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# Water flows through an annulus composed of a 2”outside diameter inside a An oil company exploring for oil offshore of Palawan

## re of Palawan hit oil at the depth of

5” diameter pipe. Flow rate is to be 200 gal/min in a length of 2000 ft. What 200m below sea level. Crude oil gushed out a rate of 2210m3/day at a
is the horsepower requirement if water has a density of62.4lb/ft3 and a pressure of 10kg/cm2 gauge as measured by the meters and gauges at the
viscosity of 1 cP. outlet end of the drill string located 20m above the water level. The drill string
is made up of 6”sched80 steel pipe. In an analysis, the crude oil shows the
Water is flowing upward at 1.676 m/s through a vertical piping system following properties at the flow condition: sp gr=0.805, μ= 2.7cP. Assuming
consisting of 3’’ sch40 steel pipe at the inlet and 2 “ sch40 steel pipe at the that the height of the crude oil surface in the reservoir above the bottom end
outlet. The vertical distance from the inlet to the outlet is 0.457 m. The inlet of the crude oil surface in the drill string is negligible, what is the pressure
pressure is 68.9 kPa absolute. Assuming no frictional losses, what will be (in kPa abs) exerted by the gases on top of the crude oil surface in the
the outlet pressure? reservoir.

Calculate the theoretical horsepower required to compress 100 cfm of The MWSS is transporting freshwater at 250C by gravity from a dam in
carbon dioxide at -60 degF and 1 atm to 10 atm in a single stage adiabatic Bulacan to filtration plant in Quezon City. The dam elevation relative to the
compressor. Use Cp/Cv = 1.3 filtration plant is100 m. The relative data for this operation are follows:
Volume flow rate of fresh water = 30,000m3/h
Cooling water at 220C flows through a 25 mm inside diameter smooth tube Pipeline material = steel
of length 10 m. If the pressure drop throughout the pipe is 20 kPa. Average inside diameter =3.0 m
What is the velocity of water in the pipe? Ave. roughness of inside surface = 0.3048cm
What is the mass flow rate at the outlet of the pipe? Equivalent length = 30km

Process water is to be heated to 860F in a tank at the bottling plant and Convert 15.14 poises to kinematic viscosity in square feet per second if the
allowed to flow through a horizontal pipe at the rate of 170 gal/min and liquid has a specific gravity of 0.964.
viscosity of 0.85cP. The available head is 28ft. What should be the pipe
diameter if the friction factor f is 0.0047 and the length of the pipe is 1200 ft. Water flows through an 8 in (ID=7.981 in) steel pipe at an average velocity
of 6 ft/s. Downstream the pipe splits into an 8-in main and a 2 in (ID=2.067
In a meat processing plant the refrigeration unit has a cooling tower handling in) bypass pipes. If the velocity in the bypass is twice the velocity of the main
227.1 m3/h of cooling water. The water enters the tower at 320 K and is pipe, calculate the volumetric flowrate in the main pipe in ft3/s.
transported to the refrigeration unit using a 12-in sched 40 steel pipeline
system with a total equivalent length of 3000 m against a potential head of30 A piston of diameter 70.00 mm moves inside a cylinder of diameter 70.10
m and a pressure head of 5 kg/cm2. What is the head in feet of water at 680F mm. Determine the percent decrease in force necessary to move the piston
of the transport pump which have to be specified when ordering the pump? when the lubricant warms from 0 to 1200C. Values of μ for the lubricant are
0.01820 Pa-s at 00C and 0.00206 Pa-s at 1200C.
Liquefied petroleum gas is being pumped at a rate of 300 m3/h at 300C from
Batangas City to Manila through high point at Lipa City, which is one km Water at 200C is pumped at a constant rate of 9 m3/h from a large reservoir
above the discharge at the booster pump at Batangas City. The total length resting on the floor to the open top of an experimental absorption tower. The
of piping from the pump to the high point at 25 km and has four fully open point of discharges is 5 m above the floor, and the frictional losses in the 50
gate valves and six 900 elbows, along the way. At 300C LPG has specific mm pipe from the reservoir to the tower amount to 2.5 J/kg. At what height
gravity of 0.566, a viscosity of ,3 cP and a vapor pressure of 1 atm absolute. in the reservoir must the water level be kept if the pump can develop only
What is the required discharge pressure (in kg/m2) of the booster pump to 0.1 kW?
avoid vapor lock at the high point?
A liquid having a density of 801 kg/m3 and a viscosity 1.49x10-3 Pa-s is
A centrifugal pump is to be used to extract water from a condenser in which flowing through a horizontal straight pipe of a velocity of 4.57 m/s. The
the vacuum is 640 mm Hg. At a rated discharge, the net positive suction commercial steel pipe is 1 ½ in nominal pipe size, schedule 40. For a length
head must be at least 3m above the cavitation vapor pressure of 710mm Hg of a pipe of 61 m, do as follows:
vacuum. If the losses in the suction pipe account for a head of 1.5 m, what Calculate the friction loss.
must be the least height of the liquid level in the condenser above the pump For smooth tube of the same inside diameter, calculate the friction loss.
inlet? What is the percent reduction of the F for the smooth tube?
Water flowing at 2.27 m3/hr at 320 K is pumped through a 40 mm ID pipe, How many gallons of water at 68˚F can be delivered through a 1320 ft. length
through a length of 150 m in a horizontal direction, and up through a vertical of smooth 6.00- in ID pipe under a pressure difference of 0.25 psi?
height of 10 m. In the pipe there is a control valve, equivalent to 200 pipe
diameters, and other pipe fittings equivalent to 60 pipe diameters. Also in A vertical pipe 100 ft. In length is carrying oil downward at the rate of 952
the line is a heat exchanger across which the head lost is 1.5 m water. gpm. The pressure at the top is atmospheric and at the bottom is 16 psig.
Assume that the main pipe has a roughness of 0.2 mm What power must be The pipe is 4-in. schedule 40 steel pipe. The oil has a density of 0.85
supplied to the pump if it is 60 percent efficient? grams/cc and a viscosity of 8 cp. (a) if the oil is to be piped horizontally at
the same size pipe from the foot of the vertical section, how far can it be sent
A cooling water pump is operating at a speed of 2800 rpm. Its flow rate is without requiring a pump, with the oil discharging at atmospheric pressure?
1000 gal/min at a head of 160 ft. (b) if the pipe is to be run at an angle down to the same level, how far from
What is the power requirement of the pump? the base of the original vertical pipe will be the end of the pipe, with flow at
If the pump speed is increased to 5000 rpm, determine the new power the same rate and discharging at the atmospheric pressure?
requirement.
Oil with a density of 55 lb/cu. ft. And a viscosity of 48.5 lb/hr-ft. is flowing
A liquid with a density of 40lb/ft3 is flowing through a 2 in inside diameter through a standard 6-in. schedule 40 pipe at 4 fps. Calculate a) Reynold’s
pipe. A 1 in diameter orifice is located in the line. The pressure drop across no. b) power required for a 5-mile pipe line taking 60% overall efficiency c)
the orifice is indicated by the mercury manometer in which the fluid from the reading on a mercury manometer measuring the drop across a 2.5-in.
pipe and the mercury are in contact. The reading taken from the manometer diameter sharp-edged orifice d) power requirements for the orifice.
is 4 in. Assuming an orifice coefficient of 0.61, what is the flow of fluid in lb/
h? What is the pressure loss per 100 meters of pipeline for a gas of density 1
kg/m3 flowing at 25 m/s, the pipe diameter is 10 cm and the flow is turbulent
A horizontal annulus is 27 ft. long. The outside radius of the inner cylinder is so that f = 0.005. How many values of L/D are required to have a pressure
0.495 in.; the inside radius of the outer cylinder is 1.1 in. A 60 % aqueous loss of 1 velocity head?
solution of sucrose (C12H22O11) is to be pumped through the annulus at
20˚C. At this temperature the fluid density is 80.3 lb/ft3 and its viscosity is An industrial furnace consumes 10 tons/hr of natural gas which for this
136.8 lbm / ft-hr. What is the volume rate of flow when the impressed purpose may be assumed to be methane. The gas is burned completely with
pressure drop is 5.39 psi? 20% excess air. The pressure of the flue gas leaving the furnace and
entering the chimney is 1.0 in. of water below atmospheric pressure. The
A heavy oil at 300C with a density of 900 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 6 cP is chimney is specified to be of welded steel plate, 11 ft. ID. If the average
flowing in a 4 in sched 40 steel pipe. When the flow rate is 0.020 m3/s, it is temperature in the chimney is 500°F, the atmospheric pressure is 14.4 psia
desired to have a pressure drop of not more than 0.93 x 105 Pa. The and the atmospheric temperature is 70°F, how tall a chimney is required?
diameter of the orifice that should be used is
Water at 50°F is flowing through a 3-in. schedule 4o pipe at a rate of 150
A pitot tube with U-tube water manometer is attached to a horizontal pipe of gpm. A) If a standard sharp-edged orifice 1 ¾ in. in diameter is inserted in
4 in inside diameter. If the manometer reading is 15 in, determine the the line, what would be the reading on a mercury manometer connected
volumetric flowrate, in gpm, of oil in the pipe. The pitot opening is placed at across the orifice? B) If a venturi meter with a throat 1-3/4 in. in diameter
the center of the pipe. The oil has a specific gravity of 0.84 and a viscosity were used instead of teh orifice, what would the manometer read?
of 0.0336 lb/ft-s.
Water flows in a 50 mm pipe, 100 m long, whose roughness ε is equal to
A 280 km long pipe connects two pumping stations. If 0.56 m3/s are to be 0.013 mm. If the pressure drop across this length of pipe is not to exceed 50
pumped through 0.62 m diameter line, the discharge station is 250 m lower kN/m2, what is the maximum allowable water velocity? The density and
in elevation than the upstream station and the discharge pressure is to be viscosity of water may be taken as 1000 kg/m3 and 1.0 mN s/m2 respectively.
maintained at 300 kPa. Determine the power in kW required to pump the oil.
For the oil, υ= 4.5 x10-6 m2/s and ρ= 810 kg/m3. The inlet pressure may be A town derives its water supply from lake nearby, pumping it up to a
taken as atmospheric. standpipe on the highest hill. The intake to the system is 10 ft below the lake
surface, the inlet to the pump is 15 ft above lake surface, and the water level
What is the horsepower theoretically required to compress 1000 ft3/ min or in the tower is kept constant at 310 ft above the pump discharge. The friction
He from standard atmospheric pressure and 800F to 200 psig in a double- loss is 140 ft-lbf/lbm of water through the 6000 ft of 4 inch pipeline which
stage adiabatic compressor with perfect inter-cooling? includes the total equivalent length of all piping from the lake to the water
tower. If the pump capacity is 6000 GPH and the water pump set is 85%
efficient, what would be the hourly pumping cost is electric power is 7.50 per
KW-hr?

An oil well is 1200 ft below ground level. Oil at 500 psig at the bottom flows
to ground level through a 12 inch sch40 commercial steel pipe. The oil has
a specific gravity of 0.86 and viscosity of 8 cp. Calculate the volumetric
flowrate in barrels/hr.

Water at 60 0F flows through a 3“ sch40 pipe. A pitot tube in the pipe shows
a 3” Hg differential. If the pitot tube is located at the center of the pipe, what
is the mass flowrate of water?

## The terminal settling velocity in water at 700F of a particle with a specific

gravity of 2.0 and diameter of 100 microns is __ ft/s.

## Solid spherical particles of coffee extract from a dryer having a diameter of

400 micrometers are falling through air at a temperature of 422K. The
density of the particles is 1030 kg/m3. The pressure is 101.32 kPa. The
distance of fall in 5 s

## A glass sphere in water at 680F contains 1206 g of glass spheres in 1140

cm3 of total volume. The average diameter of the spheres, as determined
from photomicrographs, was 0.061 in and the true density of the spheres
was 154 lb/ft3. For water at 680F, the desnity is 62.2 lb/ft3 and viscosity is
6.72x10-4lb/ft-s. The terminal velocity in ft/s for the hindered settling is

Given xf=0.45, xp=0.55 and xr=0.175, find the effectiveness of the screen.

## Sphericity for an ideal cone is

Free settling of sludge is 0.25 cm/min. Using an original height of 25 cm, the
sludge settled to a height of 18 cm after the free settling period. The sludge
was found to settle to a height of 10 cm after 110 min. This particular sludge
was found to settle completely to a height of 4 cm. The time to settle to a
height of 1/5 of its original height in a cylindrical tank whose diameter is 85%
of its depth and 85% full and consider 1000 ft3 of the sludge in the tank is
approximately

In a mixture of quartz (sp.gr. = 2.85) and galena (sp.gr. = 7.5), the size of the
particles range from 0.0002 cm to 0.001 cm. On separation in a hydraulic
classifier using water under free settling conditions, what is the maximum
size of quartz and minimum of galena in pure products? (Viscosity = 0.001
kg/m.s, density = 1000 kg/ m3)

Two spherical particles have the same outer diameter but are made of
different materials. The first one (with material density ρ1) is solid, whereas
the second (with material density ρ2) is a hollow sphere with the inner shell
diameter equal to half the outer diameter. If both the spheres have the same
terminal velocity in any fluid, then the ratio of their material densities, ρ1 / ρ2 ,
is