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ILLUMINATION ON SOLID STATE LIGHTENING

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (LEDs) have gained broad recognition as the ubiquitous


little lights that tell us our monitors are on, the phone is off the hook or the oven is hot. Recent
advances in AlInGaP Red and AlInGaN Blue and Green semiconductor growth technology have
enabled applications wherein several single to several millions of these indicator style LEDs can
be packaged together to be used in full color signs, automotive interior and exterior signaling
applications including traffic signals. These more recent applications differ from the “the
ubiquitous little lights” of a decade ago in that the viewer is often not tens to hundreds of
centimeters from the LED source but may be tens to hundreds of meters away from the LED
source. Still the preponderance of applications require that the viewer look directly at the LED.
In this sense, even the “high brightness” or “high efficiency” LED applications are dominated by
indicator LEDs.
This is NOT “Solid State Lighting”. Artificial “lighting” sources are fluorescent tubes,
60-plus Watt incandescent light bulbs, high intensity discharge lamps etc. which all share three
key characteristics differentiating them on the evolutionary tree as a species apart from the
indicator lamp. First, they are rarely viewed directly. Light from a lighting source is viewed in
reflection off of the illuminated object. Second, the unit of measure (flux) is the kilolumen (klm)
or higher, not the mlm, lm or worse yet the Cd often used for indicator LED lamps. Finally
lighting Manuscript received January 9, 2002; revised February 13, 2002. The authors are with
Lumileds Lighting, San Jose, CA 95131 USA. Fig. 1. Haitz’s Law for LED flux—LED flux per
package has doubled every 18–24 mo for 30+ years. sources are predominantly white with CIE
color coordinates very near the Planckian, producing good to excellent color rendering.
Today there really is no such thing as a commercial “solid state lamp” for use in
illumination. However, a branch in the evolutionary tree is forming and differences are
beginning to appear in the technologies used for low power LED indicators and the high power
LED light sources that will evolve into lighting sources. In this paper we will trace the common
ancestors for indicator and high power LEDs, look at the markets that are driving advancement
of high power LEDs, address technical challenges in moving toward true solid state lighting
sources, summarize recent advances in power flip chips, including lamp reliability, white LED
technology, and conclude with a look at what the future might hold for Illumination with Solid
State Lighting Technology.

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CHAPTER 2
Principles of Solid State
It is useful to understand the origin of luminescence. Solid state luminescent materials
and devices all rely on a common mechanism of luminescence whether they are semiconductor
light emitting diodes (LEDs) or phosphors or quantum dots, and whether they are organic or
inorganic materials. This is introduced in Sections 1.1–1.3 and then this chapter presents a series
of more specific luminescence processes.

2.1 Introduction to Radiation from an Accelerating Charge


Light is electromagnetic radiation which can be produced by an accelerating charge. Let
us first consider a stationary point charge q in a vacuum. Electric field lines are produced from
the point charge with electric field lines emanating radially out from the charge as shown in
Figure 1.1. This stationary point charge does not produce electromagnetic radiation but since it
does produce an electric field there is electric field energy surrounding the point charge.

Figure 1 Lines of electric field produced by stationary point charge q

Figure 1.2 Closed lines of magnetic field B due to a point charge q moving with constant velocity into the page

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The field strengths of both the electric and the magnetic fields fall off as we move further
away from the charge and therefore the energy density falls off rapidly with distance from
the charge. There is no radiation from the charge.Both magnetic and electric fields exist
surrounding the charge moving with uniform velocity. The magnetic field also has an energy
associated with it. The magnetic field energy density EB is given by:

Figure 1.3 Lines of electric field emanating from an accelerating charge

The situation changes dramatically if the charge q undergoes acceleration. Consider a


charge that rapidly accelerates as shown in Figure 1.3. The electric field lines further away from
the charge are still based on the original position of the charge at position A before the
acceleration occurred, however electric field lines after acceleration will now emanate from the
new location at position B of the charge. The new electric field lines will expand outwards and
replace the original field lines. The speed at which this expansion occurs is the speed of light c
because it is not possible for information on the new location of the charge to arrive at any
particular distance away from the charge faster than the speed of light.

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CHAPTER 3
COMPONENTS OF SOLID STATE LIGHTENING
Light technologies are substitutes for sunlight in the 425–675 nm spectral regions where
sunlight is most concentrated and to which the human eye has evolved to be most sensitive.
Three major light sources have much different principles: • Incandescence lamp: The tungsten
filament is heated by electric current until it glows and emits light. • Fluorescent lamp: Mercury
atoms are excited by an electric arc and emit UV radiation, and such radiation will strike the
phosphor coating inside the glass tube, where the UV light will be converted into visible light.
Solid-state lighting: LED is a semiconductor diode, where the materials are doped with
impurities to create p–n junction.When the LED is powered, electrons flow from n-side
(cathode) to p-side (anode). (electrons and holes) flow into the function and form electrodes.
When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level and releases energy in the form
of photons [1]. The specific wavelength emitted by LED depends upon the band gap structure (or
materials). Because the light from SSL is narrowband, and can be concentrated in the visible
portion of the spectrum, it has, like fluorescence, much higher light-emission efficiency than
incandescence. Unlike in fluorescence technology, the wavelength of the narrowband emission
can be tailored relatively easily. Hence, this technology is potentially even more efficient than
fluorescence. Lighting is going through a radical transformation, driven by various societal,
economical, and environmental needs and rapid progress of solid-state lighting (SSL) and
system-related technologies. The value chain of SSL is illustrated.
SSL begins with semiconductor-based LED technology and its packaging. The multiple
LED assembly is obtained to be the basic assembly unit for the LED module and luminaire. The
combination of electronics is required to proper drive the lighting function. The SSL-based
lighting systems can be achieved by combination of hardware and software.
Three qualitative measurements are usually applied to define the quality of LED
lighting:
1. Lighting efficiency, as knows as efficacy, enables the comparison of the effi- ciency of
different types of lighting technology. Efficacy is usually defined by + - hole electron light
Fermi level band gap conductive band valence band Fig. 2.1 Working principle of an LED 14
C.A. Yuan et al. lumens/watt (lm/W), and light source with higher efficacy refers to high
energy efficiency. The luminous intensity of an LED is approximately proportional to the
amount of current supplied to the device. The design/process limitation provides the upper
boundary on both input current and light intensity.
2. Color rendering index (CRI), is another measurement of the lighting quality. CRI is a
quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reproduce the colors of various objects
faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source.
3. Lifetime is a reliability parameter of the light source. It represents the working time of
such light source within the lighting specification. Table presents examples of the overall
efficacy for common light source. In the following chapter, the process at each SSL value chain,
such as LED chips, LED packages, multi-LED assembles, LED modules, luminaires, and large
SSL systems, will be presented. Fig. 2.2 SSL value chain Table 2.1 Efficacy, CRI and lifetime of
common light sources Light source Efficacy (lm/W) CRI Lifetime (h) Incandescent (120 V) 14.4

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~100 1,000 Compact fluorescent 51 80 10,000 High-pressure mercury 34 50 24,000 High-


pressure sodium 108 22 24,000 LED 130–220 >80 50,000 2 Solid-State Lighting Technology in
a Nutshell 15 2.2 Level 0: LED Chips 2.2.1 Overview In recent years, high-brightness LEDs
have attracted much attention as light sources for various applications, such as LCD
backlighting, camera flash light, indoor lighting, and all kinds of outdoor signs.
LEDs are semiconductor devices that emit incoherent narrow-spectrum light when
electrically biased in the forward direction. The color of the emitted light depends on the
chemical composition of the semiconducting material used and can be near-ultraviolet, visible, or
infrared. Progress in the development of new materials for LEDs has continued to since the first
red light emitting gallium arsenide phosphate (GaAsP) devices were introduced in low volumes
in the early 1960s and in high volumes later in the decade. The materials first developed were p–
n homojunction diodes in GaAs1xPx and zinc-oxygen-doped GaP for red-spectrum devices;
nitrogendoped GaAs1xPx for red, orange, and yellow devices; and nitrogen-doped GaP for
yellow-green devices. A milestone was reached in the mid-1980s with the development and
introduction of aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) LEDs, which used a direct band-gap
material system and a highly efficient double heterostructure (DH) active region. In 1990,
Hewlett-Packard Company and Toshiba Corporation independently developed and introduced a
new family of LEDs based on the quaternary alloy material system: AlGaInP.
The luminous efficiency of the different materials of LEDs versus wavelength is shown
in Fig. 2.3. The figure indicates that low-power and low-cost LEDs, such as Fig. 2.3 Overview of
luminous efficiency of visible LEDs made from phosphide, arsenide, and nitride material system
(adopted from United Epitaxy Corp., 1999; updated 2000) 16 C.A. Yuan et al. GaAsP and
GaP:N LEDs, have much lower luminous efficiency. These LEDs are not suitable for high-
brightness applications because of their inherently lower quantum efficiency. The GaAsP LEDs
are mismatched to the GaAs substrate and therefore have a low internal efficiency. The GaP:N
LEDs also have low efficiency because of the nitrogen-impurity-assisted nature of the radiative
transition. However, AlGaInP LEDs have high luminous efficiency suited to the visible spectrum
from the 570 nm (yellow) to 650 nm (orange). Hence, AlGaInP LEDs are an excellent choice for
high luminous efficiency devices in the long-wavelength part of the visible spectrum. New
record light-efficiency levels were achieved for this spectral regime, and as a consequence, new
applications for LEDs are in the process of being developed.
2.2.2 Long Wavelength LED Technology:
AlGaInP System Today, the quaternary alloy AlGaInP material system is the primary
material system used for high-brightness LEDs emitting in the long-wavelength part of the
visible spectrum [4–6]. The AlGaInP epitaxial layer can be lattice matched to GaAs and is grown
by MOCVD/MOVPE [7]. It has been introduced to yield substantial improvement in the
performance in the red-orange and amber spectral regions and potentially in the green.
Conventional AlGaInP LEDs are shown in Fig. 2.4a.
Nevertheless, the portion of the light emitted from the active layer towards the substrate
is completely absorbed by the GaAs absorbing substrate. Absorbing Substrate Absorbing
Substrate Absorbing Substrate DB R Absorbing Substrate Transparent Substrate a b c Fig. 2.4
Schematic crosssection view of different type of AlGaInP LEDs: (a) absorbing substrate (AS);
(b) absorbing substrate (AS) with DBR; (c) transparent substrate (TS) 2 Solid-State Lighting
Technology in a Nutshell 17 Therefore, the external quantum efficiency of this kind of
conventional AlGaInP LED is small. The thermal conductivity of GaAs is only 44 W/m K. The
low thermal conductivity of the GaAs substrate is not sufficient to dissipate the heat generated

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when the LED device is driven in high current. The substrate absorption problem can be
minimized by growing a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) between the LED epitaxial layer and
the absorbing GaAs substrate, as shown in Fig. 2.4b. However, the maximum reflectivity of the
DBR layer used in AlGaInP LED is only about 80%, and its reflectivity also depends on the
reflection angle. The DBR layer can only reflect the light near the normal incidence. For the
oblique angles of radiated light, the DBR layer becomes transparent, and light will be absorbed
by the GaAs substrate [8–11].
Hence, a more significant improvement in extraction efficiency is to replace GaAs with
GaP transparent substrate through the wafer bonding process after epitaxial lattice matched
growth. Thus, in Fig. 2.4c, this new class of AlGaInP LEDs called transparent-substrate (TS)
LEDs is compared with the absorbing-substrate (AS) LED on GaAs-wafers. Figure 2.4 shows
the comparison with the three types of AlGaInP LEDs. Despite the improvements in extraction
efficiency, the use of LEDs in high input power applications remains limited because of the low
thermal conductivity of the substrate. To achieve higher light output performance, it is necessary
to drive the LED at a higher current and to use a substrate with high thermal conductivity to
efficiently dissipate heat from active layer. Many companies fabricated AlGaInP LEDs on Si-
wafers using a metal combination of Au and AuBe for bonding.
Despite the intermediate dielectric layer, the LEDs benefited from the good thermal
properties of silicon, which has 3.2 times higher thermal conductivity than GaAs, thus providing
a good heat dissipating ability. The increased thermal conductivity decreases joule heating and
increases the quantum efficiency of the LEDs. Researchers successfully replaced GaAs with Cu
substrate. This Cu-substrate-bonded LED device can be operated in a much higher injection
forward current and high luminous intensity, several times higher than those used in traditional
AS LEDs. The transparent conducting ITO and reflective layer between the epitaxial layer and
the substrate to enhance the light extraction efficiency were also added. The luminous intensity
of this design was 1.46 times greater than that of the conventional LED in the normal direction,
and the output power (at 350 mA) increased by approximately 40% as compared with that of the
conventional LED. Today, as the development of AlGaInP LEDs progresses, the most effective
design to improve its external quantum heat dissipation ability is to combine the reflective
structure with a high thermal conductive substrate through the metal bonding technique.
However, because of the different CTEs and the intrinsic stress between different materials in the
LED device structure, the crack problem may occur either during the removal etching process of
the GaAs substrate or the annealing process after the GaAs removal.
The high-brightness LED structure was designed and fabricated by Epistar Corporation. The
structural diagram of the LED is shown as Fig. 2.5. The multilayer film-substrate structure,
which includes a number of staked films, such as an epitaxial layer of LED, SiO2 isolation
structure, ITO layer, silver (Ag) mirror layer, and eutectic bonding metal of gold/indium
materials (AuIn2), was in the range of 18 C.A. Yuan et al. studied in order to enhance the
efficiency. However, it was never more than about 0.005% due to SiC naturally being an indirect
band gap material. The best effi- ciency of SiC LEDs till now is only 0.03% emitted at 470 nm.
The high brightness blue LED is actually implemented by InGaN/GaN material system. Studies
of GaN material can be traced back into 1930s and 1940s. In the late 1960s, researchers attempt
to grow GaN film from halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) approach and obtained single GaN
film on heterogeneous substrate (e.g., sapphire). However, all the GaN film grown at early 1960s
were naturally n-type without intentionally doping, and it was a great challenge to implement p-
type GaN film, because the lack of p–n junctions in Group III nitrides (and their poor crystal

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growth quality) stalls InGaN/GaN system research for many decades, until two major
breakthroughs have been achieved: • At 1989, Professor Isamu Akasaki shows a breakthrough on
Mg-doped GaN sample to solve the p-type doping dilemma by electron-beam to annealing, and
he demonstrated the true p–n conducting material [11, 12]. • At 1995, Professor Shuji Nakamura
demonstrates the first high power blue LED with an efficiency exceeding 5% [14–16]. These two
great achievements are widely credited with re-igniting the III–V nitride system. In the following
paragraph, we are going to discuss the key aspects on the blue LED technology, including: • Key
LED chip manufacturing principles: Including MOCVD principle/equipment and buffer layer
design. • Key LED technology: Including the epitaxy process and chip forming technologies.
Fig. 2.6 Schematic diagram of MOCVD system 20 C.A. Yuan et al.

2.2.4 Epitaxy Growth: MOCVD Equipment Combining the merit of the capability of volume
production as well as adequately precise growth control, MOCVD system (as shown in Fig. 2.6)
dominates almost all the field of commercial III–V compound epitaxy. MOCVE applies metal-
organic compounds such as trimethyl gallium (TMGa) or trimethyl aluminum (TMAl) as
precursors for the material in thin films. The precursors are transported via a carrier gas to a
heated zone within a growth chamber. Thin films are produced when the precursors react or
dissociate with another compound. The optical and electrical property of the resulting LED is
directly related to the composition of the deposited materials and doping within the epilayers
with specific elemental materials. Theoretically, MOCVD is a nonequilibrium growth technique
that relies on vapor transport of the precursors and subsequent reactions of Group III alkyls and
Group V hydrides in a heated zone. The basic MOCVD reaction describing the GaN deposition
process is: Ga(CH3Þ3ðVÞ þ NH3ðVÞ ! GaNðSÞ þ 3CH4ðVÞ: (2.1) However, the detail of the
reaction is not fully understood, and the intermediate reactions are much complex. Further
research is needed to understand the fundamentals of this crystal growth process. Various
researchers employ both atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure MOCVD reactors in the growth
of GaN. In Japan, the majority utilizes atmospheric pressure reactors because of the high partial
pressures of ammonia; on the contrary, the low-pressure system occupies an overwhelming
portion in the other countries. MOCVD reactor designs for GaN growth must overcome
problems presented by high growth temperatures, pre-reactions, flows, and film nonuniformity.
Typically, very high temperature level is required during the GaN growth, because of the high
bond-strength of the N–H bond in ammonia precursors. Hence, the thermodynamic ammonia
will be pre-reacted with Group III metalorganic compounds in order to form nonvolatile adducts.
These contribute to the current challenges for researchers to design and scale-up of III–V nitride
deposition systems. Much research activity is needed in the scale-up and understanding of the
mechanism of gallium nitride growth by MOCVD. 2.2.5 Epitaxy Growth: Buffer Layer Due to
that there is no high-quality and low-cost GaN bulk single crystal, all technological development
of GaN-based devices relies on heteroepitaxy. There are two main substrates commercially
available for GaN film growth, 6H–SiC and sapphire. Because of intellectual property (IP)
limitation (IP of growing-semiconductor-device-on-SiC is exclusive licensed to Cree by NCSU),
most of LED chip companies adopt c-sapphire (0 0 0 1) as growing template. 2 Solid-State
Lighting Technology in a Nutshell 21 • Transparent conductive layer (TCL) forming: Normally
indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is deposited onto p-type GaN by E-gun or sputtering. Since the hole
mobility of p-type GaN nowadays is still a issue, as a result, the use of TCL is to improve the
current spreading [17] and thus electroluminescence. • Pad forming: For providing the current
path, properly-chosen metals are deposited onto p- and n-type GaN as p- and n-Pad. The

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selection rule for metals is that it has to make p- and n-contact be ohmic, to be oxidize free and
to be able to well bond with the external connecting wires. • Passivation: For better reliability,
passivation, such as SiO2 or SiNx, are deposited to prevent LED from the moisture. The frontend
process is the illustration of the paragraph above as Fig. 2.9. • Backend process: The main
purpose of the back end of the line (BEOL) is to separate LED chips into individual ones. •
Grinding: The original sapphire substrate is too thick to scribe; therefore, we have ground the
wafer first. • Dicing: Scribe-and-break is a prevalent method for individualizing the burgeoning
GaN LEDs by virtue of high throughput, low cost, ease of use, process tolerance, and high
yields. The wafer is experiencing melting and ablation so as to create thermal crack that is
precursor to the following breaking process. Commercially, it is either front-scribe-and-back-
break or back-scribe-and-front-break, depending on the process design. • Binning and sorting:
Statistically, most of the process variations behave the normal distribution, so do the final
products. In order to make good-quality commitment to the customers, it is imperative to
separate bad ones from good Fig. 2.8 Major epitaxy process flow of blue LED 24 C.A. Yuan et
al. ones! And, why binning? It is not only for us to make corresponding price by the grade of the
products, but also it is easier for customers to use due to the small variation of the-same-bin
product. The total frontend/backend process is summarized in Fig. 2.10. Fig. 2.10 The typical
flow of complete LED chip process Fig. 2.9 Schematic diagram of blue LED chip process 2
Solid-State Lighting Technology in a Nutshell 25 2.3 Level 1: LED Packaging 2.3.1 Overview
LED packaging is responsible for the electrical connection, mechanical protection/ integrity and
heat dissipation of LED chip. Depend upon the LED chip specification and application field, the
design concept/structure of the LED packaging varies. In the following paragraph, the concept of
the conventional LED packaging, high-brightness LED packaging, and wafer-level chip
integration technology will be described. 2.3.2 Conventional LED Packaging A conventional
LED package includes electrical lead, wire, die attach and encapsulant. The most divergence of
LED package and IC package is should consider the light extraction from LED package. The
LED chip is surrounded by transparent encapsulant and electrical connection via the wire. The
LED chip in the conventional package is operating beyond 120 mA (or called low-power chip)
and usually using the surface mount technology. There are many types in conventional packing
and mostly known as “5 mm lamp” or “SMD5630” as shown in Fig. 2.11. In convention
package, it has two different surface shapes, one is hemisphere and the other is planar-surface.
The light through the hemisphere is like the Lambertian surface and planar-surface has wider far
field angle than hemisphere shape. It has Fig. 2.11 The different types of LED package 26 C.A.
Yuan et al. highly reflective metal (like silver) deposit on the contact surface which between chip
bottom surface and package top surface. Functions of encapsulant are not only providing
protection against humidity and chemicals damage but play the role of a lens in the package. The
process of the conventional LED packaging includes die bonding, interconnect forming,
encapsulation/phosphor curing and frame cutting, as illustrated in Fig. 2.12. A pre-reformed
leadframe, which comprised of multiple N/P legs are provided, and the LED chip are mounted
on to one leg. Interconnect, e.g., gold wire and aluminum wire is applied to connect chip to two
legs. Following, the leadframe are sent to the encapsulation process to form the dorm shape
transparent protection polymer. These low-power LEDs are widely used in the application of
indicators, signals, backlighting, with the price in the range of 0.1–0.2 $/part. Fig. 2.12 The (a)
structure and (b) packaging process flow of conventional LED packaging 2 Solid-State Lighting
Technology in a Nutshell 27 2.3.3 High Brightness LED Packaging High brightness LED (HB-
LED) packaging, or called high power LED packaging, use operation current of more than 350

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mA and generate more than 130 lu/W light output. High current/power usually induces higher
temperature at the LED chip, and the LED light efficiency will dramatically decrease when the
LED temperature increase. Hence, the thermal dissipation is much severer than the conventional
LED packaging, where new packaging concept is needed. HB-LED packaging will apply
advanced thermal management solution for heat dissipation. Refer to Fig. 2.13 as an example,
the chip is first mounted on Si-based submount and large heat sink (slug), and connected to one
side of the die with an Au/Al wire bond. The other can be connected to the lead with another
wire bond, or directly through the bottom of the die through the die attachment. After wire
bonding interconnection, the chip is encapsulated with silicone. In a white LED, the phosphor
material is suspended in the silicon. Finally, the entire component is molded into an epoxy casing
that provides directionality to the light and further protection to the die and leads. The process
flow of HB-LED can be shown in Fig. 2.14. • Dicing: A two-steps dicing technology is widely
used in the LED packaging manufacturing, including: • The GaN scribing step must be carried
out with high precision. To have good performance, the diodes must have very straight and
smooth edges. This step can be done by laser or diamond techniques. • The cutting of the
substrate requires less precision and aims to separate the diodes. Diamond saws as well as scribe
(by diamond or laser) and break techniques are normally used. • Die bonding • Good precision of
the die bonding will ensure the optical center of the LED packaging. Fig. 2.13 Schematic
diagram of high power LED packaging 28 C.A. Yuan et al. • Good uniformity of die bonding
process determines the thermal performance of the HB-LED packaging. • Currently, conductive
polymer and solder paste is widely used. • Interconnect: The HB-LED interconnect is subject to
high current, and the reliable interconnect technology is required. • Wire bonding: Traditional
Au/Al wire bonding technology is also applied for HB-LED, with the guarantee of high/stable
current flow. New wire bonding technology, such as ribbon wire bonding, is developing. • Flip
chip: As illustrated in Fig. 2.15a, the LED based on the transparent sapphire can be flip-chiped
[18] by the solder-based interconnect. • Through silicon via (TSV): Forming the TSV in the
silicon submount, and mount the LED chip onto it. High thermal conductivity of silicon material
(submount) is expected to improve the packaging thermal performance, as illustrated in Fig.
2.15b. Fig. 2.15 Advanced interconnect technology for HB-LED: (a) flip chip and (b) TSV
Separation Saw Laser Phosphor & Encapsulation Remote phosphor Molding Casting Thermal
Management Heatsink Substrate Summount Interconnect Solder joint Wire bonding Through
silicon via (TSV) Die bonding Stencil printing Dispensing Jetting Dicing Laser Saw Fig. 2.14
Packaging process flow of HB-LED packaging 2 Solid-State Lighting Technology in a Nutshell
29 • Thermal management: There are several aspects to further improve the thermal performance
of HB-LED packaging: • Submount and substrate: Thermal substrate materials (e.g., metal core
PCB) provide primary heat spreading, heat transfer to the heat sink, electrical connection to the
driver, and mechanical mounting. Thermal enhanced materials, such as metal core PCB
(MCPCB), ceramic substrate, and TSV for thermal dissipation, are used. • Thermal interface
material (TIM): Thermal interface materials (e.g., film or thermal grease) improve heat
dissipation and electrical isolation [19], as illustrated in Fig. 2.16b. • Heat sink: Heat sinks
dissipate heat to the ambient environment. • Phosphor, encapsulation and lens • Phosphor is
widely used for the white lighting generation from blue LED. YAG:Ce2+ and YAG:Eu2+ are the
mostly used material. • Silicon-based encapsulation and lens are widely applied, due to high
thermal resistance, photo-thermal stability, less degradation. 2.3.4 Wafer-Level Chip Integration
(WLCI) Technology In contrast with conventional wire bonding packaging, a new wafer-level
process has been developed so that it is able to electrically connect each chip without applying

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wire bonding. Borrowing the concept from IC/packaging industry [10, 20–21], a process called
“Wafer Level Chip Integration (WLCI)” technology has been developed to construct hybrid
integration of various chips on a substrate.
Fig. 2.16 Thermal interface material:
(a) illustration of the TIM, (b) thermal grease, and (c) thermal film 30 C.A. Yuan et al. The chip
process of WLCI technology is based on the normal LED chip process with three extra steps: (a)
The LED chips are placed on a substrate. There is not much restriction on the arrangement rule
except for the placement accuracy. The accuracy is to be controlled to a degree of 15 mm or less
to improve the process yield. Chips used in this platform can be a combination of electronics and
optics chips with variety of functions. (b) The empty space between LED chips is filled with
filling material to provide a smooth surface for the following metal interconnection. The filling
material is supposed to be transparent in the range of emission spectrum of the designated LED
chips for not reducing the light output. (c) The predetermined electrical connections between
chips are through photolithography and thin-film deposition instead of wires. With this
technology, it becomes possible to do heterogeneous chip interconnection in wafer form. Figure
2.17 shows three examples of combining multiple chips to achieve different application by
WLCI technology. which shows a gap towards the lighting application, such as retrofit bulb and
luminaire. A transfer layer, multi-LED assembles, is presented to fulfill such gap and enhance
the thermal performance of SSL application (Fig. 2.18). In this section, mechanical consideration
of the multi-LED assembles and the white light generation will be described. Fig. 2.17 Picture of
various multiple chip integration by WLCI technology (Epistar provide) 2 Solid-State Lighting
Technology in a Nutshell 31 1. Wavelength conversion: It involves converting all or a part of
LED’s emission into visible wavelengths that are perceived as white light: (a) Blue LED and
YAG-based phosphor: The YAG-based phosphor is excited by the blue LED, and results in the
appearance of white light. This method is most widely applied in the SSL industry, due to the
most efficient and low cost. However,the material of yellow phosphor usually contains of rare
earth, and the material scarcity concern maintains and substitution possibility is exploring. (b)
Ultraviolet LED with RGB phosphor: Similar to previous application, the light from ultraviolet
LED is completely converted by the RGB phosphor. (c) Blue LED and quantum dots: Quantum
dots (QDs) are extremely small semiconductors crystals (between 2 and 10 nm). These quantum
dots are 33 or 34 pairs of cadmium or selenium on top of the LED. Hence the quantum dots are
excited by the LED and generated the white light. The excited wavelength from the QDs depends
upon the particle size [22, 23]. (d) Color mixing: Another method is to mix fundamental light
sources and generate the white light. Color mixing can be implemented by two LEDs (blue and
yellow), three LEDs (blue, green, and red), or four LEDs (red, blue, green, and yellow). Because
of no phosphor, there is no loss of energy during the conversion process; as a result, color mixing
is more efficient than wavelength conversion. 2. Homoepitaxial ZnSe: The blue LED is placed
on to a homoepitaxial ZnSe, and the blue light is generated by the blue LED and yellow light
from the ZnSe substrate. From the literature [24], this technology can generate white light with
color temperature of 3,400 K and CRI of 68 (Fig. 2.20). Fig. 2.19 Concept of a four die LED
with integrated driver package (left), and thermal simulation result (right) 2 Solid-State Lighting
Technology in a Nutshell 33 2.5 Level 3: LED Modules LED requires constant current with DC
power. The SSL electronic driver is used for converting AC power into DC, or from one DC
level into higher/lower DC. These LED electronics are expected to maintain the constant current
and control of LED, performing several of electrical protection to LED, such as overvoltage,
overload, and over-temperature shutdown. On top of the level 2: multi-LED assembles, the

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ILLUMINATION ON SOLID STATE LIGHTENING

electronics of SSL is presented and integrated. Conventional SSL devices include three major
parts: optical part, LED electrical driver, and interconnections between the latter two parts (Fig.
2.21). In each SSL system all these three parts exists, and they are necessary to make the system
functional, however, with respect to the application they can be simpler or more complex. The
electrical driver of SSL system prepares the required power for driving optical part. The primary
and fundamental task of the SSL driver is to provide electrical power requirements for optical
part of the system. There are lots of other functionalities can be defined and implemented in SSL
driver. Dimming and color-changing capabilities are two examples of SSL system extra
functionalities which already can be found in commercial products. Various driver architecture is
applied for different applications, such as Buck (for output voltage is smaller than input one),
Boost (for output voltage is smaller than input one), flyback, and transformer-isolated converters
(for main to LED lamp application). Smart SSL—able to sense, describe the environment, and
help to decide—will contribute to more than 70% of lighting energy saving. However, less
components/ Fig. 2.20 Color mixing for white LED 34 C.A. Yuan et al. systems integration
results in a high price, large size, and less market acceptance of SSL products and in a
nonoptimal energy-saving solution. As SSL is digital in nature, it has inherited excellent
advantages to combine the lighting function with other functions (sensing, communication,
control, etc.) to create smart and multifunction systems. Figure 2.22 shows the architecture of
future SSL concept, where the controller/driver, sensor, communication units are presented.
1. Wavelength conversion: It involves converting all or a part of LED’s emission into
visible wavelengths that are perceived as white light: (a) Blue LED and YAG-based phosphor:
The YAG-based phosphor is excited by the blue LED, and results in the appearance of white
light. This method is most widely applied in the SSL industry, due to the most efficient and low
cost. However,the material of yellow phosphor usually contains of rare earth, and the material
scarcity concern maintains and substitution possibility is exploring. (b) Ultraviolet LED with
RGB phosphor: Similar to previous application, the light from ultraviolet LED is completely
converted by the RGB phosphor. (c) Blue LED and quantum dots: Quantum dots (QDs) are
extremely small semiconductors crystals (between 2 and 10 nm). These quantum dots are 33 or
34 pairs of cadmium or selenium on top of the LED. Hence the quantum dots are excited by the
LED and generated the white light. The excited wavelength from the QDs depends upon the
particle size [22, 23]. (d) Color mixing: Another method is to mix fundamental light sources and
generate the white light. Color mixing can be implemented by two LEDs (blue and yellow), three
LEDs (blue, green, and red), or four LEDs (red, blue, green, and yellow). Because of no
phosphor, there is no loss of energy during the conversion process; as a result, color mixing is
more efficient than wavelength conversion. 2. Homoepitaxial ZnSe: The blue LED is placed on
to a homoepitaxial ZnSe, and the blue light is generated by the blue LED and yellow light from
the ZnSe substrate. From the literature [24], this technology can generate white light with color
temperature of 3,400 K and CRI of 68 (Fig. 2.20).
2.5 Level 3: LED Modules LED requires constant current with DC power. The SSL
electronic driver is used for converting AC power into DC, or from one DC level into
higher/lower DC. These LED electronics are expected to maintain the constant current and
control of LED, performing several of electrical protection to LED, such as overvoltage,
overload, and over-temperature shutdown. On top of the level 2: multi-LED assembles, the
electronics of SSL is presented and integrated. Conventional SSL devices include three major
parts: optical part, LED electrical driver, and interconnections between the latter two parts (Fig.
2.21). In each SSL system all these three parts exists, and they are necessary to make the system

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functional, however, with respect to the application they can be simpler or more complex. The
electrical driver of SSL system prepares the required power for driving optical part. The primary
and fundamental task of the SSL driver is to provide electrical power requirements for optical
part of the system. There are lots of other functionalities can be defined and implemented in SSL
driver. Dimming and color-changing capabilities are two examples of SSL system extra
functionalities which already can be found in commercial products. Various driver architecture is
applied for different applications, such as Buck (for output voltage is smaller than input one),
Boost (for output voltage is smaller than input one), flyback, and transformer-isolated converters
(for main to LED lamp application). Smart SSL—able to sense, describe the environment, and
help to decide—will contribute to more than 70% of lighting energy saving. However, less
components/ Fig. 2.20 Color mixing for white LED 34 C.A. Yuan et al. systems integration
results in a high price, large size, and less market acceptance of SSL products and in a
nonoptimal energy-saving solution. As SSL is digital in nature, it has inherited excellent
advantages to combine the lighting function with other functions (sensing, communication,
control, etc.) to create smart and multifunction systems. Figure 2.22 shows the architecture of
future SSL concept, where the controller/driver, sensor, communication units are presented.
Network Commissioning Control Update software … Metering Monitoring … Intelligent
Lighting Control Drivers Sensors Actuators Software Light source Optics Power supply
Grid/Off-grid/Hybrid Light output Fig. 2.22 Illustration of intelligent lighting architecture Fig.
2.21 Different parts of a general SSL system. Optical part is the light source of the system and
includes LEDs. LED electrical driver (SSL driver) is the interface of the SSL optical part and the
input power of the system. SSL driver also can be more than just a power converter and includes
the controller and memory. These two parts of the system are interconnected to each other
(Source: Philips Lighting) 2 Solid-State Lighting Technology in a Nutshell 35 2.6 Level 4:
Luminaires As the development of the SSL technology, two types of luminaires are developed to
accelerate the market acceptance: 1. Retrofit bulb/lamps Following the conventional usage of the
light bulb, SSL industries create the LED base light bulb to replace the conventional
incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs to enhance the market penetration of the LED
technology. Figure 2.23 shows an example of retrofit bulb, which has the same fixture design as
conventional light bulb and customers can direct replace their bulb without changing the fixture
or the luminaire. 2. Beyond retrofit The lifetime of the LED chip is expected to be more than
50,000 h, which is close to the luminaire. Further cost reduction concepts of directly integrating
the LEDs into luminaires are presented by the beyond retrofit luminaires. Figure 2.24 shows a
lowcost consumer luminaire, where the LED and driver electronics are integrated. Fig. 2.23 An
example of retrofit bulb (Source: Philips and European CSSL project) Fig. 2.24 Beyond retrofit:
SSL consumer luminaire (Source: IKEA) 36 C.A. Yuan et al. High power LED now is used from
500 mW to as much as 10 W in a single package and it is expected to apply even more power in
the future. The chip heat fluxes are expected to be in excess of 70 W/cm2 by the end of this
decade, and about 100 W/cm2 by 2018 [25], which has very high intensity of power. The
application of conventional thermal packaging technology results in poor thermal performance to
such chip designed LEDs with high temperature hot spot. Advanced thermal materials and novel
thermal solutions which are already successfully applied on microelectronic packages have high
potential to be used on LED module (Fig. 2.25). The thermal management is one of the design
key issues of luminaire, especially for the high power SSL application. Figure 2.26 shows an
example of LED-based street lighting, where the heat sink is located at the opposite side of LED,
and the heat sink covers almost all illumination area [26]. The design of the SSL luminaire is

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alike a designing of the mini compact system. Figure 2.27 demonstrated a luminaire design,
where the key functional elements, such as LED, thermal management, optics, controller and
driver. As increasing the SSL functionalities, the design challenge of the SSL luminaire is
expected.
2.7 Level 5: Lighting Systems Lighting systems is a complex system, which is a system
composed of interconnected parts that as a whole exhibit one or more properties (behavior
among the possible properties) not obvious from the properties of the individual parts. Lighting
system comprises of multiple luminaires and/or types of luminaire, smart sensors,
communication, control scheme, and data mining and data management. Examples, such as street
lighting, building lighting, city lighting, are given (Fig. 2.28). Various challenges of complex
lighting system are foreseen: (a) The interactions: Between different disciplines (software,
electronics, optics, mechanics, and thermal) and component/subsystem (sensors, communication,
ventilation, heating, and air-conditioner). (b) Long lifetime: Lighting system is expected to be
much longer than the components. A building is expected to be 50 years and a bridge is about
more than 100 year. The corresponding lighting system will be expected to be functional as long
as the objects stand. However, the advanced lighting system should be able to adapt by itself for
the different user requirement and component/subsystem replacement. (c) Complex supplier
ownership: Due to the size of the large system, it will be too difficult for a single supplier to
cover all components. Hence, it is a scientific/ engineering challenge to communication with
each supplier at different levels, where a feasible standard is required.

3.1 LED EVOLUTION—COMMON ANCESTOR OF INDICATOR


AND HIGH POWER LEDS

The first practical LED was developed in 1962 and was made of a compound
semiconductor alloy, gallium arsenide phosphide , which emitted red light. From 1962,
compound semiconductors would provide the foundation for commercial expansion of LEDs.
Analogous to the famous Moore’s Law in silicon which predicts a doubling of the number of
transistors in a chip every 18–24 months, LED luminous output (flux, measured in lumens) has
been following Haitz’s Law (Fig. 1) [3], doubling every 18–24 months for the past 34
years.From 1968 when the first commercial LEDs were introduced

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Fig. 2. Four generations of AlInGaP LEDs: (a) Absorbing substrate (AS) LED. (b) Transparent
substrate (TS). (c) High-power LED with 5_ TS flux. (d)Trunction inverted pyramid (TIP) LED
with 1.5_ flux of high-power square chip.

at 0.001 lm/LED using GaAsP until the mid-1990s commercial LEDs were used exclusively as
indicators. In terms of number of LEDs sold, indicators and other small signal applications in
2002 still consume the largest volume of LEDs, with annual global consumption exceeding
several LEDs per person on the planet. The development of AlGaAs LEDs grown on GaAs
substrates and employing fully lattice-matched direct bandgap systems and hetero-structure
active regions [4] allowed these early red LEDs to exceed the luminous efficiency of a red-
filtered incandescent bulb. Efficiency was further doubled by the use of transparent substrate
devices (AlGaAs grown on AlGaAs).The development of organo–metallic vapor phase epitaxy
(OMVPE) crystal growth techniques enabled the introduction of a new material system, AlGaInP
on GaAs. AlInGaP resulted in the fabrication of high-brightness materials from yellow to red.
In the early 1990s, LumiLeds Lighting (then the Hewlett-Packard Optoelectronics
Division 1 ) mastered the complex OMVPE growth process of quaternary aluminum indium
gallium phosphide (AlInGaP) on GaAs substrates. The AlInGaP material system allows the
creation of light in the red and amber regions of the spectrum. Alloy ordering, hydrogen
passivation of acceptor atoms, p–n junction placement and oxygen incorporation into the
aluminum-containing semicon- 1Originally the Hewlett-Packard Optoelectronics Division
(OED). OED became part of Agilent when Agilent was divided from Hewlett-Packard. In 1999,
Lumileds Lighting was formed as an Agilent and Philips joint venture, retaining the high-
brightness LED businesses of the old HP OED. ductor layers proved to be substantial challenges
that required nearly a decade of work to resolve.
The result was AlInGaP LEDs with internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100%;
nearly every electron and hole pair injected into the device resulted in the creation of a photon
[AS AlInGaP Fig. 2(a)]. The problem was then how to get the photons that had been generated
inside the semiconductor LED out into the world outside the semiconductor where they could be
used. The first hurdle was to prevent light from being absorbed in the narrow bandgap ( eV nm)

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GaAs substrate. Techniques such as incorporation in the epitaxial structure of Bragg mirrors, and
direct growth on GaP have been tried, but the most successful technique is removal of the GaAs
substrate by etching and replacement with transparent GaP by wafer bonding as developed at
Hewlett-Packard in 1994. [TS AlInGaP Fig. 2(b)] At 25 lm/W efficiency, nearly ten times the
efficiency of a red filtered light bulb, and several lumens per LED, these LEDs enabled the first
LED stop lights on automobiles, LED red traffic signals, and single color outdoor signs. But at 3
lm/LED uses were still limited to those applications where the user was expected to look directly
at the LED.
Following closely behind the commercialization of AlInGaP, two groups, Shuji
Nakamura at Nichia Chemical and Prof. Akasaki and Prof. Amano at Nagoya University and
later Meijo University were mastering the complex OMVPE growth process of aluminum indium
gallium nitride on sapphire substrates using atmospheric-pressure OMVPE. The AlInGaN
material system has a wider bandgap than AlInGaP and allows access to the higher energy green,
blue, 312 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL.
8, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2002 Fig. 3. Potential power savings versus traditional lighting.
Today’s Luxeon white pc-LEDs are in the 20–30 lm/W range, but flux/LED is still low.
Assumed 50% optical flux utilization for CFL and Fluorescent, but 100% for LED. and UV parts
of the color spectrum. As has been found in AlInGaP, alloy clustering, hydrogen passivation of
acceptor atoms, p–n junction placement and oxygen incorporation into the aluminum-containing
semiconductor layers proved to be substantial challenges. The AlInGaN material system is not as
well understood as the AlInGaP material system, and today internal quantum efficiencies at
typical operating current densities for AlInGaN green devices hover around 20–40% with blue
devices operating in the 40–60% range. Nevertheless,by taking advantage of the transparent
sapphire substrate and the human eye’s greater sensitivity to green light than to either blue or
red, Nichia Chemical, Lumileds and others have been able to introduce multilumen green LEDs
that together with multilumen red AlInGaP and 1 lumen blue LEDs enables large full color signs
to be made entirely from solid state light sources. Along with the high brightness blue LEDs,
white LEDs that use high energy blue photons from a blue AlInGaN LED, and incorporate a
phosphor to convert some of the blue photons into yellow, the complementary color to blue, have
emerged. The human eye perceives this combination of blue and yellow light as a white light.
Finally, 30 years after the introduction of the first commercial LED in 1968 the stage has been
set for some new thinking.

3.2 THE PROMISE OF SOLID STATE LIGHTING

In 1999, the USA consumed 3 Trillion kWh of energy, 21% of which was used for
lighting. Incandescent bulbs consumed 40% of the energy used for lighting (252 Billion kWh) to
generate 15% of the total light produced. The more efficient fluorescent and discharge light
sources consumed the remaining of the energy (378 Billion kWh) generating 85% of the light. At
nearly $60 B/year, $12 B of which is for sources alone, the lighting market dwarfs the $3 B/year
(2000) indicator LED market [12]. With the convergence in the mid 1990s of major advances in
AlInGaN and AlInGaP material technologies by the turn of the millennium LEDs were rapidly
surpassing the efficiency of color filtered fluorescent light bulbs and white incandescent and
halogen light bulbs. Fig. 3 shows the percentage power savings for LEDs versus other
conventional illumination sources.

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LEDs inherit other important advantages including lifetimes measured in tens of


thousands of hours, ruggedness, environmental friendliness(no mercury), compact size, low
operating voltages, and Fig. 4. Luxeon high-power LED reliability for white pc-LED and red
AlInGaP LED under room-temperature operating life condition. cool operation. Their small size
allows design flexibility in the control and steering of the emitted light by utilizing sophisticated
secondary optics. However, today’s lighting applications which require a light source to
illuminate a desk, a screen, or a room demand not only high efficiency and long life, but also
high flux, all at a low unit cost. A single 60-W incandescent bulb emits 1 klm of white light with
a color rendering index near 100; that is 300 times the amount the light emitted by a typical
phosphor converted indicator white LED (pc-LED) at a small fraction of the upfront cost. The
challenge is designing LED devices and packages that sustain two to three orders of
magnitude higher input drive power than traditional ( 60 mW) indicator LEDs whilst retaining
the same high efficiency and reliability.The pioneering work on high-power LEDs began at
Lumileds Lighting in 1998 with the introduction of the first commercial high power LED. At 1-
W input power, Luxeon devices operate at power levels 20 times that of traditional 5-mm
indicator LEDs with efficiencies that can be as much as 50% greater. Lifetimes extrapolate into
the tens of thousands of hours (Fig. 4). Commercialization of high-power LEDs in 1998 has
impacted the decades-old Haitz’s Law (Fig. 1), manifesting as a knee in the lm/LED versus time
plot, defining the point in LED evolution when power LEDs diverged from indicator LEDs. Key
among Lumileds’ achievements is a dramatic reduction in package thermal resistance from the
300 K/W level of indicator LEDs to less than 15 K/W for the Luxeon line of LEDs (Fig. 5). This
20 reduction in thermal resistance enables devices to be pumped to 20 the input power whilst
emitting 55-lm red, 30-lm green, 10-lm blue, about 25-lm (pc-LEDs) white light, for 1 W of
input power. At 0.025 klm, the white devices are still 40 times below the 1 klm per unit flux
threshold for entry into general illumination as single device sources.

Fig. 3. Potential power savings versus traditional lighting. Today’s Luxeon white pc-
LEDs are in the 20–30 lm/W range, but flux/LED is still low. Assumed 50% optical flux
utilization for CFL and Fluorescent, but 100% for LED.

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Fig. 6, however, shows an overhead table lighting fixture designed by Philips Lighting
utilizing a cluster of 12 Luxeon white sources generating 0.3 klm of white light. Fig. 7 shows a
next-generation Luxeon LED, which is the world’s brightest white LED at 0.15 klmand UV parts
of the color spectrum. As has been found inAlInGaP, alloy clustering, hydrogen passivation of
acceptor atoms, p–n junction placement and oxygen incorporation into the aluminum-containing
semiconductor layers proved to be substantial challenges. The AlInGaN material system is not as
well understood as the AlInGaP material system, and today internal quantum efficiencies at
typical operating current densities for AlInGaN green devices hover around 20–40 with blue
devices operating in the 40–60% range. Nevertheless, by taking advantage of the transparent
sapphire substrate and the human eye’s greater sensitivity to green light than to either blue or
red, Nichia Chemical, Lumileds and others have been able to introduce multilumen green LEDs
that together with multilumen red AlInGaP and 1 lumen blue LEDs enables large full color signs
to be made entirely from solid state light sources. Along with the high brightness blue LEDs,
white LEDs that use high energy blue photons from a blue AlInGaN LED, and incorporate a
phosphor to convert some of the blue photons into yellow, the complementary color to blue, have
emerged. The human eye perceives this combination of blue and yellow light as a white light.
Finally, 30 years after the introduction of the first commercial LED in 1968 the stage has
been set for some new thinking.III. THE PROMISE OF SOLID STATE LIGHTINGIn 1999, the
USA consumed 3 Trillion kWh of energy, 21% of which was used for lighting. Incandescent
bulbs consumed 40% of the energy used for lighting (252 Billion kWh) to generate 15% of the
total light produced.
The more efficient fluorescent and discharge light sources consumed the remaining of the
energy (378 Billion kWh) generating 85% of the light. At nearly $60 B/year, $12 B of which is
for sources alone, the lighting market dwarfs the $3 B/year (2000) indicator LED market. With
the convergence in the mid 1990s of major advances in AlInGaN and AlInGaP material
technologies by the turn of the millennium LEDs were rapidly surpassing the efficiency of color
filtered fluorescent light bulbs and white incandescent and halogen light bulbs.
Fig. 3 shows the percentage power savings for LEDs versus other conventional
illumination sources. LEDs inherit other important advantages including lifetimes measured in
tens of thousands of hours, ruggedness, and environmental friendliness(no mercury), compact
size, low operating voltages, and cool operation. Their small size allows design flexibility in the
control and steering of the emitted light by utilizing sophisticated secondary optics.
However, today’s lighting applications which require a light source to illuminate a desk,
a screen, or a room demand not only high efficiency and long life, but also high flux, all at a low
unit cost. A single 60-W incandescent bulb emits 1 klm of white light with a color rendering
index near 100; that is 300 times the amount the light emitted by a typical phosphor converted
indicator white LED (pc-LED) at a small fraction of the upfront cost. The challenge is designing
LED devices and packages that sustain two to three orders of magnitude higher input drive
power than traditional (60 mW) indicator LEDs whilst retaining the same high efficiency and
reliability. The pioneering work on high-power LEDs began at Lumileds Lighting in 1998 with
the introduction of the first commercial high power LED devices operate at power levels 20
times that of traditional 5-mm indicator LEDs with efficiencies that can be as much as 50%
greater.

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Fig. 4. Luxeon high-power LED reliability for white pc-LED and red AlInGaP
LED
under room-temperature operating life condition. Lifetimes extrapolate into the tens of
thousands of hours (Fig. 4). Commercialization of high-power LEDs in 1998 has impacted the
decades-old Haitz’s Law (Fig. 1), manifesting as a knee in the lm/LED versus time plot, defining
the point in LED evolution when power LEDs diverged from indicator LEDs. Key among
Lumileds’ achievements is a dramatic reduction in package thermal resistance from the 300 K/W
level of indicator LEDs to less than 15 K/W for the Luxeon line of LEDs (Fig. 5). This 20
reduction in thermal resistance enables devices to be pumped to 20 the input power whilst
emitting 55-lm red, 30-lm green, 10-lm blue, about 25-lm (pc-LEDs) white light, for 1 W of
input power. At 0.025 klm, the white devices are still 40 times below the 1 klm per unit flux
threshold for entry into general illumination as single device sources. Fig. 6, however, shows an
overhead table lighting fixture designed by Philips Lighting utilizing a cluster of 12 Luxeon
white sources generating 0.3 klm of white light. Fig. 7 shows a next-generation Luxeon LED,
which is the world’s brightest white LED at 0.15 klm at 5-W drive, next to a 15-W incandescent
bulb. This LED generates nearly 40% more light, occupies 1% of the package volume, and
requires only 33% of the power of the in. At 1-W input power, Luxeon.

3.3 HIGH POWER LED NITRIDE FLIP-CHIP


TECHNOLOGY
A. Conventional Indicator LED Device Structures The bulk of commercially
available GaN-based devices are grown on sapphire substrates. LEDs have a
cross section similar to that depicted in Fig. 8. n-type GaN layers are grown on
the substrate, an active layer is grown on top of this, and p-GaN layers are then
grown over the top of the structure. Part of the p-GaN and active layers are
etched away to reveal and allow the formation of an electrical contact to the
underlying n-GaN layers.
B. Light is extracted from these devices through the uppermost p-GaN layers.
However, the limited conductivity of p-GaN results in the requirement for
superficial metallic current-spreading layers to be deposited on the p-GaN
surface. These current-spreading layers consist of Ni and Au and are partially
optically absorbing, resulting in a lowered extraction efficiency of the devices.

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In order to minimize absorption of the emitted light, the thickness of the


current-spreading layers is limited to a few tens of Angstroms.
C. This limits the ability of the current spreading layers to uniformly and reliably
spread large currents across the surface of the p-GaN. The operating power of
the LED is thus limited by the structure of the p-contact. The device resistance
is a critical parameter for high-power solid-state light sources and determines
the power density that the source can operate. The resistivity of the underlying
n-GaN layers are approximately 3–6 m cm and the thickness is limited to 3 um
due to epitaxial growth constraints, resulting in a sheet conductivity in the
range of 10–20 .
D. The finite sheet conductivity of the underlying n-GaN layer limits the
efficiency of small-size indicator LEDs when run at higher current densities,
and limits the arbitrary scaling of the size of the LED since the resistance
scales with the linear dimensions. LEDs having the structure depicted in Fig. 8
are heat sunk through their insulating sapphire substrates, further limiting their
efficiencies and achievable operating powers, and the bond pads and wire
bonds over the top of the die obscure that light which can be extracted from
the LED into the package. LEDs having this standard configuration are
therefore suboptimal from optical, electrical, and thermal points of view, and
will, therefore, be severely limited in their ability to compete with standard
light sources in mass illumination markets.
E. LED flip-chip Device Structures LEDs built in a flip-chip geometry provide an
alternative to the standard method of fabricating LEDs. In this configuration,
LEDs are fabricated with highly reflecting metallizations to the epitaxial
semiconductor, which act as both electrical contacts to the semiconductor, and
as optical reflectors. The bulk of the light is extracted through the substrate
rather than directly from the epitaxial semiconductor surfaces. Light no longer
has to be extracted through a partially absorbing layer, and can, therefore, be
extracted from the LED with minimal attenuation. For an ideal device in which
there is no optical absorption in the semiconductor layers, the metallizations to
the device provide the only source of optical attenuation in a device. Choice of
appropriate high-reflectivity metallizations which also make stable, ohmic,
low-resistivity contact to GaN is key to maximizing the overall- or wallplug-
efficiency of the devices.
F. Replacement of the thin current-spreading layer in conventional LEDs with the
thick, opaque metallic contact of flip-chip LEDs allows the flip-chip LEDs to
be operated at increased current densities with high reliability. The device
configuration further allows the semiconductor to be directly heat-sunk
through the conductive metallizations in contrast to conventional GaN LEDs
which are heat sunk through the sapphire substrate. This combination allows
GaN flip-chips LEDs to be operated at over twice the current density of
conventional LEDs with increased reliability in adverse operating
environments. Finally, the displacement of the wirebonds from over the top of
the device results in reduced obscuration of light within the package, and
hence, to an increase in the overall optical extraction efficiency of the
packaged LED.

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G. Materials Selection for Flip-Chip LED Design Aluminum makes a good


candidate material for the construction of GaN-based flip-chip LEDs; Al is
highly reflective and makes tenacious, stable, ohmic contact to n-GaN.
However, Al does not make ohmic contact to p-GaN, and a thin Ni–Au-based
ohmic contact layer must be interspersed between the Al reflector and the p-
GaN in order to provide efficient hole injection into the device as reported by
Wierer et al.. Current spreading in these devices occurs readily in the
overlying Al reflector, allowing the thickness of this hole-injection layer to be
kept to a minimum. The optical absorption of the Ni–Aubased layer is thereby
minimized, and the extraction efficiency of the flip chip is increased over that
of the standard LED. The wallplug efficiency of the flip-chip LED can be
further improved by replacing the Al metallizations with Ag. Silver can form
electrically superior contacts to p-GaN than Ni–Au, and has higher reflectivity
than Al.
H. Silver deposited directly onto p-GaN, therefore provides the ideal p-type
contact to GaN-based LED flip chips, and provides an increase in extraction
efficiency of the device over that of the Al-based flip chip. The optical
extraction efficiencies of InGaN LED dice can be simply and
straightforwardly modeled using standard, commercially available optical ray
tracing software. The dimensions of the LEDs produce semicoherent
microcavity interference effects within the epitaxial semiconductor layer, not
accounted for in such models.
I. However, the results obtained are in reasonable quantitative agreement with
the experimental results. The modeled and measured extraction efficiencies of
GaN-based flip-chip LEDs relative to those of LEDs having the structure of
standard commercially available LEDs are compared in Fig. 10. It is seen that
in moving from a conventional Ni–Au-based LED to an Al-based flip-chip
LED, extraction efficiency of the LED is increased by a factor of approx. 45%.
In moving from the conventional Ni–Au-based LED to a Ag-based flip chip, a
doubling of the optical extraction efficiency can be obtained.
J. The sensitivity of the extraction efficiency of LED flip chips to the reflectivity
of the metallizations can be understood by considering the ray trace model of
the LED. A certain fraction of the light incident on the GaN-sapphire interface
undergoes reflection back into the GaN at this interface. Much of the light
extracted through the sapphire undergoes multiple reflections within the GaN
layer, and therefore, undergoes multiple, compounded reflections against the
top metal reflector prior to extraction from the LED chip. Small variations in
the optical constants of the metals, therefore, have a relatively large effect on
the extraction efficiency of the device, as can be verified by the modeling. The
presence of some very small absorption which has not been accounted for in
the optical modeling is evident in the modeled relative extraction efficiencies
of the Ag-based flip-chip LEDs being some 5% larger than measured.
currently in mass production [15] and industry leaders are already looking to
larger-area, 5-W LED.
K. The requirement for increased flux per LED will continue to grow strongly as
LED technologies start to penetrate illumination markets. However, the

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extraction efficiency of LEDs decreases with increasing LED chip size as


observed in AlInGaP- and GaN-based LEDs. The origin of the size
dependence of the extraction efficiency of the LEDs is the presence of
absorption within the LED chips and their metallizations. In the case of
standard GaN-based LEDs grown of sapphire substrates, the main source of
absorption is the semitransparent p-contact. In a 350-um-square LED, up to
40% of the light extracted from the LED can be extracted through the
sidewalls of the substrate. This sidelight is not extracted through the p-contact,
and therefore, undergoes significantly reduced absorption. As the LED
dimension is increased to 1-mm-square, the proportion of light extracted from
the LED as sidelight decreases to 25% or less.
L. A greater fraction of the extracted light passes through the p-contact, and the
overall extraction efficiency of the device is, therefore, reduced. In the case of
GaN-based LEDs grown on conducting SiC substrates, the conducting
substrate itself forms a significant source of absorption in the structure, and
arguments akin to those forwarded for the AlInGaP devices [18] lead to the
reduced extraction efficiency of large-area LEDs. For flip-chip LEDs, light
extracted through the top of the substrate undergoes no more absorption than
light extracted through the side of the substrate, and little penalty in extraction
efficiency is paid in moving to larger-area LEDs. In moving from small-area to
large-area devices the extraction efficiencies of GaN flip-chip LEDs relative to
those of conventional GaN LEDs therefore increase substantially as
demonstrated.
M. In moving to larger-size flip-chip LEDs, consideration must still be paid to the
finite conductivity of the n-GaN layers in the devices. In order to maintain a
low device series resistance, the active region of the LED must be
interdigitated with electrical contacts to the underlying n-GaN as discussed by
Weirer et al. [14]. This style of electrode structure allows the LED size to scale
arbitrarily while maintaining a constant device resistivity For 1 mm square
LEDs, the series resistance is typically 1 ohm, versus a resistance of 30 ohms
for a 0.35 mm indicator LED. As a result of the advances in semiconductor
quality and of this device technology, the LED efficiency exceeds the best
available colored (filtered) incandescent, halogen, and fluorescent lighting in
all colors, and the white LED efficiency exceeds the efficiency of both
incandescent and halogen sources. The total flux of a single commercial LED
package now extends to over a hundred lumens (Fig. 12), from the cyan
through the red parts of the spectrum as well as in the white, and deep blue
parts (430 nm) offer in excess of 1 Watt per LED at 25% WPE. A single blue-
green (505 nm) LED consuming 5 W can emit over 0.17 klm and replace an
80 W 0.7 klm bulb in an 8-in traffic ball while offering a 100-fold increase in
lifetime.

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3.4 WHITE LED TECHNOLOGY

Illumination means white light, and a very particular kind of white light at that.
Having evolved under a black body emitter, the sun, with a correlated color temperature
(CCT) in the 3000 K–6500 K range depending on time of day, weather and season, the
human eye is quite sensitive to small changes in spectral content of illumination sources.
The Planckian locus on the CIE diagram is scaled in Kelvin, denoting the CCT describing
the color of a black body source. Sensitivity to color change is a function of location on
the CIE curve. Near 3000 K–4000 K where incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps
operate typical humans can detect changes in CCT on the order of K–100 K. Multiple
illumination sources visible at the same time must therefore have CCTs that are the same
to within K–100 K and chromaticity coordinates lying very near the black curve.
However, this is still insufficient. Even though a white light source may have color
coordinates close to the black body curve, the source may not render true colors when
used to illuminate an object.
If the wavelengths reflected by a surface are absent in the source, then the surface
will appear dark or gray, not colored. Upon reflection or transmission, spectrally
incomplete sources will produce less vivid color quality than those with a more complete
spectrum. The ability of an illumination source to render true colors is determined by
measuring the color rendering index, Ra, scaled 0 to 100 [19]. The noon-day sun,
incandescent lamps and other near black body radiators have Ras of near 100.
Fluorescent lamps with choppy emission spectra such as that shown in Fig. 13(a) have
lower Ras in the 75–90 range which explains why most people would prefer to see their
own reflections when illuminated with incandescent rather than fluorescent lights. Before
LEDs can be seriously considered to be sources of “illumi Comparison of a Fluorescent
lamp emission spectra to a black body spectra of the same CCT.
The fluorescent lamp has a color rendering index measured at 83. (b) Emission
spectrum of a single-phosphor pc-LED showing the blue peak of light leaking through
the phosphor and the broader yellow peak from the phosphor. nation”, CCT variations
within a lamp and from lamp to lamp must be homogeneous to within 50 K–100 K, and
Ra . There are three general approaches to generating white light from LEDs, illustrated
in Fig. 14 [20]. The first method directly mixes light from three (or more) monochromatic
sources, red, green and blue (RGB), to produce a white source matching with the RGB
sensors in the human eye. The second technique uses a blue LED to pump one or more
visible light-emitting phosphors integrated into the phosphor-converted LED (pc-LED)
package. The pc-LED is designed to leak some of the blue light beyond the phosphor to
generate the blue portion of the spectrum, while phosphor converts the remainder of the
blue light into the red and green portions of the spectrum. The third technique uses an
ultraviolet LED to pump a combination of red, green and blue phosphors in such a way
that none of the pump LED light is allowed to escape.
Each of these approaches has potential advantages and clear technical challenges.
The most straightforward technique mixes the emission from at least three different
colored LEDs. Referring to the C.I.E. chromaticity diagram, Fig. 15, a three-colored
(RGB) LED array will be perceived as a color within the triangle depending upon the
relative luminance balance of the sources. Properly balanced, the array can produce any
particular point within the triangle and in particular along the Planckian black body

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curve. In more sophisticated versions, onboard electronics adjust the individual drive
currents to change the CCT at will [21], or to maintain the color point as each source ages
over the life of the array or changes with the ambient temperature.
RGB mixing is the most efficient way to make white light from LEDs since there
is no quantum deficit (arising from the Stokes shift characteristic of photonic energy
down-conversion of the phosphor, and offers infinitely graduated color and white point
control. Efficiencies for state of the art devices are in the 30–40 lm/W. Color rendering
can be excellent, 95, but CCT is controlled dynamically by an external detector plus
feedback system. For specialized applications such as LCD backlighting or projection
images, and applications requiring dynamic color control, RGB mixing is the preferred
choice. By far the most common LED-based white light source is the pc-LED used in a
configuration with a blue LED and a complimentary yellow phosphor. The blue LED is
used to pump a yellow emitting phosphor integrated into the LED package. Inherently
less efficient than an RGB source, simple white sources are made. The phosphor density
and thickness are chosen to leak a predetermined fraction of the blue light.
Mixed with the resulting yellow phosphor emission, white light results. Striking
the correct blue/yellow ratio depends upon having the correct amount, density, and
particle size of phosphor, distributed evenly around the blue-emitting chip. Variations in
any of these parameters will give rise to color or CCT variations at different viewing
angles from a single lamp, or between adjacent LED lamps. First generation white pc-
LEDs are made by depositing in measured quantities of a slurry mixture of phosphor and
epoxy within a containment cup surrounding the pump die during the encapsulation step
[Fig. 16(a)]. Several factors inhibit process uniformity, including the difficulty of
measuring precise small quantities of a viscous fluid, slurry settling both before and after
dispensing, distribution of the mixture within the cup, and phosphor powder grain size
variations.
To illustrate typical variations, the circles in Fig. 18 illustrate typical CCT control
within a single LED radiation pattern (viewing angle) using a first generation slurry
deposited pc-LED to be very large, K, or 8–16 times the human detectable difference.
The triangles indicate results from a second-generation phosphor deposition process
developed by Lumileds in which a conformal layer of phosphor is deposited only around
the die.In this case, variation within a single LED radiation pattern drops to 80 K, fully
10 times better than first generation pc-LED technology. In effect, the flip-chip LED with
the conformal layer of phosphor act as a white light-emitting die.
The conformal deposition process also improves LED to LED color variation. To
demonstrate, examine the color locus created from combining a 470-nm pump LED and a
575-nm emitting phosphor as show by the dark tie line in Fig. 15. This line crosses the
Planckian at a color temperature of 5000 K. Small variations in phosphor thickness, grain
size and efficiency create lamps spanning a range large compared to the 50–100 K
minimum detectable CCT difference. Fig. 13(a) and (b) compare the spectral outputs of a
fluorescent light and a single pc-LED spectrum, which produce respectively, Ra and Ra .
The Ra for the single phosphor pc-LED is low due to the lack of spectral content in the
red. By employing two phosphors, covering a broader emission range, the two-phosphor
pc-LED rises to Ra , well above acceptable levels for most illumination. The pc-LED
technique with state-of-the art material gives luminous efficacy performance in the 25–30
lm/W.

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Recently, there has been renewed interest in creating a white source using a UV-
emitting LED to pump a trio of RGB-emitting of phosphors, the UV-LED. The UV light
is completely adsorbed by the phosphors, and the mixed RGB output appears white much
the same as an RGB mixed LED array. The quantum deficit between the UV pump and
the phosphors, especially the low-energy red phosphor, dissipates significant energy and
makes this approach inherently less efficient than either the RGB or the pc-LED schemes
for generating white light. Fig. 19 shows power conversion efficiency verses UV pump
wavelength by considering the Stokes’ shift in converting UV to red, green, blue.
Scattering and absorption losses in the package are also considered. The result
indicates that an UV-LED must be more than twice the wall plug efficiency of the green
LED in an RBG solution in order to overcome packaging and Stokes’ losses. Today,
there are no ideal blue phosphors that emit efficiently in the 450–470-nm blue range
while absorbing efficiently in the 400–430-nm pump range, so actual efficacy numbers
are not yet available. The UV-LED approach has the advantage that color can be
controlled by the phosphor mix at least at one point in time and at one temperature, so
color rendering should be excellent. On the other hand, the high-energy UV light
deteriorates the organic LED package materials, limiting the useful lifetime of the lamp.
As of today, no UV-LED based RGB white products are in production. Though the basic
tradeoffs between the three different approaches to making white LEDs are well
established, the long-term winner is hard to predict.
Today most of the LEDs used to make white light are based on the pc-LED with a
blue pump plus a single yellow phosphor. The best of these lamps are at least two orders
of magnitude too high in cost per lumen to compete in major illumination markets. The
major cost driver stems from low yields into the very narrow bins that are required for
CCT and color point control. The winning alternative depends upon which set of
problems yields most expediently.

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CHAPTER 4
ADVANTAGES AND DIADVANTAGES
4.1 ADVANTAGES
Long service life –

it is one of the greatest benefits of LED lights. LEDs used in this type of lighting have a
high work efficiency and thus may run for up to 11 years compared to energy saving lamps with
service life less than a year. For example, LEDs operating 8 hours per day will last for about 20
years of service life, and only after this period, we will be forced to replace the light source for
new one. In addition, frequent switching on and off has no negative impact on the service life,
while it has such impact in case of an older type o lighting.

Efficiency –

LEDs are currently the most energy-efficient source of much less energy consumption
(electricity) than incandescent, fluorescent, meta halide or mercury lamps, within the luminous
efficiency of 80-90% for traditional lighting. This means that 80% of the energy supplied to the
device is converted to light, while 20% is lost and converted into heat. The efficiency of the
incandescent lamp is at 5-10% level – only that quantity of supplied energy is converted to light.

Resistance to impact and temperature –

in contrast to traditional lighting, LED lighting advantage is that it does not contain any filaments
or glass elements, which are very sensitive to blows and bumps. Usually, in the construction of
high quality LED lighting, high-quality plastics and aluminum parts are used, which causes that
LEDs are more durable and resistant to low temperatures and vibrations.

Heat transfer –

LEDs, compared to traditional lighting, generate small amounts of heat due to their high
performance. This energy production is mostly processed and converted into light (90%), which
allows direct human contact with the source of LED lighting without the exposure to burn even
after a long time of its work and in addition is limited to the exposure to fire, which may occur in
rooms in which
lighting of the old type is used, that heats up to several hundred degrees. For this reason, LED
illumination is more favorable for the goods or equipment that are extremely sensitive to
temperature.

Ecology –

the advantage of the LED lighting is also the fact that LEDs do not contain toxic materials such
as mercury and other metals dangerous for the environment, in contrast to the energy-saving

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lamps and are 100% recyclable, what helps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. They contain
chemical compounds responsible for the color of its light (phosphor), which are not harmful to
the environment.

Color –

In LED technology, we are able to obtain each illumination light color. Basic colors are white,
red, green and blue, but with today’s technology, progress is so advanced that we can get any
color. Every individual LED RGB system has three sections, each of which gives a different
color from the RGB palette color – red, green, blue.

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4.2 Disadvantages

 Blue hazard: There is a concern that blue LEDs and cool-white LEDs are now capable of
exceeding safe limits of the so-called blue-light hazard as defined in eye safety specifications
such as ANSI/IESNA RP-27.1-05: Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety for Lamp
and Lamp Systems.
 Light quality: Most cool-white LEDs have spectra that differ significantly from a black body
radiator like the sun or an incandescent light. The spike at 460 nm and dip at 500 nm can cause
the color of objects to be perceived differently under cool-white LED illumination than sunlight
or incandescent sources, due to metamerism, red surfaces being rendered particularly badly by
typical phosphor-based cool-white LEDs. However, the color rendering properties of common
fluorescent lamps are often inferior to what is now available in state-of-art white LEDs.
 Temperature dependence: LED performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of
the operating environment. Over-driving the LED in high ambient temperatures may result in
overheating of the LED package, eventually leading to device failure. Adequate heat-sinking is
required to maintain long life. This is especially important when considering automotive,
medical, and military applications where the device must operate over a large range of
temperatures, and is required to have a low failure rate.
 Blue pollution: Because cool-white LEDs (i.e., LEDs with high color temperature) emit
proportionally more blue light than conventional outdoor light sources such as high-pressure
sodium lamps, the strong wavelength dependence of Rayleigh scattering means that cool-white
LEDs can cause more light pollution than other light sources. The International Dark-Sky
Association discourages the use of white light sources with correlated color temperature above
3,000 K.
 Voltage sensitivity: LEDs must be supplied with the voltage above the threshold and a current
below the rating. This can involve series resistors or current-regulated power supplies.
 High initial price: LEDs are currently more expensive, price per lumen, on an initial capital cost
basis, than most conventional lighting technologies. The additional expense partially stems from
the relatively low lumen output and the drive circuitry and power supplies needed.

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 Area light source: LEDs do not approximate a “point source” of light, but rather a Lambertian
distribution. So LEDs are difficult to use in applications requiring a spherical light field. LEDs
are not capable of providing divergence below a few degrees. This is contrasted with lasers,
which can produce beams with divergences of 0.2 degrees or less

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CHAPTER 6

APPLICATIONS

Residential

Residential lighting typically consists of recessed downlights, wall sconces, pendants or


chandeliers, track lightingtable and floor lamps, and undercabinet and task lighting. Lighting
levels are lower than in commercial or industrial applications. Color, brightness, dimming
capability, and appearance are extremely important.Residential users expect SSL to look and act
just like their incandescent counterparts.

Such attributes as smooth dimming with existing residential dimmers, absence of flicker,
absence of radio interference, great color rendition, and equal light output and similar brightness
to incumbent lighting technologies will all be imperative for the successful SSL introduction into
the residential market.

Users also expect to be able to use the new lamps without having to replace existing
luminaires (i.e., fixtures using screw-in lamps).SSL is easily controlled in principle. Dimming is
readily available, but flicker, so called “pop-on” effects and lower end drop-out are still apparent
in some products. Pop on occurs in two ways: (1) when a preset dimming control is used and
lights do not turn on to their pre-set dimming level, but first come on (near) full and then dim
down automatically to the preset level and (2) when a slide (or rotary) dimmer is used, lights do
not turn on at the low end, but require the slider to be raised to a relatively high level to start the
lamp, before dimming to a lower level can be achieved.

Lower end drop-out occurs when lights are dimmed but turn off before reaching the
desired low level. All of these are symptoms of incompatibility between the LED lamp driver
electronics and incandescent dimmers and can be mitigated when the drivers are designed for
better compatibility using an industry standard such those of the National Electrical
Manufacturers Association (NEMA) on SSL 6 (see Chapter 4). Alternatively, the dimmer can be
replaced with a new-generation device that is being designed to operate LED lamps. Existing
incandescent dimmers may not work with LED replacement lamps (even though the LED lamps
are labeled “dimmable”). In some cases, the dimmers may have to be replaced.

Commercial

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Ambient lighting in commercial sites has been traditionally supplied with linear
fluorescents in either recessed troffers, recess parabolics, semi-recess indirect, or pendant
mounted with direct/indirect distribution.1 All of these provide uniform omni-directional light
distribution, creating uniform ambient lighting.Accent lighting adds visual interest to an area and
is frequently implemented with track lighting supplied with tungsten halogen or ceramic metal
halide lamps. Ceramic metal halide track lighting is used in many grocery stores because of the
higher light output.

Task lighting offers higher lighting levels for specific areas and has been traditionally
supplied with tungsten halogen or CFLs. Task lighting is used primarily in office areas in the
form of under-shelf or free-standing desktop luminaires.In most commercial applications, the
lighting system is expected to last for many years, requiring very little maintenance with easy
accessibility.

Occupants expect controls to perform daylight dimming, occupancy/vacancy sensing,


scene controls, and manual dimming.SSL is becoming more common in commercial
applications, especially for use with surface grazing (wall washing, white board lighting, and
cove lighting). SSL is ideal for task or personalized lighting and for accent or track lighting. The
more difficult applications are general omni-directional ambient lighting now supplied by
fluorescent luminaires. The one exception is lower light output, semi-recessed indirect
luminaires, which are becoming popular for ambient lighting.

Industrial

Industrial applications typically use a combination of high bay luminaires (directional


downlights) or low bay luminaires (omni-directional downlights). Task lighting is also used for
specific applications where higher light levels are required, such as in manufacturing facilities.
Long-lasting light sources are required for reliability and safety, especially in 24-hour facilities.
Controls have typically not been expected in industrial sites but are becoming more popular,
especially in applications where daylight can supplement the light level, allowing energy
reduction by dimming the interior lights.

Traditionally, high ceilings and harder access has lead many industrial sites to higher-
wattage, standard HID luminaires. Standard HID luminaires provide higher light output than
fluorescents, but do not last as long (having roughly two-thirds the life). Also, HID lamps have a
slow start, requiring several minutes to achieve full light output, making them harder to control
with occupancy sensing or daylight on/off switching.SSL applications are more difficult for
industrial applications because of high light level requirements.

Also, heat management is difficult in high ceilings where ambient temperatures are
higher. In some settings, the failure process may be an issue, because SSLs gradually lose
luminous flux rather than burn out. If these issues can be solved, then SSL could provide lower
maintenance costs and controllability.Power quality issues are similar to the commercial
applications.

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Outdoor Lighting

Roadway and area lighting appear to be one of the fastest growing application markets
for SSL. The requirements in such applications for lower light levels (compared to interior
applications); larger luminaires with non-confined mounting, mostly open to air, which enhances
heat dissipation; performance at cold temperatures; and long life have made SSLs attractive to
this rapidly growing market. Traditional outdoor luminaires have used HID lamps, mostly high-
pressure sodium (HPS), where the lamp is located inside the luminaire reflector.

This configuration has the advantage that the arc tube brightness is typically not viewed
by motorists or pedestrians. HPS luminaires have a narrow spectral distribution, which provides
poorer color rendering properties than white light sources such as metal halide, induction, and
SSL. HID life is mid-range, requiring lamp replacement approximately every 2 to 3 years.SSL
luminaires are uni-directional, unlike HID luminaires, which are more omni-directional.

SSL APPLICATION

While some of the advantages of SSL are immediately obvious, others are still only
possibilities. As new technologies and luminaires are developed, new applications will also
emerge, leading to unexpected opportunities in lighting design. Current SSLs offer small size,
ease of control, uni-directional light, cool beam, superior color, low energy use, and long life.
OLEDs promise entirely new form factors, a prospect that opens up a whole new realm of
possible applications. Also, because of control compatibility, SSL can further reduce energy
through dimming strategies.

Small Size

The compact size of the SSL modules offers opportunities to put lighting in areas that
previously had restricted luminaire size. But the challenge of managing the heat generated by the
LED has prevented a desired reduction in the size of the light source needed for high lumen
output. As modules become more efficacious, the size can shrink even more. Shrinking size will
allow more opportunities for replacement of additional types of lamps such as high-output MR-
16 lamps (see Chapter 1). The MR-16 is an important lamp for retail, hospitality, and residential
applications.

Inherent Controllability

SSL products have instant on and off operation without the requirement for a warm-up
time, an attribute that is in contrast to that of HID and CFLs. With a dimmable driver, SSL

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products can be dimmed over a wide range of luminous flux in a smooth manner. Dimming
below 10 percent is only available with a select number of drivers but is desirable.

Smooth dimming is also available with some SSL screw-in incandescent replacement
lamps. The appropriate choice of dimmers and drivers for SSL will enable control compatibility,
which is critical for intelligent energy control systems.Some control systems can change the
color of light by varying the intensity of different colored LEDs in a red, green, blue system (i.e.,
one which produces white light by combining red-, green-, and blue-component LEDs). These
are currently used mainly in special effects lighting, but have the potential for applications in
commercial and highend residential markets. For example, retail venues might wish to vary the
color of light in a display to emphasize a product’s features.

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CHAPTER 7

VI. THE FUTURE OF SOLID STATE LIGHTING


There has been dramatic progress in the last few years on high power LEDs and there is
now clear difference in appearance and performance for LEDs designed as indicators and LEDs
that are the forefathers of solid state lamps. However, today even the most powerful LEDs being
made are still an order of magnitude too low in flux per LED, and two orders of magnitude too
high in cost per lumen to significantly penetrate the general illumination market. Making the
jump in flux/LED will require major improvements in packaging and fixture integration that
further reduce thermal resistance from LED junction to ambient into the 10-K/W range.
Progress in reducing cost per lumen will come from process improvements and the
volume increases that result from market penetration of the pure color and high value niche
white applications. One hundred years after Edison’s discovery of a filament that made
incandescent bulbs practical, we cannot yet speak of “Solid State Illumination,” but we are near
enough to see the outlines of the future of solid state lighting.

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CONCLUSION

conclusions Lighting is a large and rapidly growing source of energy demand and
greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time the savings potential of lighting energy is high even
with the current technology, and there are new energy efficient lighting technologies coming on
the market. Currently, more than 33 billion lamps operate worldwide, consuming more than 2
650 TWh of energy annually, which is 19% of global electricity consumption. The total lighting-
related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were estimated to be 1900 million tons in 2005, which
was about 7% of the total global CO2 emissions from the consumption and flaring of fossil fuels.
The global electricity consumption for lighting is distributed approximately 28% to the
residential sector, 48% to the service sector, 16% to the industrial sector, and 8% to street and
other lighting. In the industrialized countries, national electricity consumption for lighting ranges
from 5% to 15%, on the other hand, in developing countries the value can be even higher than
80% of the total electricity usage. More than one quarter of the world’s population is still without
access to electric networks and uses fuel-based lighting to fulfil its lighting needs.

The fuel-based light sources include candles, oil lamps, kerosene lamps, biogas lamps,
propane lamps, and resin-soaked twigs. While electrification is increasing in the developing
countries, it is more and more important to adopt energy efficient light sources and lighting
systems both in the developing and industrialised countries. Solid-state lighting combined with
renewable energy sources has already reached some remote villages in developing countries,
where it brings affordable, safe, healthy, and energy efficient lighting to the people. The amount
of consumption of light in the world has constantly been increasing. The amount of global
consumption of light in 2005 was 134.7 petalumen hours (Plmh). The average annual per capita
light consumption of people with access to electricity is 27.6 Mlmh, whereas the people without
access to electricity use only 50 klmh. Any attempt to develop an energy efficient lighting
strategy should, as the first priority, guarantee that the quality of the luminous environment is as
high as possible. The results presented in this Guidebook demonstrate that this is achievable,
even with high savings in electricity consumption.

Through professional lighting design energy efficient and high quality lighting can be
reached. Better lighting quality does not necessarily mean higher consumption of energy. While
it is important to provide adequate light levels for ensuring optimized visual performance, there
are always light levels.There are several characteristics that need to be considered when choosing
the lamp. These include e.g. luminous efficacy (lm/W), lamp life (h), spectrum and other color
characteristics (CRI, CCT), dimming characteristics and the effects of ambient circumstances on
the lamp performance. Concerning all lamp types, the best lamp, if coupled with poor or
incompatible luminaire, ballast or driver, loses most of its advantages. It is foreseen that LEDs
will revolutionize the lighting practices and market in the near future. The benefits of LEDs are

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their long lifetime, color-mixing possibilities, spectrum, design flexibility and small size, easy
control, and dimming. For LEDs huge technological development is expected to continue.
According to US DOE, the maximum luminous efficacy of phosphor converted cool-white LEDs
is expected be around 200 lm/W by 2015, while the luminous efficacy of warm white LEDs is
expected to be above 140 lm/W. The given values are for high-power LEDs with 1 mm2 chip
size at a 350 mA drive current at 25°C ambient temperature without driver losses. The special
features of LEDs provide luminaire manufacturers to develop new type of luminaires and
designers to adopt totally new lighting practices.

The key success factor for the broad penetration of general lighting market by LEDs is a
light source with high system efficacy and high quality at moderate prices. One barrier to the
broad penetration of the market by LED applications is the lack of industrial standards.
Currently, there is a global trend to phase out inefficient light sources from the market through
legislation and voluntary measures. Two EU regulations for lighting equipment entered into
force in April 2009 and they will result in gradual phasing out of e.g. incandescent, mercury and
certain inefficient fluorescent and HID lamps from the EU market. Similar legislative actions are
carried around the world: Australia has banned the importation of incandescent lamps from
February 2009, and USA has enacted the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that
phases out incandescent lamps in 2012-2014. Also other countries and regions have banned, are
on their way to ban, or are considering to ban inefficient light sources.

Innovative and efficient lighting technology is already available on the market; very
often, however, the current installations are dominated by inefficient technology that does not
utilize control systems, sensors, or efficient light sources. Today, 70% of the lighting energy is
consumed by inefficient lamps. Low retrofitting rates in the building sector (and thus also in
lighting installations) are the main barrier to the market penetration of adequate and modern
lighting technologies. It is estimated that 90% of all buildings are more than 20 years old, and
70-80% are older than 30 years. In order to increase the knowledge and use of energy efficient
lighting, it is essential to increase dissemination and education, as well as to get new standards
and legislation. Energy efficient lighting also includes considerations of the control of light and
the use of daylight. A sustainable lighting solution includes an intelligent concept, hight quality
and energy efficient lighting equipment suitable for the application, and proper controls and
maintenance.

Further energy savings can be achieved with smart lighting control strategies. Today, the
most common form of control (the standard wall switch) is being replaced by automatic
components which are based on occupancy or daylight harvesting. Examples of this technology
are occupancy sensors which turn the lights off when the area is unoccupied, time-based controls
and the dimmer plus photocell combination. These can lead to energy savings that vary from
10% with a simple clock to more than 60% with a total integrated solution (occupancy plus
daylight plus HVAC). For economic evaluation of different lighting solutions, a life cycle cost

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analysis has to be made. Usually, only the initial (investment) costs are taken into account.
People are not aware of the variable costs, which include energy costs, lamp replacement costs,
cleaning and reparation costs. In commercial buildings very often the variable costs are paid by
others who rent the flat, and the initial (investment) costs are usually paid by the investor who
makes the system decisions. The energy costs of a lighting installation during the whole life
cycle are very often the largest part of the whole life cycle costs. It is essential that in future
lighting design practice, maintenance schedules and life cycle costs will become as natural as
e.g. illuminance calculations already are. The aim of an optimum lighting design is to achieve
certain appearances and, at the same time, to fulfill the fundamental physiological and
psychological visual requirements and to ultimately put the whole thing into effect in an energy
efficient manner.

LEDs allow for completely new designs and architectures for lighting solutions, thus
opening a new and wide field of creativity for all lighting professionals. At the same time, some
old rules and standards for a good lighting design are no more applicable to LEDs (e.g. glare
assessment, color rendering, light distribution, etc.). The expert survey conducted during 2006-
2007 within the Annex 45 work indicated that among the lighting community there is a lack of
knowledge of the characteristics and performance of new lighting technologies. Another major
topic that was raised was the lack of awareness of the total life-cycle costs. The survey also
indicated resistance to the adoption of new technology. Commissioning is done for the number
of different reasons: clarifying building system performance requirements set by the owner,
auditing different judgments and actions by the commissioning related parties in order to realize
the performance, writing necessary and sufficient documentation, and verifying that the system
enables proper operation and maintenance through functional performance testing.
Commissioning should be applied through the whole life cycle of the building.

The Guidebook presents an example of commissioning process applied to a lighting


control system. Case studies of different types of lighting systems were conducted within the
Annex 45 work. The studies were conducted for twenty buildings, most of which were offices
and schools. In office buildings different case studies showed that it is possible to obtain both
good visual quality and low installed power for lighting. In offices and schools it is possible to
reach the normalized power density of 2 W/m2 ,100 lx (even 1.5 W/m2 ,100 lx in some office
cases) with the current technology. It was found that the use of lighting control system to switch
the lights on and off based on occupancy sensors can reduce the lighting energy intensity of
office buildings. Additionally, the use of dimming and control sensors for the integration of
daylight and artificial light can yield to further energy savings.

The case studies show examples of LEDs in task, general and corridor lighting. The LED
lighting requires a new approach to lighting design. The case studies show that LEDs can be
used in the renovation of lighting in commercial buildings. In 2005 the incandescent lamps
dominate the lighting energy consumption in the residential sector. The total annual light

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consumption in residential sector is only 3 Mlmh/person and the electric energy consumption is
as high as 140 kWh/person. In the commercial sector the annual light consumption is almost
three times higher (8.9 Mlmh/person), while the energy consumption is only 35% higher than in
the residential sector. This is due to the use of more efficient lighting technology in the
commercial sector. Compared to 2005, it is estimated that there will be an additional light
demand (light consumption by end user) of 25% by 2015, and of 55% by 2030. This will,
however, be compensated by facility utilization factor (improved luminaire light output ratio and
room utilance) and decreased mean operating time (improved daylight utilization and control
systems).

It is expected that the share of different light sources producing the total electrical light
output will change in the future. This is due to the development of light source luminous
efficacies, legislative measures to phase out inefficient light sources in many countries, and the
penetration of the lighting market by LEDs. In the Annex 45 work forecasts for the lighting
energy consumption were made. On the basic of the most optimistic scenario, according to which
LEDs will take over the lamp markets quickly and their luminous efficacy is developing fast, the
lighting energy consumption in 2015 is reduced to half, and in 2030 to one third, of the values in
2005. The remaining unknown is the developments in China, India and Africa, which will define
whether the predicted energy savings become reality. The evolution of standards has, at large,
followed the development of lighting technologies, cost of lighting and the increased scientific
understanding of vision.

The recommended values of illuminances have followed the development of light


sources. For instance, in the second half of the 20th century the evolution of fluorescent lamps
led to increases in the recommended illuminance levels. The difference between the lighting
standards and recommendations in different countries has been attributed to the economical
context and the geographical zone of the country. The current indoor lighting design is based
largely on providing more or less uniform levels of illuminances in the room, while the
perception of the luminous environment is related mainly to light reflected from surfaces i.e.
luminances. Thus innovative lighting design methods could be introduced which give a high
priority to the quality of the luminous environment as our eyes perceive it. Both the electrical
lighting design and the use of daylight have a major impact on lighting quality and energy
efficiency. The present lighting recommendations do not specify recommended values of
daylight factors or other daylight parameters.

This is a field where practical metrics could be developed and mentioned in the
recommendations. Reduction of the size of light sources (compact HID lamps, LEDs) may lead
to increased risk of glare. Standards and recommendations should be adapted accordingly. One
parameter to assess the quality of lighting is the color rendering index CRI. The current CRI is
not suitable to LEDs due to their peaked spectra. The CIE recommends the development of a
new color rendering index (or a set of new color rendering indices), which should be applicable

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to all types of light sources including white LEDs. A major future development of lighting
recommendations is that beyond the visual requirements they should address also the non-visual
effects of light. There is a significant potential to improve energy efficiency of old and new
lighting installations already with the existing technology. The energy efficiency of lighting
installations can be improved with the following measures: – the choice of lamps. Incandescent
lamps should be replaced by CFLs, infrared coated tungsten halogen lamps or LEDs, mercury
lamps by high-pressure sodium lamps, metal halide lamps or LEDs, and ferromagnetic ballasts
by electronic ballasts; – usage of controllable electronic ballasts with low losses; – the lighting
design. Use of efficient luminaires and localized task lighting: – the control of light with manual
dimming, presence sensors and dimming according to daylight; – the usage of daylight; – the use
of high-efficiency LED-based lighting systems.

The Annex 45 suggests that clear international initiatives (by the IEA, EU, CIE, IEC,
CEN and other legislative bodies) are taken to: – upgrade lightings standards and
recommendations – integrate values of lighting energy density (kWh/m2 , a) into building energy
codes; – monitor and regulate the quality of innovative light sources – pursue research into
fundamental human requirements for lighting stimulate the renovation of inefficient old lighting
installations by targeted measures The introduction of more energy efficient lighting products
and procedures can, at the same time provide better living and working environments, and also
contribute in a cost-effective manner to the global reduction of energy consumption and
greenhouse gas emissions.

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