

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# = K V

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# In the case of shear loading, the shear modulus is appropriate

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## (c) Hydrostatic pressure.

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#  V/ V 0

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# a material is called incompressible.).

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# So, when we determine any two parameters, (for isotropic materials) we can calculate the others.

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• # C. Beam Vibration

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Elastic Modulus = Stress / Strain
P

A = Brittle

# r

## S =Stress = P / A Strain = L / L

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

A
A

# / L

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# Pulse echo technique is often used to measure modulus

## C. Kittel, Intro. To Solid State Physics, J. Wiley & Sons

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# Pulse Echo technique is one of the most reliable.

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# v L= [ E / ] 1/2

## (Longitudinal waves)

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# E = (0.946 L 4f 2 S) / h 2

## Fig 8-5

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# In general, E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases

## Fig 8-6a

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# E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increase

E
K
x 
G

## Fig 8-6b

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# E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases

## Fig 8-6c

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# Na 2O x MO  5SiO 2

## (Varshneya)

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# Lithia-aluminosilicates have greater E values than SiO 2

## Fig.8-8

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# In general, bulk moduli of silicate glasses increase with temperature (except at low temperatures [0 - 60K])

## (The compressibility is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus.)

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# Composition and structure affect the values of elastic moduli.

## However, with greater alkali content glasses addition of B 2O 3leads to a maximum in E.

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# Elastic Modulus = E = S / r 0

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# Elastic Modulus = E = S / r 0

• ## 4. E affected by structure (density, electron configuration, etc.)

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# Hardness = Force / Area

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Many hardness tests are available

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# The most common microhardness diamond tips for glasses are Vickers and Knoop

## KHN = 14.23 F / L 2(Projected area)

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## Fig. 8-13 a & b

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# Diamond hardness indentations can result in elastic and plastic deformation.

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# Microhardness can be measured dynamically

max

f

## H vL2(GPa)= 37.84 a 2{ load independent hardness; a 2= N/m 2}

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# E r=[(1- 2)/E] + [(1- i2)/ E i

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Materials & Methods

# o The energy spent during the nanoindentation process can be categorized as plastic energy (W pl) and elastic energy (W el). The indenter penetrates the sample and reaches the maximum penetration (h max) at P max. During the unloading process, the compressed zone recovers and the final depth of the indent (h f) is often much less than h max.

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# Elastic Moduli and microhardness are two important mechanical properties.

## ≈ 5.5 GPa

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