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Transformer Technology Days - 2015

ABB Transformer Components


On Load Tap Changers

Month DD, YYYY


Transformer Insulation and Components

 Overview
 Introduction to On Load Tap Changers
 New Generation of Diverter switch tap-changers
 New Generation of Selector switch tap-changers
 Summary

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 2
Transformer Insulation and Components
Wherever you are, our products are near by

1 6
Traction and Dry type distribution
distribution transformers
transformers 7 8

2 6 7
Distribution Subsea
transformers transformers

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Power and 5 10 Dry type distribution
distribution 3 transformers
transformers

9
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Power transformers Power and
4 distribution
transformers

5 10
Low sound emitting Power transformers
transformers
1 2

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 3
Transformer Insulation and Components
Global manufacturing footprint

Poland Turkey Russia


Sweden Lodz Istanbul Moscow
Piteå

Sweden
Ludvika

Sweden
Figeholm China
Chongqing
Germany
Roigheim China
Hefei (2x)
USA Slovakia
Alamo Piestany India
Halol
Switzerland
Mexico
Zürich India
San Luis Potosí
Vadodara
Brazil Italy
India
Guarulhos Montebello
Mumbai
Brazil Italy
Ceggia India
Indaiatuba
Mysore

22 factories in 13 countries and ~ 2800 employees


Transformer Insulation and Components
Product Portfolio

 Cellulose insulation material


• Insulation Paper / Pressboard Kits
 Flexible / rigid laminate insulation materials
 High voltage bushings
 OIP / RIP / RIS
 On-load tap changers
 Vacuum / Conventional
 De-energized tap changers
 Distribution and power transformer
components
 Smart-Grid ready monitoring Devices
 Hollow core composite insulators
 Oil treatment plants
On-Load Tap-Changers

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 6
On-Load Tap-Changers

Ludvika, Sweden The Center Of Excellence ABB On-Load Tap-Changers since 1912

73 production units in 25 countries, and 36 service centers in 28 countries

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 7
On-Load Tap-Changers
Over 100 years of experience

Stockholm year
1900 1930 1960 1990

First ASEA On-Load First ASEA patent on


Tap Changer vacuum technology

Traditional technology
© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 8
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation

Tap-changers are used to maintain a


uniform and load-independent voltage
from the transformer
Important function
 Malfunctions may result costly failures
 Studies agree that windings, bushings
and tap-changers are the major
sources of transformer failures
Complex requirements
 Different kinds of stress
 Different environment
Requires attention
 Regular inspection and service during
their lifetime

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 9
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation

Trends in the market


 Shorter lead times
 Less and condition based maintenance
 Greater focus on environmental and safety aspects
 Smart Grids (e.g HVDC etc.)
 Renewables (e.g. wind farms, PV systems etc.)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 10
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation

The purpose of the tap-changer is to change the turn ratio


between windings in a transformer
 Regulation range is typically up to ± 10% of the line
voltage in 9 to 35 steps
 Operates 10 to 20 times a day in normal grid applications

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 11
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation

Other areas with emphasis of


voltage regulations
 HVDC applications
 Industrial applications
 Phase shifting
transformers

Sometimes several hundred thousand


switching operations per year

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 12
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation

Tap-changers can be located in the main transformer tank, or


on the outside
 In-tank types can be used up to the largest power ratings
and highest voltages
 On-tank types can be used for lower power ratings
(<100MVA) and voltages (<150kV)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 13
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation
In a core type
transformer windings
are arranged as
Tap winding
shells around the
cylindrical core legs,
one for each voltage
system

Loop winding
Voltage regulation

Low voltage High voltage

Helical winding Disc winding


Few turns Many turns
High current Low current
Low voltage High voltage

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 14
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation

The Tap-changer requirements are


characterized by:
 Thermal stability of contacts
 Switching capability
 Number of operations before
contact replacement
 Breaking capacity
 Short-circuit withstand
 Mechanical stability
 Dielectric withstand
 To earth
 Within the tap-changer

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 15
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation
Switching Type
Linear switching

 Simple design of transformer and OLTC

 Lowest losses

 Max. regulating range ≈ 10%

Plus/minus switching

 Reversable (+) and (-) regulating winding

 Change-over selector required


K K
 Highest losses

 Max. regulating range ≈ ±15 %

Coarse/fine switching

 Coarse winding required

 Change-over selector required

 Higher losses

 Max. regulating range >±15 %

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 16
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation
Connection Type
Star Point Connection:
One tap-changer can serve
all three phases

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 17
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation
Connection Type

2-pole + 1-pole line-end


3-pole line-end arrangement arrangement

Delta Connection:
Regulation can be facilitated
with 1, 2 or 3 pole tap-
changers depending on type

3-pole mid-winding arrangement

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 18
On-Load Tap-Changers
Introduction to voltage regulation
Connection Type: Auto Transformer
HV HV HV

LV

+ + LV
- -

LV

+
-

Neutral point regulation HV regulation LV regulation

© ABB
Month DD, YYYY | Slide 19
On-Load Tap-Changers
Four main product families

Type UZ Type (V)UB Type (V)UC Type VRLTC

 On-tank and in-tank


 BIL level up to 1175 kV
 Through current up to 1600 A in star connected applications for
resistive and up to 2000 A for reactance type.
 Unsurpassed reference list in challenging applications, e.g. HVDC
and Ultra High Voltage systems (800 kV AC and DC)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 20
On-Load Tap-Changers
Two main technologies

Traditional technology, using arc quenching in oil


 UZ, UB and UC
Vacuum technology, using arc quenching in separate interrupters
 VUC, VUB and VRLTC

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 21
On-Load Tap-Changers
Portfolio overview
Conventional Portfolio

On-tank In-tank

Product name UZF UZE UBB UCG short UCG/C UCG/III UCG/F UCL/III UCL/F UCD/III UCC/IV
Max voltage [kV]
In delta connection * 145 145 72,5 245 245 245 245 300 300 245 245
Max BIL [kV] 650 650 350 1050 1050 1050 1050 1175 1175 1050 1050
Max Current [A]** 600 600 500 300 600 600 600 925 925 1000 1600
Max Positions 33 33 27 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35

* For ∆-connection.
Y-connections is restricted by
insulation of neutral point to
Vacuum Portfolio

ground.

** Maximum current in Y-connection.

Reactance Resistive

On-tank In-tank

Product name VRLTC VUBB VUCG short VUCG/C VUCG/III VUCG/F VUCL/III VUCL/F
Max voltage [kV]
In delta connection * 34,5 72,5 245 245 245 245 300 300
Max BIL [kV] 200 380 1050 1050 1050 1050 1175 1175
Max Current [A]** 2000 600 600 600 800 800 1000 1300
Max Positions 33 19 35 35 35 35 35 35

© ABB
25-Mar-15 | Slide 22
On-Load Tap-Changers
Routine tests, IEC 60214

1. Mechanical test
2. Switching sequence test
3. Auxiliary circuit insulation test
4. Pressure and vacuum test
5. Visual inspection

Vacuum tap-changers are subject


to additional testing, these includes
1. Leakage testing of vacuum
interrupters
2. High voltage conditioning of
vacuum interrupters
3. Mechanical conditioning of the
vacuum interrupters

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 23
On-Load Tap-Changers
IEC 60214

 One or more of the following


protective devices shall be fitted
and connected to TFO trip circuit:
 Overpressure relay

 Pressure relief device

 Liquid-flow controlled relay

 ABB is of the opinion overpressure


relay provides the best protection
thanks to its fastness.
 All three systems can be supplied
depending on user preferences
 Equally important as the protection
devices are factors such as built-in
redundancy, material selection,
service friendliness, and product
training.

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 24
On-Load Tap-Changers
Type tests, IEC 60214 and IEEE C57.131

1. Temperature rise of contacts


2. Switching tests
 Service duty test (synthetic test
1ZSC000717-ABX circuit for vacuum types)
(Synthetic test
circuit)  Breaking capacity test

3. Short-circuit current test


4. Transition impedance test
5. Mechanical tests
6. Dielectric tests

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 25
On-Load Tap-Changers

 Diverter switch tap-changers


 Selector switch tap-changers
 Summary

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 26
Diverter switch tap-changers
Principle of operation

Diverter switch: Switching device used in


conjunction with a tap-selector to carry,
make or break currents in circuits which
have already been selected

Tap selector: Device designed to carry,


but not make or break, current, used in
conjunction with a diverter switch to select
tap connections
Change-over selector: Device designed to
carry, but not to make or break, current,
used in conjunction with the tap selector
switch to enable its contacts and the
connection taps to be used more than once
when moving from one extreme position to
the other

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 27
Diverter switch tap-changers
Conventional type UC - Principle of operation

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 28
Diverter switch tap-changers
Type VUCG – Medium transformer ratings

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 29
Diverter switch tap-changers
VUCG - Principle of operation 1(2)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 30
Diverter switch tap-changers
VUCG - Principle of operation 2(2)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 31
Diverter switch tap-changers
Type UCG and VUCG

 Rated through current in


star connections up to
800 A
1ZSC000717-AAT

 BIL levels up to 1050 kV


 Up to 35 tap positions

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 32
Diverter switch tap-changers
Type VUCL – Large transformer ratings

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 33
Diverter switch tap-changers
VUCL - Principle of operation 1(2)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 34
Diverter switch tap-changers
VUCL - Principle of operation 2(2)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 35
Diverter switch tap-changers
Type UCL and VUCL

 Rated through current in


star connections up to
1300 A
1ZSC000717-ABV

 BIL levels up to 1175 kV


 Up to 35 tap positions

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 36
Diverter switch tap-changers
Tap-selectors

Four tap-selector types for optimal performance


 C, F, III, IV

 Long-life design based on self-cleaning, sliding contacts


 Type tested for 1,500,000 operations. Experience from the
field shows they can do double

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 37
Diverter switch tap-changers
Vacuum technology

 Less maintenance and lower life


cycle costs
 300 000 operations between
maintenance
 Radical reduction in contact
wear
 Reduced downtime and cleaner
maintenance environment
 Reduced sensitivity to moisture in the
tap-changer oil
 Switching characteristics is
independent on status of the
insulating oil
 Qualified for use with bio-degradable
fluids (VUCG)
 Significantly improved breaking
capacity in demanding applications;
more efficient use in HVDC
© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 38
Diverter switch tap-changers
Vacuum technology - Complete reliability

 Exceptionally tested
 Redundancy in the electrical
contact system
 Rotating mechanical systems
minimize wear
 Mechanical synchronization
of the vacuum bottles

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 39
Diverter switch tap-changers
Benefits

Extensive service experience


 Tens of thousands units in
service
 Unsurpassed reference list in
challenging applications (HVDC)
Quick and easy maintenance
 Unique, open design,
 No special tools needed
 Shaft outside diverter switch
housing
 Maintenance videos is several
languages
Reliable
 Few parts
 Simple and robust design
 Mechanical lifetime exceeds
1,200,000 operations
Traditional and vacuum technology
 Easy to upgrade in the field

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 40
Diverter switch tap-changers
Vacuum technology- Field upgrading

1ZSC000717-ACA

 Plug and play solution for all UCG/UCL.


 Upgrade from conventional to vacuum technology in less than
one day
 As easy as a normal overhaul

© ABB Group
25 March,
Month DD,2015
YYYY| Slide
| Slide4141
 Diverter switch tap-changers
 Selector switch tap-changers
 Summary

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 42
Selector switch tap-changers
Principle of operation

Change-over selector: Device designed to


carry, but not to make or break, current,
used in conjunction with the selector switch
to enable its contacts and the connection
taps to be used more than once when
moving from one extreme position to the
other

Selector switch: Switching device capable


of making, carrying and breaking current,
combining the duties of a tap selector and a
diverter switch

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 43
Selector switch tap-changers
VUBB - Principle of operation 1(2)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 44
Selector switch tap-changers
VUBB - Principle of operation 2(2)

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 45
Selector switch tap-changers
Type VUBB

 Rated through current in


star and delta connections
600 A
1ZSC000717-AAS

 Step voltage up to 1600 V


 BIL levels up to 380 kV
 Up to 19 tap positions

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 46
Selector switch tap-changers
Vacuum technology - Complete reliability

 Exceptionally tested
 Minimal number of parts
 Robust mechanical design
 Large electrical and thermal
margins
 Internal pre-selector eliminates
the risk of gassing in the main
tank

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 47
Selector switch tap-changers
Benefits

Compact design
 Internal pre-selector reduces
the risk of handling damages
 Single compartment in both
star and delta connections
Extensive service experience
 Thousands of units in service

 Very well proven contact


system
Quick and easy maintenance
 All contact replacements from
the inside of the cylinder
 Few tools needed

Reliable
 Few parts

 Simple and robust design with


sliding contacts

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 48
Vacuum technology
Benefits

 Less maintenance and lower life


cycle costs
 No time based maintenance
 Radical reduction in contact
wear
 Reduced downtime and
cleaner maintenance
environment
 Reduced sensitivity to moisture in
the tap changer oil
 Switching characteristics is
independent from the status of the
insulating oil
 On-line oil filtration becomes
unnecessary even in demanding
applications

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 49
 Diverter switch tap-changers
 Selector switch tap-changers
 Summary

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 50
Tap-changer types
Portfolio overview
ABB Completes your transformers
Conventional Portfolio

On-tank In-tank

Product name UZF UZE UBB UCG short UCG/C UCG/III UCG/F UCL/III UCL/F UCD/III UCC/IV
Max voltage [kV]
In delta connection * 145 145 72,5 245 245 245 245 300 300 245 245
Max BIL [kV] 650 650 350 1050 1050 1050 1050 1175 1175 1050 1050
Max Current [A]** 600 600 500 300 600 600 600 925 925 1000 1600
Max Positions 33 33 27 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35

* For ∆-connection.
Y-connections is restricted by
insulation of neutral point to
Vacuum Portfolio

ground.

** Maximum current in Y-connection.

Reactance Resistive

On-tank In-tank

Product name VRLTC VUBB VUCG short VUCG/C VUCG/III VUCG/F VUCL/III VUCL/F
Max voltage [kV]
In delta connection * 34,5 72,5 245 245 245 245 300 300
Max BIL [kV] 200 380 1050 1050 1050 1050 1175 1175
Max Current [A]** 2000 600 600 600 800 800 1000 1300
Max Positions 33 19 35 35 35 35 35 35

© ABB
25-Mar-15 | Slide 51
Voltage regulation
Motor Drives Overview
ABB Completes your transformers
 Types:
 BUL2: Mainly used together
with VUB and single
compartment VUCG in-tank
tap-changers
 BUE2: Most versatile. For all
in-tank tap-changers.
 Highly configurable
 Various types of multi-
position switches
 Tropical and arctic versions
 Protection class
 IP 56 / IP 66

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 52
Voltage regulation
AVR Overview
ABB Completes your transformers
The Automatic Voltage Regulation
system offers several functions
 Parallel control according to all
common modes
 Voltage regulation
 Over current blocking
 Under voltage blocking
and flexibility
 Communication by most
protocols
 Can be mounted in motor drive
cabinet
 Alternatively, Wall-, Panel or
Flush mounting in control room

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 53
Our philosophy

Gives your transformers

 Maximum lifetime by using high class material


 Type tests beyond international standards
 High reliability by using few parts and low complexity in design
 Easy maintenance by use of open and accessible designs
 Easy upgrading to vacuum technology in existing installation

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 54
Thank you for your attention !

© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 55
ABB Transformers Components
Your partner of choice for reliable Solutions

For Further information please Feel Free to contact

Suleiman Tuffaha
Regional Marketing Specialist - GCC

Phone: +971 2 493 8610


Fax : +971 2 557 0145
Mobile: +971 50 6180 820
E-mail: Suleiman.Tuffaha@ae.abb.com

Thanks for your time and attention


© ABB Group
25 March, 2015 | Slide 57