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Mechanical Properties of Glass
Mechanical Properties of Glass
  • Elastic Modulus and Microhardness

[Chapter 8 – The “Good Book”*]

  • Strength and Toughness [Chapter 18]

    • Fracture mechanics tests

    • Fractography

    • Stress Corrosion

    • Fracture Statistics

*A. Varshneya, “Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses”, Society of Glass Technology (2006)

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Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features
Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features
Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features K c r Log v U   Log K
Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features K c r Log v U   Log K
Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features K c r Log v U   Log K
Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features K c r Log v U   Log K
Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features K c r Log v U   Log K
Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features K c r Log v U   Log K
K c

K c

r
r

Log

v

U



Log K = Log (Yc ½ )

Bond Breaking Leads to Characteristic Features K c r Log v U   Log K

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Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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Elastic Modulus Is Related To The Strength of Nearest Neighbor Bonds U r 0 r F

Elastic Modulus Is Related To The Strength of Nearest Neighbor Bonds

U

 

r 0

 

r

 

F

0 r r
0 r
r

Force

= F = - dU/dr

Stiffness = S 0 = (dU 2 /dr 2 ) r = r0 Elastic Modulus = E = S / r 0

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There Are Several Important Properties in Mechanical Behavior: Elastic Modulus – Governs Deflection S e Hardness
There Are Several Important Properties in Mechanical Behavior:

There Are Several Important Properties in Mechanical Behavior:

Elastic Modulus – Governs Deflection

S

Elastic Modulus – Governs Deflection S e

e

There Are Several Important Properties in Mechanical Behavior: Elastic Modulus – Governs Deflection S e Hardness

Hardness Measures Surface Properties

Strength – Governs Load Bearing Capacity Toughness – Governs Crack Propagation

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P
P

Stress = P / A

P Stress = P / A A = Cross-sectional Area =  r 2 P =
P Stress = P / A A = Cross-sectional Area =  r 2 P =

A = Cross-sectional Area = r 2 P = Load On Sample

r

P Stress = P / A A = Cross-sectional Area =  r 2 P =

P

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Strain = L / L P
Strain = L / L
P
L L
L
L
Strain = L / L P L L A = Cross-sectional Area =  r L
Strain = L / L P L L A = Cross-sectional Area =  r L

A = Cross-sectional Area = r 2 L = Length L = Change In Length

Strain = L / L P L L A = Cross-sectional Area =  r L

r

P

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Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties of Glass:

Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

Infinitesimal cube represents triaxial state of stress.
Infinitesimal cube represents triaxial state of stress.
Infinitesimal cube represents triaxial state of stress.  = (1 /E)[  -  ( 

y = (1 /E)[y - ( x + z )] x = (1 /E)[x - ( y + z )] z = (1 /E)[z - ( y + x )]

xy = [2(1+) / E] (xy ) yz = [2(1+) / E] (yz ) zx = [2(1+) / E] (zx )

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Special Cases of Loading Often Occur
Special Cases of Loading Often Occur
Special Cases of Loading Often Occur (a) Tensile stress. (b) Shear stress. (c) Hydrostatic pressure. jmech@mse.ufl.edu

(a) Tensile stress.

(b) Shear stress.

(c) Hydrostatic pressure.

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In uniaxial loading in the x direction, E (or Y) relates the stress,  , to

In uniaxial loading in the x direction, E (or Y) relates the stress, x , to the strain, x .

In uniaxial loading in the x direction, E (or Y) relates the stress,  , to



x = E x

  • y = z = -  x

  • xy = G

p

= K V

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Charge Conduction in Glass - Lecture 1

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In the case of shear loading, the shear modulus is appropriate jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass

In the case of shear loading, the shear modulus is appropriate

In the case of shear loading, the shear modulus is appropriate jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass
In the case of shear loading, the shear modulus is appropriate jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass

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(a) Tensile stress. (b) Shear stress. (c) Hydrostatic pressure. jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass - The
(a) Tensile stress. (b) Shear stress. (c) Hydrostatic pressure. jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass - The

(a) Tensile stress.

(b) Shear stress.

(c) Hydrostatic pressure.

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Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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In the case of hydrostatic pressure, the bulk modulus is appropriate.   V/ V jmech@mse.ufl.edu

In the case of hydrostatic pressure, the bulk modulus is appropriate.

In the case of hydrostatic pressure, the bulk modulus is appropriate.   V/ V jmech@mse.ufl.edu

In the case of hydrostatic pressure, the bulk modulus is appropriate.   V/ V jmech@mse.ufl.edu

V/ V 0

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Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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There is a relationship between E, G and K (and of course Poisson’s ratio,  )

There is a relationship between E, G and K (and of course Poisson’s ratio, )

G = E / [2 (1+)] K = E / [3(1-2)]

Note: -1 0.5.

(When = 0.5, K

There is a relationship between E, G and K (and of course Poisson’s ratio,  )

and E

There is a relationship between E, G and K (and of course Poisson’s ratio,  )

3G. Such

a material is called incompressible.).

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Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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There is a relationship between E, G and K (and of course Poisson’s ratio,  )

There is a relationship between E, G and K (and of course Poisson’s ratio, )

G = E / [2 (1+)] K = E / [3(1-2)]

So, when we determine any two parameters, (for isotropic materials) we can calculate the others.

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There are several techniques used to measure the elastic modulus: A. Stress-strain directly (load-displcament) 1. tension

There are several techniques used to measure the elastic modulus:

  • A. Stress-strain directly (load-displcament)

    • 1. tension

    • 2. 3-pt flexure

    • 3. 4-pt flexure

    • 4. Hydrostatic pressure

    • 5. Torque on rod

  • B. Ultrasonic wave velocity

    • 1. Pulse echo

    • 2. Direct wave

  • C. Beam Vibration

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    Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties of Glass:

    Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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    Elastic Modulus = Stress / Strain P
    Elastic Modulus = Stress / Strain
    P

    P

    Elastic Modulus = Stress / Strain P P A = Area =  r S or

    A = Area = r 2

    S or

    A = Brittle
    A = Brittle

    B = Ductile

    Strain = e or

    Elastic Modulus = Stress / Strain P P A = Area =  r S or

    r

    S =Stress = P / A Strain = L / L

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    Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties of Glass:

    Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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    To measure E from flexure, need to calculate the stress and strain. P  h b

    To measure E from flexure, need to calculate the stress and strain.

    P

    To measure E from flexure, need to calculate the stress and strain. P  h b
    
    

    h

    b

    A A
    A
    A

    = 3PL / (2 b h 2 )

    / L

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    Pulse echo technique is often used to measure modulus C. Kittel, Intro. To Solid State Physics,

    Pulse echo technique is often used to measure modulus

    Pulse echo technique is often used to measure modulus C. Kittel, Intro. To Solid State Physics,

    C. Kittel, Intro. To Solid State Physics, J. Wiley & Sons

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    Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties of Glass:

    Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

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    Pulse Echo technique is one of the most reliable. jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass - The

    Pulse Echo technique is one of the most reliable.

    Pulse Echo technique is one of the most reliable. jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass - The

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    19

    In the simplest case for isotropic materials there are direct relationships. v = [ G /

    In the simplest case for isotropic materials there are direct relationships.

    In the simplest case for isotropic materials there are direct relationships. v = [ G /

    v S = [ G / ] 1/2

    (Shear waves)

    v L = [ E / ] 1/2

    (Longitudinal waves)

    In the simplest case for isotropic materials there are direct relationships. v = [ G /

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    For the beam vibration technique, we stimulate the flexural modes. For beam bending: E = (0.946

    For the beam vibration technique, we stimulate the flexural modes.

    For the beam vibration technique, we stimulate the flexural modes. For beam bending: E = (0.946

    For beam bending:

    E = (0.946 L 4 f 2 S) / h 2

    f = frequency S = shape factor H = width and height L = length = density

    Fig 8-5

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    In general, E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases Fig 8-6a

    In general, E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases

    In general, E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases Fig 8-6a

    Fig 8-6a

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    E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increase E K x 

    E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increase

    E K x  G
    E
    K
    x 
    G

    Fig 8-6b

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    E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases Fig 8-6c jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual

    E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases

    E decreases as the size and concentration of the alkali cations increases Fig 8-6c jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual

    Fig 8-6c

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    E increases with addition of metal oxide (MO) [except PbO] Na O  x MO 

    E increases with addition of metal oxide (MO) [except PbO]

    Na 2 O x MO 5SiO 2

    Fig.8-7

    (Varshneya)

    E increases with addition of metal oxide (MO) [except PbO] Na O  x MO 

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    Lithia-aluminosilicates have greater E values than SiO Fig.8-8 jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties

    Lithia-aluminosilicates have greater E values than SiO 2

    Fig.8-8

    Lithia-aluminosilicates have greater E values than SiO Fig.8-8 jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties

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    26

    In general, bulk moduli of silicate glasses increase with temperature (except at low temperatures [0 -

    In general, bulk moduli of silicate glasses increase with temperature (except at low temperatures [0 - 60K])

    N.B. - the compressibility,  is being graphed in the figure (Fig. 8-9).

    (The compressibility is the reciprocal of the bulk modulus.)

    In general, bulk moduli of silicate glasses increase with temperature (except at low temperatures [0 -

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    Charge Conduction in Glass - Lecture 1

    27

    Composition and structure affect the values of elastic moduli. N.B.: at low (< 10mol%) alkali content,

    Composition and structure affect the values of elastic moduli.

    N.B.: at low (< 10mol%)

    alkali content, E B 2 O 3 addition.

    Composition and structure affect the values of elastic moduli. N.B.: at low (< 10mol%) alkali content,

    with

    However, with greater alkali content glasses addition of B 2 O 3 leads to a maximum in E.

    Composition and structure affect the values of elastic moduli. N.B.: at low (< 10mol%) alkali content,

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    Complications of silicate glasses makes predictions difficult

    Complications of silicate glasses makes predictions difficult F = [-a / r ]+ b / r
    Complications of silicate glasses makes predictions difficult F = [-a / r ]+ b / r

    F = [-a / r n ]+ b / r m (Condon-Morse)

    Force

    = F = - dU/dr

    Stiffness = S 0 = (dU 2 /dr 2 ) r = r0

    Elastic Modulus = E = S / r 0

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    Complications of silicate glasses makes predictions difficult

    Complications of silicate glasses makes predictions difficult F = [-a / r ]+ b / r
    Complications of silicate glasses makes predictions difficult F = [-a / r ]+ b / r

    F = [-a / r n ]+ b / r m (Condon-Morse)

    Force

    = F = - dU/dr

    Stiffness = S 0 = (dU 2 /dr 2 ) r = r0

    Elastic Modulus = E = S / r 0

    General rules:

    • 1. E increases as r 0 x decreases

    • 2. E increases as valence, i.e., q a x q c

    • 3. E affected by bond type (covalent, ionic, metallic).

    • 4. E affected by structure (density, electron configuration, etc.)

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    30

    Microhardness is a measure of surface properties and can be related to elastic modulus, toughness and

    Microhardness is a measure of surface properties and can be related to elastic modulus, toughness and surface tension.

    Hardness = Force / Area

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    Many hardness tests are available
    Many hardness tests are available
    Many hardness tests are available jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties of Glass: Mechanical

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    32

    The most common microhardness diamond tips for glasses are Vickers and Knoop Hardness = Force /

    The most common microhardness diamond tips for glasses are Vickers and Knoop

    The most common microhardness diamond tips for glasses are Vickers and Knoop Hardness = Force /

    Hardness = Force / Area

    Fig. 8-12

    Hv = 1.854 F / D 2 (Actual area)

    KHN = 14.23 F / L 2 (Projected area)

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    33

    Note plastic flow in silicate glass using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Plastic flow in Se glass

    Note plastic flow in silicate glass using a Vickers microhardness indenter.

    Note plastic flow in silicate glass using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Plastic flow in Se glass

    Plastic flow in Se glass using a Brinell microhardness indentation.

    Fig. 8-13 a & b

    Note plastic flow in silicate glass using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Plastic flow in Se glass

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    34

    Diamond hardness indentations can result in elastic and plastic deformation. jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass -

    Diamond hardness indentations can result in elastic and plastic deformation.

    Diamond hardness indentations can result in elastic and plastic deformation. jmech@mse.ufl.edu Virtual Course on Glass -

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    Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11

    35

    Microhardness can be measured dynamically H = 37.84 F / h max (from loaded depth, h

    Microhardness can be measured dynamically

    H vL = 37.84 F / h 2

    max

    (from loaded depth, h max )

    H vf = 37.84 F / h 2 (from unloaded depth, h f )

    f

    Microhardness can be measured dynamically H = 37.84 F / h max (from loaded depth, h

    F = a 1 h + a 2 h 2

    (equation fit to curve)

    Refs. 34 and 35 in Chapter 8.

    H vL2 (GPa)= 37.84 a 2 { load independent hardness; a 2 = N/m 2 }

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    Microhardness can be measured dynamically Measure dF/dh on initial unloading E = (  / 2

    Microhardness can be measured dynamically

    Measure dF/dh on initial unloading

    E r = ( / 2 A) [dF/dh]

    E r =[(1-2 )/E] + [(1-i 2 )/ E i

    Microhardness can be measured dynamically Measure dF/dh on initial unloading E = (  / 2

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    Materials & Methods
    Materials & Methods

    o The energy spent during the nanoindentation process can be categorized as plastic energy (W pl ) and elastic energy (W el ). The indenter penetrates the sample and reaches the maximum penetration (h max ) at P max . During the unloading process, the compressed zone recovers and the final depth of the indent (h f ) is often much less than h max .

    Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties of Glass: Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11
    Virtual Course on Glass - The Properties of Glass:
    Mechanical Properties of Glass - Lecture 11
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    38
    Elastic Moduli and microhardness are two important mechanical properties. Elastic modulus is a macroscopic measure of

    Elastic Moduli and microhardness are two important mechanical properties.

    Elastic modulus is a macroscopic measure of the strength of bonds at the atomic scale.

    Hooke’s law (stress proportional to strain) defines the moduli of linear elastic solids.

    For isotropic glasses only two constants are required – others can be calculated.

    Note: -1 0.5.

    (When = 0.5, K

    Elastic Moduli and microhardness are two important mechanical properties. Elastic modulus is a macroscopic measure of

    and E

    Elastic Moduli and microhardness are two important mechanical properties. Elastic modulus is a macroscopic measure of

    3G).

    Elastic modulus is best measured using the “pulse echo” or similar technique. For silicate glasses, E 70GPa and 0.22.

    Hardness is a measure of the resistance to penetration. Both densification and material pile-up are observed in glasses.

    Vickers indentation is the most common diamond indenter for glasses.

    For a silicate glass, H v

    5.5 GPa

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