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DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES POLICY

SUBJECT: RESTRICTION ON PLA INVASIVE PLANTS

I.
A. The purp e of t his policy is
1. To eliminate the introduction and spread of invasive plant species on
Department of Natural Resources' land;
2. To reduce the Department's role in promoting and supporting the production
and sale of known exotic invasive plants; and
3. To demonstrate the Department's support for responsible land stewardship
and efforts in the public sector to reduce the planting of invasive plant
species.

II. Definit ions

A. "Invasive exotic plant" means a non-native plant that did not evolve in
Maryland's ecosystems and whose introduction causes, or is likely to cause,
ecological or economic harm, or harm to human health.

B. "Non-invasive exotic plant" means a plant that did not evolve in Maryland's
ecosystems, but that, upon introduction, does not escape cultivation or spread from
intentional plantings to natural areas, and does not cause ecological or economic
harm, or harm to human health.

III. Scope

A. This policy applies on:


1. Lands of the State of Maryland owned or managed by the Department of
Natural Resources;
2. Projects receiving Department of Natural Resou rces funding or other support;
3. Projects planned or administered by Departmental personnel; and
4. Waters of the State that run through or adjoin Department of Natural
Resources land.

I V. Policy

A. Except as provided in paragraph 3 of this Section, invasive exotic plant species


and their cu ltivated varieties, in any form including seed, will not be intentionally
planted, released, sown or used on lands and waters owned, or in programs
administered, by the Department. The Do Not Plant list attached to this policy
includes exotic species determined to be invasive and therefore unsuitable for use on
Department land or Department-supported projects. This list will be reviewed
periodically and species may be added or removed as additional scientific information
and experience warrant.
B. This policy does not prohibit the use of non-invasive, exotic plants.

C. The Department may approve t he planting of a known exotic Invasive species in


t he following circumstances :
1. In botanical gardens or arboreta, historical landscape plantings and for
research uses; and
2. Where economic, environmental or human health considerations create
benefits that outweigh the potential harm or risk of such plantings.
In such cases, the Department will identify and implement, or require affected
consultants, contractors, or funding recipients to identify and implement, operational
standards that will minimize or eliminat e t he invasive potential of the approved
species.

D. This policy may not be construed to proh ibit Department land managers f rom
planning and implementing removal or control of invasive exotic plant species,
including the use of biocontrol methods, as appropriate, on the lands or waters
within their jurisdiction, pending receipt of all applicable government approvals for
such action.

V. Background

Invasive exotic plants have caused serious economic and environmenta l problems on
ag ricult ura l lands, residential and commercial areas, forests, wetlands, waterways
and other natural areas t hroughout t he State. They continue to pose a major threat
to the health of Maryland's ecosystems. Many of the plants on the Do Not Plant list
have been introduced or spread through intentional planting for landscaping, wildlife
habitat and similar purposes. The invasiveness of exotic plant species, or evidence
of damage they may cause, is often not apparent until many years after introduction.

In developing and maintaining projects on land owned and managed by the state,
the Department often uses plants with ornamental or wildlife food va lue. To the
extent that Departmental purchases or contract specifications support the valuable
horticultural industry in Maryland, the Department intends by this policy to reduce or
eliminate its own demand for known exotic invasive plant species, and to raise
demand for native or exotic, non-invasive plant alternatives.

Such exotic, but non-invasive, plants are those that do not escape cultivation or
spread from intentional plantings to natural areas, and do not cause ecological or
economic harm, or harm to human health. There are many more of these plants
than there are of exotic invasive plants; the Department wishes to continue to use
them where appropriate.

VI. Procedure

A. The following proced ures apply :

1. Department land managers will not permit the Introduction, release or


planting of invasive exotic plant species or any parts thereof on Department
lands and waters.

2. Funding agreements and other contracts for the performance of landscape


design, landscaping, planting or land stewardship activities executed by the
Department on or after t he effective date of this pol icy sha ll include a provision
requiring consultants, contractors, and funding recipients to abide by this policy.
Department employees will provide a copy of this policy and the Do Not Plant list
to all such funding recipients, consultants and contractors to ensure that listed
plant species are not used for any Department properties or projects.

3. Department employees, in the course of their official duties, shall discourage


the use of invasive exotic plant species when providing advice or consu ltation to
other government entities, non-profit organizations and private individuals,
unless identified as an exemption by the Department.

4. The Department will establish, within one year of this policy's implementation,
a mechanism for modifying or updating the Do Not Plant list on a regular basis,
including a process for receiving and incorporating public comment on the list.
Do Not Plant List
Species Name Common Name

Acer platanoides Norway maple


Ailanthus altissima Tree of heaven
Albezia julibrissin Mimosa or silktree
Broussonetia papyrifera Paper mulberry
Koelreuteria paniculata Goldenrain tree
Melia azedarach Chinaberrytree
Morus alba White mulberry
Paulownia tomentosa Paulownia
Phellodendron amurense Amur corktree
Pyrus calleryana Callery pear
Triadica sebifera Chinese tallow

Berberis thunbergii Japanese barberry


Berberis vulgaris Common barberry
Buddleja davidii Butterfly bush
Cytisus scoparius Scotch broom
Elaeagnus angustifolia Russian olive
Elaeagnus umbellata Autumn olive
Eu.onymus alatus Burningbush or winged euonymus
Frangula alnus Glossy buckthorn
Hibiscus syriacus Rose of Sharon
Ligustrum japonicum Japanese privet
Ligustrum obtusifolium Border privet
Ligustrum sinense Chinese privet
Ligustrum vulgare European privet
Lonicera maackii Amur honeysuckle
Lonicera morrowii Morrow's honeysuckle
Lonicera standishii Standish's honeysuckle
Lonicera tatarica Tatarian honeysuckle
Lonicera x bella Showy fly honeysuckle
Mahonia bealei Beale's barberry
Nandina domestica Nandina or sacred bamboo
Rhodotypos scandens Jetbead
Rosa multiflora Multiflora rose
Rubus phoenicolasius Wineberry
Spiraea japonica Japanese spiraea
Rhamnus cathartica Common buckthorn
VINE
Akebia quinata Chocolate vine
Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Porcelain berry
Celastrus orbiculatus Oriental bittersweet
Louise's swallow-wort or black
Cynanchum louiseae swallow-wort
Dioscorea oppositifolia Chinese yam or cinnamon vine
Euonymus fortunei Winter creeper
Hedera helix English ivy
Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle
Pueraria montana var. lobata Kudzu
Wisteria floribunda Japanese wisteria
Wisteria sinensis Chinese wisteria
SSES
Bambusa spp. Bamboo species
Imperata cylindrica Cogongrass
Microstegium vimineum Japanese stiltgrass
Miscanthus sinensis Chinese silvergrass
Oplismenus hirtel/us su bsp. undulatifolius Wavyleaf basketgrass
Phalaris arundinacea Reed canary grass
Pseudosasa species Bamboo species
Phyl/ostachys species Bamboo species
Phragmites australis Phragmites or common reed
Sorghum bicolor Shattercane
Sorghu.m hala ense Johnsong~r~a~
ss~------------------~
- - - - -.-.z- RBS
Alliaria petiolata Garlic mustard
Artemisia vulgaris Common wormwood or mugwort
Carduus acanthoides Plumeless thistle
Carduus nutans Nodding thistle or musk thistle
Centaurea stoebe Spotted knapweed
Cirsium arvense Canada thistle
Hemerocallis fulva Orange daylily
Herac/eum mantegazzianum Giant hogweed
Humulus japonicus Japanese hop
Iris pseudacorus Yellow flag iris
Lespedeza cuneata Chinese lespedeza
Lythrum salicaria Purple loosestrife
Perilla frutescens Beefsteak plant or Perilla
Persicaria perfoliata Mile-a-minute
Polygonum cuspidatum Japanese knotweed
Polygonum sachalinense Giant knotweed
Ranunculus ficaria Lesser celandine
___________ AQUATICS
~----------------------~
Alternanthera philoxeroides Alligatorweed
Butomus umbellatus Flowering rush
Callitriche stagnalis Pond water-starwort
Egeria densa Brazilian waterweed
Eichhornia crassipes Common water hyacinth
Eichhornia azurea Anchored water hyacinth
Hydrilla verticillata Hydrilla or waterthyme
Wart-removing herb; Asian
Murdannia keisak spiderwort, aneilima
Myriophyllum aquaticum (M. brasiliense) Parrot feather
Myriophyllum spicatum Eurasian watermilfoil
Najas minor Brittle waternymph or brittleleaf naiad
Nymphoides peltata Yellow floating heart
Pistia stratiodes Water lettuce
Potamogeton crispus Curly pondweed
Trapa natans Water chestnut