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“FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING

MECHANISM ”
A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

RUCHIK P. PATEL (136680319077)


VIRAT A.PATEL (136680319088)
BHAVESH G. PRAJAPATI (136680319089)
GAURAV V. PRAJAPATI (136680319091)

In fulfillment for the award of degree


of
DIPLOMA ENGINEERING
in
MECHENICAL ENGINEERING

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


PROF. K J. PATEL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


NARAYANBHAI BHIKHABHAI PATEL POLYTECHNIC,
PILUDARA GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD
2015
NARAYANBHAI BHIKHABHAI PATEL POLYTECHNIC,
PILUDARA
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Certificate
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Fabrication Of Box Shifting
Mechanism” has been carried out by
RUCHIK P. PATEL (136680319077)
VIRAT A.PATEL (136680319088)
BHAVESH G. PRAJAPATI (136680319089)
GAURAV V. PRAJAPATI (136680319091)

under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Diploma Engineering in


Mechanical Engineering (5th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University,
Ahmedabad during the academic year 2014-15.

Prof. N V. Barot Prof. K J. Patel


Internal Guide Head of the Department

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

With deep sense of gratitude we express our sincere thanks to my guides, Mr. N V Barot., for
their valuable guidance, proper advice and constant encouragement during our project work from
the initial level to final level. We also feel very much obliged to, Mr. K J. Patel Head of
Mechanical Engineering Department.

We are also thankful to Mr. K.J.PATEL for motivating us with an admirable zeal for research
and exploring new ideas.
Lastly, and most importantly, we wish to thank our parents & friends. They supported us and
loved us.

Ruchik P Patel

Virat A Patel

Bhavesh G Prajapati

Gaurav V Prajapati

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ABSTRACT

In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond


mechanization. Automation is the use of control systems and information
technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods
and services. The field of automation has had a notable impact in a wide range
of industries beyond manufacturing.

The aim of this project is to Fabrication of box shifting mechanism


that sense the presence of box and then box sliding in another location by the
use of sliding mechanism. Whereas mechanization provides human operators
with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work,
automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental
requirements as well.

Boxes are sliding in another location by the help of conveyor Belt


mechanism and sliding mechanism. The box sliding on another location
project serves as an interdisciplinary engineering design experience.

It introduces aspects of mechanical and electronics engineering


including the following five primary knowledge areas:

1) Machining & Fabrication

2) Mechanical Arrangement

3) Project Planning

4) Electronics circuit prototyping and Programming

5) Sensor and Actuator application

6) Presentation Skills.

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TITEL
1. Project Synopsis………………………………6
2. Literature Review…………………………………………..8
3. Block Diagram And Description………………………17
4. Hardware Description……………………………………21
5. Overview Of An Embedded System………………71
6. System Objectives………………………………………78
7. Advantages, Disadvantages And
Application……………………………………………………..…80
8. Estimations And Costing………………………………82
9. Expected Outcome/ Conclusion And Project
Feature……………………………………………………………….83

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CHAPTER 1

PROJECT SYNOPSIS

1.1 Project summery


1.2 Description
1.3 Resources used

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1.1 PROJECTS SUMMERY

In many applications there is finding desire object and sorting it manually


is difficult task. There is many disadvantage of that ordinary old system.

The aim of this project is to design an AI based Robotic arm for object
detection and sorting that sense the presence of object and work according
command given by circuit and put it in Different Location.

Circuit is the heart of our project.

1.2 DESCRIPTION

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Today in industries, an object is manufactured with little variation like
color or size.

For object detection and sorting them on color or size bases we use
manual labor.

For this all industries will spend huge amount as wages and take lot of
time for processing. So there is no visual analysis of objects.

By considering this we made a project that detect and sort object based
on Size.

1.3 RESOURCES USED

All we need for this system is hardware having embedded software


and its access to PC which preserves all data bases. This hardware will be
having P89V51RD2 microcontroller, Mechanical arm, LCD display, conveyor
belt, D.C. motor, sensors, motor driver, buzzer, power supply etc. like other
embedded systems.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 1


“AUTOMATIC SORTING MACHINE USING DELTA PLC”
Babita Nanda invented it and work on automating every sector of
industry is an important step toward increasing efficiency and reducing human
related errors, here we try to automate the sorting process by using PLC.In
many industries job pieces of various sizes are moved on same conveyor belt
these need to separate at various locations in the manufacturing line. For this
purpose we are using the automated process which is used to sort the materials
which are of different sizes. After completion of manufacturing the products
automatically move on the conveyor belts. Sensors at different places sense
and detect the job pieces of different sizes. They get sorted at different places
based upon their sizes. For sensing the material infrared sensors are used. The
entire process is controlled by the program dumped in PLC. This paper is
based on delta plc. Delta plc is a basic type of plc used for small scale
applications. It has 8 inputs and 6 outputs. It has a 24v input slot which acts as
a power source for delta plc. It also has a USB slot which is used to run the
program on the plc. A very commonly used method of programming PLC’s is
based on the use of ladder diagrams. Writing a program is the equivalent to
drawing a switching circuit. The ladder diagram consists of two vertical lines
representing the power rails. Circuits are connected as horizontal lines, that is,
the rungs of the ladder, between these two vertical lines. In drawing a ladder
diagram, certain conventions are adopted.

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She conclude that implementing of Delta PLC for shorting of machine
has greatly reduced the complexity involved in completing this project .Every
production unit of mass production can make use of this king of system. Many
more industries can be identified for the application of this system.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2


“Conceptual Design of Automatic Manipulator for Metal and
Non-metal Waste Management Application”
Zol Bahri Razali, Nuraini Yatim are invented it and work on this
project is focuses on a conceptual design of a conveyor system that can be
used to differentiate between metallic and non-metallic materials, as well as to
perform transferring of the mentioned materials. The project should be started
by means of research on metallic waste sorting machines in the market like
magnetic conveyor system. A conveyor system is mechanical handling
equipment that moves materials from one location to another and magnetic
pulley has been used to separate metal and non-metal waste. Standard design
process flow is to be followed e.g. conceptual design and detailed design to be
produced prior to the fabrication. Design of the conveyor is using Solidworks
Software and analysis is using Ansys Software. Analysis equipment has been
done by doing calculation such as calculation of gear and motor torque prior
to fabrication. The expected result the fully automated conveyor system that
can be used for metallic waste management application is described in detail
in this paper.

They conclude that to finish up this project, it gives an excellent


understanding of conveyor system, magnetic pulley, detailed design using
Solid works and analysis of total deformation and maximum equivalent (von-
Misses) stress using Ansys software. Also developing manufacturing skills
and gained an interesting experience to fabricate this conveyor system in
prototype size. With the help of the gained knowledge, it was possible to
complete this whole project during the time given. Magnetic conveyor system
can be the important machine for metal waste management. However, due to
the limitation cost this conveyor system can’t be set with neodymium
magnetic pulley. So it has been replaced with magnet bar which is much
cheaper compare to neodymium. Although this prototype is simple, this
system able to separated the contaminated material into magnetic material and

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non-magnetic material without any human intervention. The objective of the
project was successfully achieved.

2.3 LITERATURE REVIEW 3


“Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical
– Economical Analysis”
Zoran Despodov, Stojance Mijalkovski, Vanco Adziski and Zoran
Panov are invented it and work on in this paper is presented a methodology
for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical
analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement
will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical -
economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor,
Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor
system.

They conclude that when designing the drive units on belt conveyors,
except technical parameters into account should be taken also the economic
parameters to perform a proper choice of the drive unit. For this particular
example of belt conveyor which we analysed in this paper the optimal choice
of drive unit is a system with three drive motors because the total cost is
minimal.

2.4 LITERATURE REVIEW 4


“Object Sorting System Using Robotic Arm”
Vishnu R. Kale and V. A. Kulkarni are invented it and work on the
paper presents a smart approach for a real time inspection and selection of
objects in continuous flow. Image processing in today’s world grabs massive
attentions as it leads to possibilities of broaden application in many fields of
high technology. The real challenge is how to improve existing sorting system
in the modular processing system which consists of four integrated stations of
identification, processing, selection and sorting with a new image processing
feature. Existing sorting method uses a set of inductive, capacitive and optical
sensors do differentiate object color. This paper presents a mechatronics color

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sorting system solution with the application of image processing. Image
processing procedure senses the objects in an image captured in real-time by a
webcam and then identifies color and information out of it. This information
is processed by image processing for pick-and-place mechanism. The sorting
process is based on a 2 phase operative methodology defined 1) a self-learning
step where the apparatus learns to identify objects ; 2) an operative selection
process where objects are detected, classified using a decisional algorithm and
selected in real time. The Project deals with an automated material handling
system. It aims in classifying the colored objects by colour, size, which are
coming on the conveyor by picking and placing the objects in its respective
pre-programmed place. Thereby eliminating the monotonous work done by
human, achieving accuracy and speed in the work. The project involve sensors
that senses the object’s colour, size and sends the signal to the
microcontroller. The microcontroller sends signal to circuit which drives the
various motors of the robotic arm to grip the object and place it in the
specified location. Based upon the detection, the robotic arm moves to the
specified location, releases the object and comes back to the original position.

They conclude that fully functional sorter machine can be


implemented by using a structure of parallel and independent channels in
order to increase the overall throughput which results with a forecasted
performance. The project can work successfully and separates different
objects using sensors. The sensor handling systems which drive the pick and
place robot to pick up the object and place it into its designated place can
work if accurately designed. There are two main steps in sensing part, objects
detection and recognition. The system can successfully perform handling
station task, namely pick and place mechanism with help of sensor. Thus a
cost effective Mechatronics system can be designed using the simplest
concepts and efficient result can be observed.

2.5 LITERATURE REVIEW 5


“Automatic Sorting Machine Using Conveyor Belt”
Sanjay Prakash Dabade , Rohan Prakash Chumble are invented it and
work on Design the automated sorting machine using conveyor belt to need
the manufacturing industry in many fields is a very complex process. The
system needs to satisfy industry requisition. This is an industrial automation

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based application. It shows the concept of normal conveyor belt, but with
some intelligence. We can also call it as intelligent conveyor belt, as it has
also ability to sort the object of different sizes. This helps to avoid size
malfunctioning in production machines. In the core of the project, we are
using field programmable gate array (FPGA). The FPGA is used in PLC and
controls the relay and drives relay according to output of photo interrupter. IR
rays in photodiode are used for detection. The objects of different sizes are
passed through the sensors and the object having specified size is sorted. The
belt is driven by drive circuit which is controlled by drive controller. By
developing such sorting system the production rate of the manufacturing
industry has been increased since these sorting systems replaced the human
resources. Also the accidents in manufacturing industry can be prevented
because the uses of operator in manufacturing floor had been reduced.

They conclude that the automatic sorting machine using conveyor belt
is basically useful for sorting the products in the industry specifically large
scale industries where mass production is carried out. The machine also
reduces the efforts of theworkers by reducing the time spent for material
handling. The application area of this machine is very wide in industries
where automation is built.

2.6 LITERATURE REVIEW 6


“DESIGNING OF A LETTER SORTING MACHINE FOR
THE REGIONAL POST OFFICES IN GHANA”
Erwin Normanyo, Daniel Ayim and Adetunde Isaac are invented it and
work on the hitherto manual sorting of 1,200 letters per hour in the post
offices is laborious, labour-intensive and timeconsuming. This paper seeks to
design a letter sorting machine (LSM) based on the conveyor belt
transportation and letter sorting principle to replace the manual method of
sorting letters. This machine is designed to make sorting of letters very
effective and efficient thus, minimizing sorting into wrong destination bins
and increasing the number of well-sorted letters per hour to over 30,000. A
programmable logic controller (PLC) installed in-between the sensors and
actuators effects programming flexibility by way of the control program in its
memory. Optical character recognition (OCR) technology and barcode sorter
(BCS) systems are employed to read handwritten and printed addresses as

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well as barcodes. Coding of the regions and a proposed addressing format is
resolved thereby enhancing compatibility with the postal optical character
reading system. This paper therefore seeks to design a letter sorting machine
for the regional post offices in Ghana to increase effectiveness and efficiency
of letter delivery.

They conclude that Designing of a letter sorting machine for the


regional Post offices in Ghana had been developed, the machine will help to
guide against the present state of letter sorting in the country which is time
consuming, labour intensive and affects the prompt delivery of letters to
recipients. Moreover, the sorting machine will enable more letters to be sorted
efficiently and effectively than the manual system.

2.7 LITERATURE REVIEW 7


“Conveyor Control and Sorting Module Controlled By
Programmable Logic Controller”
G. Sujatha and V. Perasiriyan are invented it and work on this paper
investigates a conveyor sorting module controlled by programmable logic
controller (PLC). Conveyer Sorting Plant module is a full fledged working
model of a typical Industrial conveyer plant. It has all the necessary
components required for a conveyer sorting. All the necessary control input
and outputs are brought out to the front panel to a 4mm sockets. The solenoid
valves operate for 24V DC. Infra Red sensors take 24V DC as input and gives
out 24V output when sensed. DC motor run at 12V DC to switch the motors
on two relays are used. The Conveyer Sorting system has all the hardware
mounted but the system needs a controller to control the process. The
controller can be either a PLC, or a microcontroller or a PC based software
controller. The control logic for the controller will remain same for any
control system. But this paper deals with a conveyer sorting plant controlled
by PLC.

They conclude that the designed conveyor sorting module can be used
for different logics that can be applied in conveyer sorting To sense the object
and sort the small one to Right bin, Large one to middle bin and Medium one
to center bin. To sense the object only the medium size object to center or left

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or right bin and if small or big object is sensed stop conveyer-2 immediately
and blink Cycle on LED DO-0 at interval. Once the object is removed from
the conveyer, stop blinking and wait to accept the Object loading again. To
sort only Small and Medium height Object so that once the big object is
sensed stop the conveyer. To sort the Small object 4 no.s, Medium object 4
nos. and Big object 4 no. to the bin and stop sensing till reset button is sensed.
To sort the objects are in ascending order according to the size and stop the
conveyer if the sequence is wrong.

2.8 LITERATURE REVIEW 8


“Automatic letter sorting for Indian Postal Address
Recognition System based on PIN codes”
C. M. Velu and P. Vivekanandan are invented it and work on The
present work deals with the recognition of Indian postal letter sorting system
based on PIN code. The optical camera catches the front and back view of
each postal letter at a time. The vision system ensures from address and to
address along with postal department stamp, seal etc., In this paper, an attempt
has been made to recognize PIN codes by using Connected Component (CC)
approach, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Barcode approaches. The
six nearest neighbour CCs technique instead of 4 or 8 CCs has been adopted
to recognize handwritten numerals. The ANN classifier technique has been
used to recognize the numerals in the PIN code. In this paper, the
development of exact barcode to each PIN code is introduced for sorting the
postal letters automatically. The letters travel up to barcode scanner, if the PIN
code is written on the envelope, equivalent barcodes are developed and
printed on the each of the postal letters in the bottom line by the barcode
printer, if PIN codes are not written on the envelope, by comparing a lookup
table of place and PIN code, equivalent barcode to PIN code will be printed
on the bottom of the postal letter. Then the automatic letter sorting system is
employed to sort the letters using the barcodes. The conveyor belt which is
having gates at each check points works on the basis of on/off condition,
enables the letter to travel up to exact location of the destination box. A
comparative study has been made for the above approaches and the results are
displayed. The experiments were performed on automatic postal letter sorting
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machine which is situated near to Meenambakkam Airport, Chennai. The
experimental results reveal that barcode approach yields 99.5% of accuracy.

They conclude that the present paper deals with the recognition of PIN
code by using CCLA, ANN and barcode approach. The six nearest neighbour
CC technique has been adopted to recognize handwritten numerals and yields
95% of accuracy. The ANN classifier technique has been applied to recognize
the digits in the PIN code, which produces 97% of the result. Also, barcode is
found equivalent to the PIN code, based on this the postal letters are sorted.
The experimental results reveal that barcode approach yields fast and accurate
result with good precision of 99.5%. Further training was done on automatic
mail sorting machine with 6000 samples. Among which 5970 samples were
classified accurately and 30 samples could not be recognized well. The test
set, however, contains a significant number of imperfectly segmented
characters as well as some garbage images, thus making it a good test set for
recognition.

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CHAPTER 3

BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRIPTION

3.1 Block Diagrams


3.2 Block Description

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3.1 Block Diagrams

Fig. 3.1 Block Diagram

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3.2 Block Description

 This machine is designed to sliding boxes in another location


conveyor constantly/randomly in a single machine.
 Human held put in another location process will cause inexact
volume of boxes into the whole process and chances of damages.
 So using automated system will set the number of the boxes
exactly the same for each system.
 If all the process is done manually, it will cost lot of time to
complete the task.
 This project will reduce the usage of man power because all of the
work will be done by machine.
 This machine will also reduce the human error while doing this
process manually.
 It also can be used as a training kit to describe the function of dc
motor.

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 Microcontroller: - Controller is heart of embedded system. We have
used P89V51RD2 microcontroller for this project. As in every
embedded systems we are having controller to control or process all
the activities and devices. It is connected to D.C motoric sensor,
buzzer, and motor driver as well.

 D.C Motor: It is operated on 12V D.C. and its 60 to 100 rpm


(revolution per min.).it will used to drive robotics arm and conveyor.

 IR Sensor: IR Sensor is a p-n junction. When an infrared photon of


sufficient energy strikes the diode, it excites an electron thereby
creating a mobile electron and a positively charged electron hole. If the
absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one diffusion
length away from it, these carriers are swept from the junction by the
built-in field of the depletion region, producing a photocurrent.

 Motor driver: L293D is a bipolar motor driver IC. The L293 is


designed to provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 1 A at
voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V.

 Buzzer: Buzzer is a piezoelectric device. It is audio signaling device.


It operated on 6V, and it is use to give notification when we start the
system.

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CHAPTER 4

HARDWARE DESCRIPATRION
4.1 Conveyor Belt
4.2 Sliding Mechanism
4.3 Pulley
4.4 D.C motor
4.5 LCD display

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4.6 IR sensor
4.7 P89V51RD2 Microcontroller
4.8 Power supply
4.9 LM324 IC
4.10 Component list

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4.1 Conveyor Belt

Figure Conveyor Belt

Conveyer belt assembly is made by the using conveyer belt on pulley.


This conveyer belt is run by the motor according to Microcontroller

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instruction. Also the empty bottles placed on the conveyer belt which
movements controlled by the microcontroller.

A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor


system (often shortened to belt conveyor). A belt conveyor system is one of
many types of conveyor systems. A belt conveyor system consists of two or
more pulleys (sometimes referred to as drums), with an endless loop of
carrying medium—the conveyor belt—that rotates about them. One or both of
the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on the belt forward.
The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is
called the idler pulley. There are two main industrial classes of belt
conveyors; Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes
along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to
transport large volumes of resources and agricultural materials, such
as grain,salt, coal, ore, sand, overburden and more.

Today there are different types of conveyor belts that have been
created for conveying different kinds of material available in PVC and rubber
materials.

The belt consists of one or more layers of material. Many belts in


general material handling have two layers. An under layer of material to
provide linear strength and shape called a carcass and an over layer called the
cover. The carcass is often a woven fabric having a warp& weft. The most
common carcass materials are polyester, nylon and cotton. The cover is often
various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt. Covers can
be made from more exotic materials for unusual applications such as silicone
for heat or gum rubber when traction is essential.

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Material flowing over the belt may be weighed in transit using a belt
weigher. Belts with regularly spaced partitions, known as elevator belts, are
used for transporting loose materials up steep inclines. Belt Conveyors are
used in self-unloading bulk freighters and in live bottom trucks. Belt conveyor
technology is also used in conveyor transport such as moving sidewalks or
escalators, as well as on many manufacturing assembly lines. Stores often
have conveyor belts at the check-out counter to move shopping items. Ski
areas also use conveyor belts to transport skiers up the hill.

Some of the major global conveyor belt service providers are Terra
Nova Technologies, ThyssenKrupp, HESE Maschinenfabrik
GmbH and Tenova Takraf.

Belt conveyor systems

Conveyors are durable and reliable components used in


automated distribution and warehousing. In combination with computer
controlled pallet handling equipment this allows for more
efficient retail, wholesale, and manufacturing distribution. It is considered a
labor saving system that allows large volumes to move rapidly through a
process, allowing companies to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller
storage space and with less labor expense.

Rubber conveyor belts are commonly used to convey items with


irregular bottom surfaces, small items that would fall in between rollers (e.g.
a sushi conveyor bar), or bags of product that would sag between rollers. Belt
conveyors are generally fairly similar in construction consisting of a metal
frame with rollers at either end of a flat metal bed. The belt is looped around
each of the rollers and when one of the rollers is powered (by an electrical

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motor) the belting slides across the solid metal frame bed, moving the product.
In heavy use applications the beds which the belting is pulled over are
replaced with rollers. The rollers allow weight to be conveyed as they reduce
the amount of friction generated from the heavier loading on the belting. Belt
conveyors can now be manufactured with curved sections which use tapered
rollers and curved belting to convey products around a corner. These conveyor
systems are commonly used in postal sorting offices and airport baggage
handling systems. A sandwich belt conveyor uses two conveyor belts, face-to-
face, to firmly contain the item being carried, making steep incline and even
vertical-lift runs achievable.

Belt conveyors are the most commonly used powered conveyors


because they are the most versatile and the least expensive. Product is
conveyed directly on the belt so both regular and irregular shaped objects,
large or small, light and heavy, can be transported successfully. These
conveyors should use only the highest quality premium belting products,
which reduces belt stretch and results in less maintenance for tension
adjustments. Belt conveyors can be used to transport product in a straight line
or through changes in elevation or direction. In certain applications they can
also be used for static accumulation or cartons.

Belt Conveyor systems at a Packing Depot

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Baggage Handling BeltConveyor systems

Rollgang for cartons and totes in a fashion distribution centre

Long belt conveyors

The longest belt conveyor system in the world is in Western Sahara. It


is 98 km (61 mi) long, from the phosphate mines of Bu Craa to the coast south
of El-Aaiun.

The longest conveyor system in an airport is the Dubai International


Airport baggage handling system at 63 km (39 mi). It was installed
by Siemens and commissioned in 2008, and has a combination of traditional
belt conveyors and tray conveyors.

Boddingtons Bauxite Mine in Western Australia is officially


recognized as having the world's longest and second-longest single belts with
a 31-kilometre-long (19 mi) belt feeding a 20 km (12.5 miles) long belt. This

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system feeds bauxite through the difficult terrain of the Daring Ranges to the
alumina refinery at Worsley. The longest single-belt international conveyor
runs from Meghalaya in India to a cement factory at Chhatak Bangladesh. It is
about 17 km long and conveys limestone and shale at 960 tons/hour, from the
quarry in India to the cement factory (7 km long in India and 10 km long in
Bangladesh). The conveyor was engineered by AUMUND France and Larsen
& Toubro. The conveyor is actuated by three synchronized drive units for a
total power of about 1.8 MW supplied by ABB (two drives at the head end in
Bangladesh and one drive at the tail end in India). The conveyor belt was
manufactured in 300-meter lengths on the Indian side and 500-meter lengths
on the Bangladesh side, and was installed on-site by NILOS India. The idlers,
or rollers, of the system are unique in that they are designed to accommodate
both horizontal and vertical curves along the terrain. Dedicated vehicles were
designed for the maintenance of the conveyor, which is always at a minimum
height of 5 meters (16 ft) above the ground to avoid being flooded during
monsoon periods.

Belt conveyor safety system

Conveyors used in industrial settings include tripping mechanisms


such as trip cords along the length of the conveyor. This allows for workers to
immediately shut down the conveyor when a problem arises. Warning alarms
are included to notify employees that a conveyor is about to turn on. In the
United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have issued
regulations for conveyor safety, as OSHA 1926.555.

4.2 Sliding Mechanism

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Fig. Sliding Mechanism

 It is used to sliding the boxes in another location by the signal receive


from the sensor.

 Here, Reciprocating motion is used for sliding the boxes in the


container.

Reciprocating motion, also called reciprocation, is a repetitive up-and-down


or back-and-forth linear motion. It is found in a wide range of mechanisms,
including reciprocating engines and pumps. The two opposite motions that comprise a
single reciprocation cycle are called strokes.

A crank can be used to convert circular motion into reciprocating motion, or


conversely turn reciprocating motion into circular motion.

For example, inside an internal combustion engine (a type of reciprocating


engine), the expansion of burning fuel in the cylinders periodically pushes
the piston down, which, through the connecting rod, turns the crankshaft. The
continuing rotation of the crankshaft drives the piston back up, ready for the next

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cycle. The piston moves in a reciprocating motion, which is converted into circular
motion of the crankshaft, which ultimately propels the vehicle or does other useful
work. The vibrations felt when the engine is running are a side effect of the
reciprocating motion of the pistons.ves, as the crank and connecting-rod usually are
not enclosed.

Reciprocating motion is close to, but different from, sinusoidal simple


harmonic motion. The point on the camshaft which connects the connecting rod
rotates smoothly at a constant velocity in a circle. Thus, the horizontal displacement,
of that point, is indeed exactly sinusoidal by definition. However, during the cycle,
the angle of the connecting rod changes continuously. So, the horizontal displacement
of the "far" end of the connecting rod (i.e., connected to the piston) differs from
sinusoidal.

4.3 Pulley

A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support


movement and change of direction of a cable or belt along its circumference.
Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and to transmit
power. In nautical contexts, the assembly of wheel, axle, and supporting shell
is referred to as a "block."

A pulley may also be called a sheave or drum and may have a groove
between two flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a pulley

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 30


system can be a rope, cable, belt, or chain that runs over the pulley inside the
groove.

Hero of Alexandria identified the pulley as one of six simple machines


used to lift weights. Pulleys are assembled to form a block and tackle in order
to provide mechanical advantage to apply large forces. Pulleys are also
assembled as part of belt and chain drives in order to transmit power from one
rotating shaft to another.

Block and tackle

Fig. Various ways of rigging a tackle.

A set of pulleys assembled so that they rotate independently on the


same axle form a block. Two blocks with a rope attached to one of the blocks
and threaded through the two sets of pulleys form a block and tackle.

A block and tackle is assembled so one block is attached to fixed


mounting point and the other is attached to the moving load. The ideal
mechanical advantage of the block and tackle is equal to the number of parts
of the rope that support the moving block.

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In the diagram on the right the ideal mechanical advantage of each of
the block and tackle assemblies shown is as follows:

 Gun Tackle: 2
 Luff Tackle: 3
 Double Tackle: 4
 Gyn Tackle: 5
 Threefold purchase: 6

Rope and pulley systems

Fig. Pulley in oil derrick

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A hoist is using the compound pulley system yielding an advantage of 4. The
single fixed pulley is installed on the hoist (device). The two movable pulleys
(joined together) are attached to the hook. One end of the rope is attached to
the crane frame, another to the winch.

A rope and pulley system -- that is, a block and tackle -- is


characterized by the use of a single continuous rope to transmit a tension force
around one or more pulleys to lift or move a load—the rope may be a light
line or a strong cable. This system is included in the list of simple identified
by Renaissance scientists.

If the rope and pulley system does not dissipate or store energy, then
its mechanical advantage is the number of parts of the rope that act on the
load. This can be shown as follows.

Consider the set of pulleys that form the moving block and the parts of
the rope that support this block. If there is p of these parts of the rope
supporting the load W, then a force balance on the moving block shows that
the tension in each of the parts of the rope must be W/p. This means the input
force on the rope is T=W/p. Thus, the block and tackle reduces the input force
by the factor p.

A gun tackle has a single pulley in both the fixed and moving blocks
with two rope parts supporting the load W.

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Separation of the pulleys is in the gun tackle show the force balance that
results in a rope tension of W/2.

A double tackle has two pulleys in both the fixed and moving blocks with four
rope parts are supporting the load W.

Separation of the pulleys is in the double tackle show the force balance that
results in a rope tension of W/4.

How it works
The simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the
pulleys and lines are weightless, and that there is no energy loss due to
friction. It is also assumed that the lines do not stretch.

In equilibrium, the forces on the moving block must sum to zero. In


addition the tension in the rope must be the same for each of its parts. This

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 34


means that the two parts of the rope supporting the moving block must each
support half the load.

Fig. Fixed pulley

Diagram 1: The load F on the moving pulley is balanced by the tension in two
parts of the rope supporting the pulley.

Fig. Movable pulley

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Diagram 2: A movable pulley lifting the load W is supported by two rope
parts with tension W/2.

These are different types of pulley systems:

 Fixed: A fixed pulley has an axle mounted in bearings attached to a


supporting structure. A fixed pulley changes the direction of the force
on a rope or belt that moves along its circumference. Mechanical
advantage is gained by combining a fixed pulley with a movable
pulley or another fixed pulley of a different diameter.
 Movable: A movable pulley has an axle in a movable block. A single
movable pulley is supported by two parts of the same rope and has a
mechanical advantage of two.
 Compound: A combination of fixed and a movable pulleys are forms
a block and tackle. A block and tackle can have several pulleys
mounted on the fixed and moving axles, further increasing the
mechanical advantage.

Diagram 3: The gun tackle "rove to advantage" has the rope attached to the
moving pulley. The tension in the rope is W/3 yielding an advantage of three.

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 36


Diagram 3a: The Luff tackle adds a fixed pulley "rove to disadvantage." The
tension in the rope remains W/3 yielding an advantage of three.

The mechanical advantage of the gun tackle can be increased by


interchanging the fixed and moving blocks so the rope is attached to the
moving block and the rope is pulled in the direction of the lifted load. In this
case the block and tackle is said to be "rove to advantage." Diagram 3 shows
that now three rope parts support the load W which means the tension in the
rope is W/3. Thus, the mechanical advantage is three.

By adding a pulley to the fixed block of a gun tackle the direction of


the pulling force is reversed though the mechanical advantage remains the
same, Diagram 3a. This is an example of the Luff tackle.

Free body diagrams

The mechanical advantage of a pulley system can be analyzed


using free body diagrams which balance the tension force in the rope with
the force of gravity on the load. In an ideal system, the mass less and
frictionless pulleys do not dissipate energy and allow for a change of direction
of a rope that does not stretch or wear. In this case, a force balance on a free
body that includes the load, W, and n supporting sections of a rope with
tension T, yields:

The ratio of the load to the input tension force is the mechanical
advantage MA of the pulley system,

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 37


Thus, the mechanical advantage of the system is equal to the number
of sections of rope supporting the load.

Belt and pulley systems

Fig. Flat belt on a belt pulley

Fig. Belt and pulley system

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Fig. Cone pulley driven from above by a line shaft

A belt and pulley system is characterized by two or more pulleys in


common to a belt. This allows for mechanical power, torque, and speed to be
transmitted across axles. If the pulleys are of differing diameters, a
mechanical advantage is realized.

A belt drive is analogous to that of a chain drive, however a belt


sheave may be smooth (devoid of discrete interlocking members as would be
found on a chain sprocket, spur gear, or timing belt) so that the mechanical
advantage is approximately given by the ratio of the pitch diameter of the
sheaves only, not fixed exactly by the ratio of teeth as with gears and
sprockets.

In the case of a drum-style pulley, without a groove or flanges, the


pulley often is slightly convex to keep the flat belt centred. It is sometimes
referred to as a crowned pulley. Though once widely used on factory line
shafts, this type of pulley is still found driving the rotating brush in
upright vacuum cleaners, in belt sanders and band
saws. Agricultural tractors built up to the early 1950s generally had a belt
pulley for a flat belt (which is what Belt Pulley magazine was named after). It
has been replaced by other mechanisms with more flexibility in methods of
use, such as power take-off and hydraulics.

Just as the diameters of gears (and, correspondingly, their number of


teeth) determine a gear ratio and thus the speed increases or reductions and the
mechanical advantage that they can deliver, the diameters of pulleys
determine those same factors. Cone pulleys and step pulleys (which operate
on the same principle, although the names tend to be applied to flat belt
versions and V belt versions, respectively) are a way to provide multiple drive
ratios in a belt-and-pulley system that can be shifted as needed, just as

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 39


a transmission provides this function with a gear train that can be shifted. V
belt step pulleys are the most common way that drill presses deliver a range of
spindle speeds.

4.4 D.C motor


DC Motors convert electrical energy (voltage or power source) to
mechanical energy (produce rotational motion).
They run on direct current.
The Dc motor works on the principle of Lorentz force which states that when
a wire carrying current is placed in a region having magnetic field, than the
wire experiences a force.
This Lorentz force provides a torque to the coil to rotate.

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A commonly used DC Motor is shown in the image above.

The above image shows the brushes of the DC motor which helps the
motor to take input current to the coil. The brushes always remain
connected with any two commutators and supplying the input current to the
coil while it is rotating.

Closer Look

You can have a closer look as to how the electrical coil is arranged in
the permanent magnet.

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When DC current is passed through the coil, it works as
electromagnet. As you can see the iron plates attached around the coil helps
the coil to keep in center and movable. Permanent magnet attracts these
three iron plates equally; resultantly it stays in the center of the permanent
magnet. There are three commutators shown in the image. Each one is
directly connected with the coil to supply the current in. The permanent
magnet is cascaded in the body of the motor. The permanent magnet is
cascaded in the body of the motor. The coil working as electromagnet moves
in the magnetic field of this magnet. A motor speed control IC is used to
control the rotating speed of compact DC motor. The IC integrated in the
circuit has an inbuilt reverse voltage protection circuit.

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Working:

As we have discussed, DC motor work on Lorentz force concept.


When we pass the input DC current to the coil through the brushes, it
directly goes to the coil inside the motor body. This makes coil to work as an
electromagnet. Magnetic fields of both magnets interact with each other
that results in a force which in turn produces the necessary torque required
to move the coil. This torque drives the coil to move round and a shaft
attached with the coil moves too.

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 43


How Geared DC Motor works

Geared DC motors can be defined as an extension of DC motor. A


geared DC Motor has a gear assembly attached to the motor. The speed of
motor is counted in terms of rotations of the shaft per minute and is termed
as RPM .The gear assembly helps in increasing the torque and reducing the
speed. Using the correct combination of gears in a gear motor, its speed can
be reduced to any desirable figure. This concept where gears reduce the
speed of the vehicle but increase its torque is known as gear reduction. This
Insight will explore all the minor and major details that make the gear head
and hence the working of geared DC motor.

External Structure:

At the first sight, the external structure of a DC geared motor looks as


a straight expansion over the simple DC ones. Also, an internally threaded
hole is there on the shaft to allow attachments or extensions such as wheel
to be attached to the motor. The outer body of the gear head is made of high
density plastic but it is quite easy to open as only screws are used to attach
the outer and the inner structure. The major reason behind this could be to
lubricate gear head from time to time. The plastic body has a threading
through which nut can be easily mounted and vice versa from the gear head.

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Rear view

 The rear view of the geared motor is similar to the DC motor and it
has two wires soldered to it.

Internal Structure

• On opening the outer plastic casing of the gear head, gear assemblies
on the top as well as on bottom part of the gear head are visible.

• These gear assemblies are highly lubricated with grease so as to avoid


any sort of wear and tear due to frictional forces.

• Shown below is the top part of the gear head. It is connected to


rotating shaft and has one gear that allows the rotation.

• A strong circular imprint shows the presence of the gear that rotates
the gear at the upper portion.

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• Connection of the shaft with the gear is shown in the image under. The cap
that accommodates the gear has an arc cut from its side to avoid frictional
resistance forces with the bottom gear assembly.

The bottom houses the gear mechanism which is connected to the DC


motor through screws. This mechanism rotates the gear at the top which is
connected to the rotating shaft.

Bottom Gear Assembly

• A closer look at the bottom gear assembly shows the structure and
connection with other gears.

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• Gear assembly’s association with the motor (bottom gear assembly)
can be understood with the help of the image shown below. The gear
assembly is set up on two metallic cylinders whose working can be
called as similar to that of an axle. A total of three gears combine on
these two cylinders to form the bottom gear assembly out of which
two gears share the same axle while one gear comes in between
them and takes a separate axle.
FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 47
• The gears are basically in form of a small sprocket but since they are
not connected by a chain, they can be termed as duplex gears in
terms of a second cog arrangement coaxially over the base. Among
the three gears, two are exactly same while the third one is bigger in
terms of the number of teeth at the upper layer of the duplex gear.
The third gear is connected to the gear at the upper portion of the
gear head. The manner in which they are located near the upper part
of the gear head can be seen through the image shown.

• The combination of bottom gear assembly with the upper one can be
seen down under.

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FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 49
After the gear assembly is removed, gear head’s connection to the DC
motor and its gear can be easily seen. The machine has a smaller gear in
comparison to the gear head’s gear assembly.

Working of the DC Geared Motor

• The DC motor works over a fair range of voltage. The higher the input
voltage more is the RPM (rotations per minute) of the motor. For
example, if the motor works in the range of 6-12V, it will have the
least RPM at 6V and maximum at 12 V.

• In terms of voltage, we can put the equation as:

• RPM= K1 * V, where,

• K1= induced voltage constant

• V=voltage applied

• The working of the gears is very interesting to know. It can be


explained by the principle of conservation of angular momentum. The
gear having smaller radius will cover more RPM than the one with
larger radius. However, the larger gear will give more torque to the
smaller gear than vice versa. The comparison of angular velocity
between input gear (the one that transfers energy) to output gear
gives the gear ratio. When multiple gears are connected together,
conservation of energy is also followed. The direction in which the
other gear rotates is always the opposite of the gear adjacent to it.

• In any DC motor, RPM and torque are inversely proportional.

• Hence the gear having more torque will provide a lesser RPM and
converse.

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• In a geared DC motor, the concept of pulse width modulation is
applied.

• The equations detailing the working and torque transfer of gears are
shown below:

• In a geared DC motor, the gear connecting the motor and the gear
head is quite small, hence it transfers more speed to the larger teeth
part of the gear head and makes it rotate.

• The larger part of the gear further turns the smaller duplex part.

• The small duplex part receives the torque but not the speed from its
predecessor which it transfers to larger part of other gear and so on.

The third gear’s duplex part has more teeth than others and
hence it transfers more torque to the gear that is connected to the shaft.

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 51


4.6 IR sensor

 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

IR Proximity Sensor

This sensor can be used to measure the speed of object moving at a very high
speed, like in industry.

Object Detection using IR light

It is the same principle in ALL Infra-Red proximity sensors. The basic idea is to
send infra red light through IR-LEDs, which is then reflected by any object in front of
the sensor.

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One of the most useful sensors finds its application while detecting
object/hurdles, edges of surface etc. With a long range of 20 cm, TLL interface and
ambient light protection makes it easy and reliable to use.

Features:
Range: 20 cm
Ambient light protection
Easy interface with microcontroller
On board LED to indicate logic signals

IR modules have three pins which are connected to 8051 as

• Ground pin connected to any GND pin of board.


• +5V provided by the 8051 board.
• Connect output pin of IR module to any i/o pin of 8051 board by using
its pin header.

Here we have use the IR proximity sensor to check the bottle detection at the
particular place where the liquid filling system is planted. If the IR sensor detect the
bottle on the conveyer belt than the IR sensor gives it output to the controller and
controller stops the movement of the bottle.

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 53


4.7 P89V51RD2 Microcontroller

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
The microcontroller is the heart of the system. The P89V51RD2 is an
80C51 microcontroller with 64 KB Flash and 1024 bytes of data RAM.

A key feature of the P89V51RD2 is its X2 mode option. The design


engineer can choose to run the application with the conventional 80C51 clock
rate (12 clocks per machine cycle) or select the X2 mode (6 clocks per
machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the same clock frequency.

The Flash program memory supports both parallel programming and


in serial In-System Programming (ISP). Parallel programming mode offers
gang-programming at high speed, reducing programming costs and time to
market. ISP allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end product under
software control. The capability to field/update the application firmware
makes a wide range of applications possible. The P89V51RD2 is also In-
Application Programmable (IAP), allowing the Flash program memory to be
reconfigured even while the application is running.

FEATURES:
80C51 Central Processing Unit
V Operating voltage from 0 to 40 MHz
64 KB of on-chip Flash program memory with ISP (In-System
Programming) and IAP (In-Application Programming)
Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or
ISP
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and enhanced UART
Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current Port 1 pins (16 mA each)

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 54


Three 16-bit timers/counters
Programmable Watchdog timer (WDT)
Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels
Second DPTR register
TTL- and CMOS-compatible logic levels

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Block diagram of P89V51RD2 microcontroller is shown in figure 5.2.


This block diagram is same as that of the 80C51, but some advanced features
are included in the P89V51RD2 which are given above.

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 55


PSW SFR

Arithmetic and RAM


Logic Unit
To Port 1 &

A B Port 3

ROM
PC DPTR
DPH
DPL
To Port 0

&

Port 2

Figure 5.2 Block diagram of P89V51RD2 microcontroller

PIN DIAGRAM:
7

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 56


Figure 5.3 Pin diagram of P89V51RD2 microcontroller

PIN DESCRIPTION:

P89V51RD2 is a 40 pin microcontroller as shown in figure 5.3. Each


pin has some specific function. Description of each pin is given below.

Port 0(0.1-0.7) Pins 39-32: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional


I/O port. Port 0 pins that have ‘1 are written to them float, and in this state can
be used as high-impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order
address and data bus during accesses to external code and data memory. In
this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when transitioning to ‘1’s. Port
0 also receives the code bytes during the external host mode programming,
and outputs the code bytes during the external host mode verification.

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External pull-ups are required during program verification or as a general
purpose I/O port.

Port 1(1.0-1.7) Pins 1-8: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with
internal pull-ups. The Port 1 pins are pulled high by the internal pull-ups when
‘1’s are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state. As inputs, Port
1 pins that are externally pulled LOW will source current (IIL) because of the
internal pull-ups. P1.5, P1.6, P1.7 have high current drive of 16 mA. Port 1
also receives the low-order address bytes during the external host mode
programming and verification.

T2: External count input to Timer/Counter 2 or Clock-out from


Timer/Counter 2. Pin 1.0.

Port 2(2.0-2.7) Pins 21-28: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port


with internal pull-ups. Port 2 pins are pulled HIGH by the internal pull-ups
when ‘1’s are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state. As
inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally pulled LOW will source current (IIL)
because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 sends the high-order address byte
during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external
Data Memory that use 16-bit address (MOVX @DPTR). In this application, it
uses strong internal pull-ups when transitioning to ‘1’s. Port 2 also receives
some control signals and a partial of high-order address bits during the
external host mode programming and verification.

Port 3(3.0-3.7) Pins 10-17: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port


with internal pull-ups. Port 3 pins are pulled HIGH by the internal pull-ups
when ‘1’s are written to them and can be used as inputs in this state. As
inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally pulled LOW will source current (IIL)
because of the internal pull-ups. Port 3 also receives some control signals and
a partial of high-order address bits during the external host mode
programming and verification. Signal related to the port 1 are explained
below.

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 58


RXD: serial input port
TXD: serial output port
INT0: external interrupt 0 input
INT1: external interrupt 1 input
T0 :external count input to Timer/Counter 0
T1 :external count input to Timer/Counter 1
WR :external data memory write strobe
RD :external data memory read strobe

PSEN (Program Store Enable) Active Low Pin 29: PSEN is the
read strobe for external program memory. When the device is executing from
internal program memory, PSEN is inactive (HIGH). When the device is
executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each
machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each
access to external data memory. A forced HIGH-to-LOW input transition on
the PSEN pin while the RST input is continually held HIGH for more than 10
machine cycles will cause the device to enter external host mode
programming.

Reset Pin 9: While the oscillator is running, a HIGH logic state on this
pin for two machine cycles will reset the device. If the PSEN pin is driven by
a HIGH-to-LOW input transition while the RST input pin is held HIGH, the
device will enter the external host mode; otherwise the device will enter the
normal operation mode.

EA (External Access Enable) Active Low Pin 31: EA must be


connected to VSS in order to enable the device to fetch code from the external
program memory. EA must be strapped to VDD for internal program
execution. However, Security lock level 4 will disable EA, and program
execution is only possible from internal program memory. The EA pin can
tolerate a high voltage of 12 V.

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 59


ALE (Address Latch Enable) Pin 30: ALE is the output signal for
latching the low byte of the address during an access to external memory.

Crystal 1 Pin 19: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input
to the internal clock generator circuits.

Crystal 2 Pin 18: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Power Supply VDD Pin 40: It is connected to +5V power supply.

Ground Pin 20: It is connected to ground.

MEMORY ORGANIZATION:
The device has separate address spaces for program and data memory

Fash program memory:


There are two internal flash memory blocks in the device. Block 0 has
64 Kbytes and contains the user’s code. Block 1 contains the Philips-provided
ISP/IAP routines and may be enabled such that it overlays the first 8 Kbytes
of the user code memory. The 64 KB Block 0 is organized as 512 sectors;
each sector consists of 128 bytes. Access to the IAP routines may be enabled
by clearing the BSEL bit in the FCF register. However, caution must be taken
when dynamically changing the BSEL bit. Since this will cause different
physical memory to be mapped to the logical program address space, the user
must avoid clearing the BSEL bit when executing user code within the address
range 0000H to 1FFFH.

Data RAM memory:


The data RAM has 1024 bytes of internal memory. The device can
also address up to 64 KB for external data memory.

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The device has four sections of internal data memory:

1. The lower 128 bytes of RAM (00H to 7FH) are directly and
indirectly addressable.

2. The higher 128 bytes of RAM (80H to FFH) are indirectly


addressable.

3. The special function registers (80H to FFH) are directly addressable


only.

4. The expanded RAM of 768 bytes (00H to 2FFH) is indirectly


addressable by the move external instruction (MOVX).

Dual data pointers:


The device has two 16-bit data pointers. The DPTR Select (DPS) bit in
AUXR1

Determines which of the two data pointers is accessed. When DPS = 0,


DPTR0 is selected; when DPS = 1, DPTR1 is selected. Quickly switching
between the two data pointers can be accomplished by a single INC
instruction on AUXR1 as shown below in figure 5.4.

Figure 5.4 Data pointer

TIMERS/COUNTERS 0 AND 1:

The two 16-bit Timer/Counter registers: Timer 0 and Timer 1 can be


configured to operate either as timers or event counters in the ‘Timer’

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 61


function, the register is incremented every machine cycle. Thus, one can think
of it as counting machine cycles. Since a machine cycle consists of six
oscillator periods, the count rate is 1/6 of the oscillator frequency. In the
‘Counter’ function, the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0
transition at its corresponding external input pin, T0 or T1. In this function,
the external input is sampled once every machine cycle.

The ‘Timer’ or ‘Counter’ function is selected by control bits C/T in the


Special Function Register TMOD. These two Timer/Counters have four
operating modes, which are selected by bit-pairs (M1, M0) in TMOD. Modes
0, 1, and 2 are the same for both Timers/Counters. Mode 3 is different. The
four operating modes are described in the following text.

TMOD Register:

Table 5

TCON Register:

Table 5.

Mode 0
Putting either Timer into Mode 0 makes it look like an 8048 Timer,
which is an 8-bit Counter with a fixed divide-by-32 prescaler. Figure 5.5
shows Mode 0 operation.

In this mode, the Timer register is configured as a 13-bit register. As


the count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s, it sets the Timer interrupt flag TFn.
The count input is enabled to the Timer when TRn = 1 and either GATE = 0
or INTn = 1. (Setting GATE =1 allows the Timer to be controlled by external

FABRICATION OF BOX SHIFTING MECHANISM Page 62


input INTn, to facilitate pulse width measurements). TRn is a control bit in the
Special Function Register TCON. The GATE bit is in the TMOD register.

Figure 5.5 Timer modes 0

The 13-bit register consists of all 8 bits of THn and the lower 5 bits of
TLn. The upper 3 bits of TLn are indeterminate and should be ignored. Setting
the run flag (TRn) does not clear the registers. Mode 0 operations are the same
for Timer 0 and Timer 1 as shown in figure 4.7.

Mode 1
Mode 1 is the same as Mode 0, except that all 16 bits of the timer
register (THn and TLn) are used. See figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6 Timer modes 1

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Mode 2

Mode 2 configures the Timer register as an 8-bit Counter (TLn) with


automatic reloads, as shown in figure 5.7. Overflow from TLn not only sets
TFn, but also reloads TLn with the contents of THn, which must be preset by
software. The reload leaves THn unchanged. Mode 2 operation is the same for
Timer 0 and Timer 1.

Figure 5.7 Timer modes 2

Mode 3

When timer 1 is in Mode 3 it is stopped (holds its count). The effect is


the same as setting TR1 = 0. Timer 0 in Mode 3 establishes TL0 and TH0 as
two separate 8-bit counters. The logic for Mode 3 and Timer 0 is shown in
figure 5.8. TL0 uses the Timer 0 control bits: T0C/T, T0GATE, TR0, INT0,
and TF0. TH0 is locked into a timer function (counting machine cycles) and
takes over the use of TR1 and TF1 from Timer 1. Thus, TH0 now controls the

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‘Timer 1’ interrupt. Mode 3 is provided for applications that require an extra
8-bit timer. With Timer 0 in Mode 3, the P89V51RD2 can look like it has an
additional Timer.

Figure 5.8 Timer modes 3

Note: When Timer 0 is in Mode 3, Timer 1 can be turned on and off


by switching it into and out of its own Mode 3. It can still be used by the serial
port as a baud rate generator, or in any application not requiring an interrupt.

RESET:
A system reset initializes the MCU and begins program execution at
program memory location 0000H. The reset input for the device is the RST
pin. In order to reset the device, a logic level high must be applied to the RST
pin for at least two machine cycles (24 clocks), after the oscillator becomes

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stable. ALE, PSEN are weakly pulled high during reset. During reset, ALE
and PSEN output a high level in order to perform a proper reset. This level
must not be affected by external element. A system reset will not affect the 1
Kbytes of on-chip RAM while the device is running; however, the contents of
the on-chip RAM during power up are indeterminate.

Power-on Reset:
At initial power up, the port pins will be in a random state until the
oscillator has started and the internal reset algorithm has weakly pulled all
pins HIGH. Powering up the device without a valid reset could cause the
MCU to start executing instructions from an indeterminate location. Such
undefined states may inadvertently corrupt the code in the flash.

When power is applied to the device, the RST pin must be held HIGH
long enough for the oscillator to start up (usually several milliseconds for a
low frequency crystal), in addition to two machine cycles for a valid power-on
reset. An example of a method to extend the RST signal is to implement a RC
circuit by connecting the RST pin VDD through a 10 mF capacitor and to
VSS through an 8.2 kW resistor as shown in figure 5.9

Figure 5.9 Power on reset

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Note that if an RC circuit is being used, provisions should be made to
ensure the VDD rise time does not exceed 1 millisecond and the oscillator
start-up time does not exceed 10 milliseconds.

Software reset
The software reset is executed by changing FCF[1] (SWR) from ‘0’ to
‘1’. A software reset will reset the program counter to address 0000H. All
SFR registers will be set to their reset values, except FCF[1] (SWR),
WDTC[2] (WDTS), and RAM data will not be altered.

SECURITY BIT:
The Security Bit protects against software piracy and prevents the
contents of the flash from being read by unauthorized parties in Parallel
Programmer Mode. It also protects against code corruption resulting from
accidental erasing and programming to the internal flash memory.

4.8 Power supply

To active any device voltage source is required. For different device


different voltage source is required. In our project we use +5V and +3.3V DC
power supplies. The +5V is required for controller unit. For sensor unit +5V
and +3.3V is also required. To get +5V we use 7805 voltage regulator IC. To
get +3.3V we use LM117 voltage regulator IC. Refer figure.

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Figure Power supply

4.9 LM324 IC

LM324 is a 14pin IC consisting of four independent operational


amplifiers (op-amps) compensated in a single package. Op-amps are high
gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential input and, usually, a single-
ended output. The output voltage is many times higher than the voltage
difference between input terminals of an op-amp.

These op-amps are operated by a single power supply LM324 and


need for a dual supply is eliminated. They can be used as amplifiers,
comparators, oscillators, rectifiers etc. The conventional op-amp applications
can be more easily implemented with LM324.

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Pin Description:

Pin No. Function Name

1 Output of 1st comparator Output 1

2 Inverting input of 1st Input 1-


comparator

3 Non-inverting input of 1st Input 1+


comparator

4 Supply voltage; 5V (up to Vcc


32V)

5 Non-inverting input of 2nd Input 2+


comparator

6 Inverting input of 2nd Input 2-

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comparator

7 Output of 2nd comparator Output 2

8 Output of 3rd comparator Output 3

9 Inverting input of 3rd Input 3-


comparator

10 Non-inverting input of 3rd Input 3+


comparator

11 Ground (0V) Ground

12 Non-inverting input of 4th Input 4+


comparator

13 Inverting input of 4th Input 4-


comparator

14 Output of 4th comparator Output

Here This IC are used for to compare the liquid level in the bottle. By
sensing the liquid level in the Bottle it generates the voltage output and gives
to the controller. By using this IC we can check the presence of the liquid at
the time of empty bottle and completely filled bottle. The output of this IC
we can connect any I/O pin of the controller.

4.10 Component list

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SR. NAME OF NO. OF
NO. COMPONENT COMPONENT
USED

1. Conveyor Belt 1

2. Sliding Mechanism 1
3. Pulley 2
4. Microcontroller Board 1
5. LM 324 IC 1
6. Shaft 2
7. IR Sensor 1
8. DC Motor 2
9. Boxes As per requirement

CHAPTER 6

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SYSTEM OBJECTIVES

6.1 OBJECTIVES

• To design and implement automated separation of boxes in


different location machine.

• To learn the concept of electrical DC motor system.

• To apply selector conveyor concept.

• To select mechanical arm for separation of boxes.

• To implement hardware installation, wiring, mechanical


mounting.

• To learn troubleshooting and analyzing.

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• To learn PLC programming.

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CHAPTER 7

ADVANTAGES,
DISADVANTAGES AND
APPLICATIONS

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7.1 ADVANTAGES

 Reduces the time of shifting of boxes.

 Damage of boxes become reduces.

 Cost of shifting boxes is also decreases.

 Accuracy of shifting of boxes is increases.

 Process of shifting in another location is faster than manual.

7.2 DISADVANTAGES

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 Unemployment

 Installation cost is required

 Times required for small production is higher than manual because


time need for starting the machine.

 And also it costly for small production.

7.3 APPLICATIONS

 Specifically designed for high value, any number of boxes is shifting


at very high accuracy.

 Suitable for aqueous and other light weight products because we using
conveyor belt.

 It is useful in industry.

CHAPTER 8

ESTIMATIONS
AND
COSTING

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8.1 ESTIMATIONS AND COSTING

In this Project we short out following estimation.

SR NAME OF NO. OF Price


. COMPONE COMPON
N NT ENT USED
(Indian
O. Ruppes)

1. Conveyor Belt 1 600

2. Sliding 1 800
Mechanism
3. Pulley 2 120
4. Microcontroller 1 950
Board
5. LM 324 IC 1 50
6. Shaft 2 50
7. IR Sensor 1 200
8. DC Motor 2 800
9. Boxes As per
requirement
10. Other Expenses Nil 2000

11. Labor cost Nil 1000

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CHAPTER 9

CONCLUSION
AND
PROJECT FEATURES

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9.1 CONCLUSION

 Object detect and shifting as different location


1. Collection of Boxes by Conveyor Belt.

2. Shifting Boxes with Accuracy.

3. Conveyor Movement is smoothly.

4. Sliding Mechanism work accurately.

5. Putting Different boxes in another location is also accurate.

6. Movement of Boxes is also smooth.

7. Its fully automatic system.

It consists of Conveyor Belt, Sliding Mechanism,


Pulleys, Shafts, Sensor, Microcontroller, DC Motor and
Mechanical Frame.

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9.2 PROJECT FEATURES

 Putting boxes in another location using conveyor belt and


sliding mechanism.

 In this project we have use the main part conveyor belt,


pulley, motor, different boxes, sliding mechanism, circuit
board and sensor.

 For to perform the operation we have made assembly by


using all devices.

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 We have use conveyer belt to move the boxes on the belt
and it is connected with the pulley on which the belt rotate.

 The rotation of the belt is held by the motor which is control


by the microcontroller.

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