You are on page 1of 6

Integrated Approach for Loss Reduction

In Power System
Monika Manglani Dr. M.P.Sharma Bhavesh Vyas Sheesh Ram Ola
Student, M. Tech Assistant Engineer Asst. Professor, EE Dept. Dean R&D
Apex Institute of Engg. & Tech. RRVPNL Arya College of Engineering & I.T Apex Institute of Engg. & Tech.
Jaipur, India Jaipur, India Jaipur, India Jaipur, India
M.manglani160@gmail.com mahavir_sh@rediffmail.com tonu567@gmail.com sheeshola@gmail.com

Abstract— Power system extends from generation to large taking a prolonged coordinated use an engineer can manage
distance load end, losses will be there in transmission & all type of critical conditions in a more logical manner. In the
distribution section. This paper discusses the effect of capacitor past two eras, many researchers have proposed studies for
placement, optimum voltage setting of generators, optimum utilizing above mentioned techniques to reduce power losses
dispatch of active power and SVC placement on power system
losses and other technical parameters. IEEE 14 Bus system has A critical appraisal of power distribution sector with
been designed as test model in Mipower software. Separate case reference to India was demonstrated by Soham Ghosh [4]
studies with individual and integrated applications are applied raising the importance on need of loss reduction and
one after the other. Results have been organized for different efficiency improvement of power supply. Both technical and
case considerations. It is obtained that losses can be significantly non-technical losses have been recognized; a number of
reduced with optimum application and utilization of available remedial measures have been listed to facilitate the overall
loss reduction methods. The effect on network voltage profile, efficiency of distribution system. The importance of FACTS
line loadings and bus angles has been compared with the base devices was comprehended by S. C. Srivastava through
case. At the end integrated approach has been designed which is introducing balanced energy management system to maintain
a combined model of applied loss reduction techniques on Test optimal reactive power dispatch of the system by minimizing
model. Comparison has also been obtained for 10 percent system transmission and distribution losses [5]. Var
increased load of base condition. regulations of synchronous generators were also given
Keywords—loss reduction; transmission network; voltage importance by Thomas W. Eberly [6]. The system bus
profile improvement; reactive compensation; load dispatch. voltages were controlled and maintained directly by
maintaining generator terminal voltage. Thus improving
system power flows.
I. INTRODUCTION
Power system is a combination of various entities every The dynamic performance of power system can be
utility tries to fulfill its basic requirement which distorts the improved by faster regulation of the transmission voltage. As
functioning of other equipment’s and cause them to work directed by Carson W. Taylor static var compensators were
under condition. designed specifically for transmission voltage regulation [7].
Genetic algorithm have also paved the path for optimal
Enhancing the scope for loss reduction, if a large area is reactive power dispatch proposed by W.N.W Abdullah H.
divided under certain zones/circles and proper arrangements Saibon [8] by scheduling reactive power in an optimum
being made to fulfill basic requirements at individual level manner which reduces circulating VAR of system and thus
then various power system issues can be solved at sub-station promoting consistent voltage profile and appreciable MW
level. In simple words loss reduction of individual sub- saving. In 2000, A Lomi and D Thukaram [9] have detailed
stations at city circle and then observing it at a grid level may the non-linear optimization algorithm for alleviation of under-
result in voltage profile improvements of city sub-stations, voltage and overvoltage conditions in the day-to-day
reduction in losses and line loadings etc. could be obtained. operation of power networks. Voltage control for varying load
In Transmission & Distribution sector voltage control and and generation conditions can be achieved by coordinated
management of reactive power are important considerations. control of switchable shunt VAR compensating (SVC)
Upholding the voltage profile of transmission network under devices. Also research work carried over focusing on taming
recommended range is preventing the system from probable of voltage by reimbursing reactive power requirement on the
system vulnerabilities. To provide voltage control and loss basis of voltage deviation of buses obtained.
reduction utilities can practices a variety of methods [2].
IEEE14-bus test system is utilized in the paper to test the
1). By maintaining generator voltage.
feasibility of the technique endorsed. Utilities constantly faces
2). By active and reactive power dispatch. similar situations of uncertainties in grid & remains busy in
3). By installation of shunt capacitor banks. mitigating usual difficulties of low voltage profile, reactive
4). By installation of FACT devices. power demand, power loss etc. The goal of reactive power
These methods do not require huge investment. But control is to guarantee secure voltage profile and to minimize
depending upon the operating condition of system, it requires real power losses in transmission network by optimization of
co-ordinated operation of various available methods. A power reactive power flows [1].Similarly static var compensators
system involves working of many equipment’s therefore by consist of electronically switched inductors and capacitors,

978-1-4673-8962-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE


7th IEEE Power India International Conference (PIICON-2016)

designed specifically for transmission voltage regulation.


Reactive power compensation strategies in power systems
help to reduce resistive power losses, control system voltage
levels and improve power factors.

II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


Modified IEEE 14 Bus system has been taken for
consideration as Test system. It consist of 14 buses having five
no’s of 69 KV eight no’s of 13.8 kV and a single 18 kV
voltage level bus respectively. Two generators have been
placed at Bus 1 and 2 location with 3 no’s of synchronous Fig. 1 Single Line Diagram of modified IEEE 14 Bus System
condensers are provided in the system. The input data file
detailing the modeling of test system are described in Table I. Single Line Diagram depicts the graphical view of test
system as per Mipower representation. The database provided
TABLE I MODIFIED IEEE 14 BUS SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS during modeling of system equipment’s shapes power system
S.No. Input Data No. Data Values in Mipower. The Load flow summary along with line losses,
1 Total Real Power Load - 259 MW voltage profile of Test system is showed in Fig. 2.
2 Total Reactive Power Load - 73.50 MVAr
3 Load Power Factor - 0.962
4 Number of Generator Buses 2 -
5 Total Number of Buses 14 -
6 Number of Total Lines 15 -
7 Number of Total Transfomers 5 -
8 Number of Load Buses 11 -
9 Synchronous Condensers 3 -
10 Shunt Capacitors 1 17.630 MVAr

During actual operation, it is not feasible to keep changing


the position of capacitor banks from one location to another
according to the load situation. Hence the capacity of the
capacitor bank at a location is fixed normally once it has been
installed by proper modeling in simulation software like
Fig. 2 Load Flow Study of IEEE 14 Bus System
Mipower. Following selected points will be talk over
throughout the simulations studies and conclusions. Test system consists of a load of 259 MW with a load
 Practical implementation of loss reduction methods. power factor of 0.962. Study of base case termed as Case 1 is
carried in fast decoupled load flow technique. The megawatt
 Integrated application of applied loss reduction losses of 15.32 have been observed with var losses of 40.24.
methods on the test system.
 Applicability of Integrated method for 10 % load III. APPLICATION OF LOSS REDUCTION TECHNIQUES
growth. ON TEST SYSTEM
The objective function is to minimize power losses and
A selected number of loss reduction techniques have been
thus maximize cost savings, which is represented by eq. (1),
implemented as case studies. Bus voltages remains normal in
early hours, but drops progressively after day time as system
loading increases. Consequently high reactance of lines
provides undesirable voltage drops with increased system
where, loading. The types of cases considered & their outcome on
power system through load flow analysis is simulated in next
is the conductance of line between bus i & j, subsections. The techniques applied are branched in Fig.3.
are the voltage magnitudes of bus i & j
IEEE 14 BUS
are the voltage angles at bus i,j TEST
SYSTEM
is the number of distribution lines
Detailed data of test network in common data format is
provided at Appendix-1. Test network is drawn using Mipower
software. The single line diagram detailing connected bus with CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5

installed equipment’s has been detailed in Fig. 1. Graphical GENERATOR


REFERENCE
ACTIVE
POWER
SHUNT
CAPACITOR
SVC
PLACEMENT
representation drawn in Mipower is provided in the figure VOLTAGE DISPATCHING PLACEMENT
detailing the connectivity of lines.
Fig. 3 Case Divisions as per Applied Loss Reduction Application

978-1-4673-8962-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE


Integrated Approach for Loss Reduction In Power System

Case-2: Effect of Generator Terminal Voltage on Test System


Test system consist of 2 no’s of generators at location 1
and 2 buses. In Case 1, reference voltage setting of generator 1
and 2 is 1.0 PU. In Case 2, reference voltage setting of
generator 1 and 2 is increased to 1.05 PU. Results of load flow
study of Case 2 are plotted at Fig. 4.

Fig. 5 Load Flow Study of Case 3

Results of load flow study of Case 1 and Case 3 are compared


at Table III.

Fig. 4 Load Flow Study of Case 2 TABLE III COMPARISON OF LOAD FLOW STUDY OF CASE 1 AND
CASE 3
After simulation in case 2 generator terminal voltage of
generator 1 is changed to 1.05 PU and generator 2 changed to Generator Output System Losses
Case Study
MW MVAr MW MVAr
1.03 PU to improve system conditions. As a result if G1 234.312 32.84
comparison is made with base case then following Case 1
G2 40.00 50.00
15.31 40.23
observations are collected. G1 160.76 32.88
Case 3 11.77 28.08
G2 110.00 39.70
TABLE II COMPARISON OF LOAD FLOW STUDY OF CASE 1 AND Power Loss Reduction 3.54 12.15
CASE 2

Case Study
Generator Output System Losses Comparing Case 1 and Case 3 following inferences can be
MW MVAr MW MVAr briefed.
G1 234.31 32.84
Case 1 15.3108 40.2307 a) Generator 1 active power loading reduced from 234.31 to
G2 40 50
G1 232.82 21.21
160.76 MW in Case 3 as compared to Case 1.
Case 2 13.8234 32.1118 b) Generator 1 reactive output changed from 32.84 MVAr to
G2 40 50
Power Loss Reduction 1.4874 8.1189 32.88 MVAr in Case-3 as compared to Case1.
c) Total system MW losses reduce from 15.3108 MW to
Following are the observations from the tabulated results: 11.77 MW in Case 3 as compared to Case 1. System loss
a) Generator 1 active power loading reduced from 234.31 to reduction of 3.54 MW has been obtained in case 3 as
232.82 MW in Case 2 as compared to Case 1. compare to case 1.
b) Generator 1 reactive loading reduced from 32.84 MVAr d) Total system MVAR losses reduce from 40.23 MVAR to
to 21.21 MVAr in Case-2 as compared to Case1. 28.08 MVAR in Case 3 as compared to Case 1. System
loss reduction of 12.15 MVAr has been obtained in case 3
c) Total system MW losses reduce from 15.3108 MW to as compare to case 1.
13.8234 MW in Case 2 as compared to Case 1. System
loss reduction of 1.49 MW has been obtained in case 2 as Case 4: Effect on Test system with Shunt capacitor Placement
compare to case 1.
d) Total system MVAR losses reduce from 40.2307 MVAR Maintaining voltage profile as per the operating condition
to 32.1118 MVAR in Case 2 as compared to Case 1. is a typical task, power system is always deficient of reactive
System loss reduction of 8.12 MVAr has been obtained in power. A decrease in reactive power causes voltage to
case 2 as compare to case 1. deteriorate while excess causes increase in it. Thus the system
must be capable enough to utilize the reactive power demand
Case 3: Effect on Test system with Active Power dispatch and to maintain a good power factor after fulfilling its reactive
power limit. Actual capacitor bank requirement of each bus
The simulation model consisting of active power have been identified and tabulated at Table IV.
dispatching of generators is named as Case 3. In Case 1,
active power dispatch of Generator 2 is 40 MW against 110 TABLE IV SHUNT CAPACITOR REQUIRMENT & PLACEMENT
MW capacity. In Case 3, active power dispatch of generator 2 Bus Load Capacitor Bank
Bus Name
is increased to 110 MW. Results of load flow study are plotted No. MW MVAr (MVAR)
at Fig-5. 2 Bus2 21.7 12.7 8.29

978-1-4673-8962-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE


7th IEEE Power India International Conference (PIICON-2016)

5 Bus5 7.6 1.6 0.06


6 Bus6 11.2 7.5 5.23
9 Bus9 29.5 16.6 10.61
10 Bus10 9 5.8 3.97
11 Bus11 3.5 1.8 1.09
12 Bus12 6.1 1.6 0.36
13 Bus13 13.5 5.8 3.06
14 Bus14 14.9 5 1.97
Total Compensation 34.64

Results of load flow study of Case 4 are plotted at Fig.6.


Fig. 7 Load Flow Study of Case 5

Results of load flow study of Case 1 and Case 5 are


compared at Table VI

TABLE VI LOAD FLOW STUDY OF CASE 1 AND CASE 5


Generator Output System Losses
Case Study
MW MVAr MW MVAr
G1 234.31 32.84
Case 1 15.3108 40.2307
G2 40 50
G1 234.14 38.17
Case 5 15.2302 39.5958
G2 40 50
Power Loss Reduction 0.0806 0.6349

Following are the observations from the tabulated results:


a) Generator 1 active power loading reduced from 234.31
Fig. 6 Load Flow Study of Case 4 to 234.14 MW in Case 5 as compared to Case 1.
Results of load flow study of Case 1 and Case 4 are b) Total system MW losses are reduced from 15.3108
compared at Table V. MW to 15.2302 MW in Case 5 as compared to Case 1.
System loss reduction of 0.0806 MW has been obtained
TABLE V LOAD FLOW STUDY OF CASE 1 AND CASE 4
in case 5 as compare to case 1.
Generator Output System Losses
c) Total system MVAR losses are reduced from 40.2307
Case Study
MW MVAr MW MVAr MVAR to 39.5958 MVAR in Case 5 as compared to
G1 234.31 32.84 Case 1. System loss reduction of 0.0634 MVAr has
Case 1 15.3108 40.2307
G2 40 50 been obtained in case 5 as compare to case 1.
G1 234.28 49.76
Case 4 15.2812 39.3669
G2 40 50 IV. SIMULATION STUDY RESULTS ANALYSIS
Power Loss Reduction 0.0296 0.8638
Individual application and simulations of loss reduction
techniques on modified IEEE 14 Bus system provides the
Following are the observations from the tabulated results: benefits obtained after each individual solution. The effects on
a) Generator1 active power loading reduced from 234.31 system with respect to voltage profile, loadings, losses etc.
to 234.28 MW in Case 4 as compared to Case 1. have been collected and discussed in following sub sections.
b) Total system MW losses are reduced from 15.3108
MW to 15.2812 MW in Case 4 as compared to Case 1. I. Effect on losses
System loss reduction of 0.0296 MW has been obtained The techniques applied resulted in reduction of system
in case 4 as compare to case 1. losses. Table VII provides collected results of simulation
c) Total system MVAR losses are reduced from 40.2307 studies.
MVAR to 39.3669 MVAr in Case 4 as compared to TABLE VII EFFECT ON TEST SYSTEM LOSSES
Case 1. System loss reduction of 0.8638 MVAr has
been obtained in case 4 as compare to case 1. Parameter C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

LOSS MW 15.31 13.82 11.76 15.28 15.23


Case 5: Effect on Test system with SVC Placement
LOSS MVAr 40.23 32.11 28.07 39.36 39.59
In Case 1, voltage of Bus 14 is minimum. Therefore, ± 10
MVAR capacity SVC is connected to Bus 14 to improve the As concluded from the collected results of Table VII i.e.
bus voltage (Case 5). Results of load flow study of Case 5 are every applied technique has resulted in loss reduction of
plotted at Fig. 7. system. These saving can be returned in terms of cost benefits
to the utilities managing the expenses of running the system.

978-1-4673-8962-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE


Integrated Approach for Loss Reduction In Power System

II. Effect on voltage profile TABLE X EFFECT ON LINES LOADING

Maintaining the voltage profile in its range is a regular From Bus To Bus % Loading
Bus Name Bus Name C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
exercise. Checking out the optimum levels of active and
4 Bus4 5 Bus5 93.66 88.74 66.98 92.10 93.35
reactive power decides the exact voltage profile of system.
2 Bus2 4 Bus4 80.84 77.18 72.78 80.12 80.64
Now balancing the system auxiliaries to provide reactive
9 Bus9 14 Bus14 74.63 72.27 54.93 66.44 67.96
power control/optimization determines the amount of reactive
9 Bus9 10 Bus10 53.66 51.56 48.60 38.21 52.31
power support necessary to maintain a secure voltage profile
5 Bus5 6 Bus6 44.32 42.92 43.79 44.75 44.24
13 Bus13 14 Bus14 37.23 36.37 21.52 39.06 37.07
TABLE VIII EFFECT ON BUS VOLTAGE PROFILE
7 Bus7 9 Bus9 31.35 29.60 31.15 29.08 29.91
4 Bus4 7 Bus7 30.16 29.18 30.04 29.45 30.02
Bus Name Case 1 CASE2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5
10 Bus10 11 Bus11 22.29 21.97 53.42 26.69 22.58
Bus1 1.000 1.050 1.000 1.000 1.000 8 Bus8 7 Bus7 14.94 2.63 12.97 8.27 11.19
Bus2 0.992 1.038 1.000 1.000 0.994
Bus3 0.970 1.010 0.977 0.979 0.973 Simulated results provided reduction in lines loading as
Bus4 0.965 1.004 0.971 0.976 0.970 compared to Case 1. This reducing trend resulted in increased
Bus5 0.969 1.009 0.975 0.979 0.973 capacity of system as per future load growth is concerned.
Bus6 0.974 1.000 0.979 1.000 0.986
Bus7 0.974 0.995 0.977 0.985 0.980
Bus8 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 V. INTEGRATED APPROACH
Bus9 0.963 0.989 0.968 0.983 0.975 It is well known that voltage failure occurs when the
Bus10 0.957 0.983 0.962 0.981 0.969 system load increases beyond a certain limit. Therefore by
Bus11 0.961 0.988 0.966 0.988 0.973
compensating the system’s active & reactive power with co-
Bus12 0.958 0.984 0.963 0.986 0.971
Bus13 0.953 0.980 0.958 0.982 0.968
ordination of utilities via best available ways may result in
Bus14 0.939 0.966 0.944 0.966 0.965 improved bus voltages, power factor, loadings etc. at specific
level. Thus integrated methodology is encroached to fulfill
As shown in Table VIII the Bus voltages have been basic system requirements.
improved in all cases with respect to Case I.
This section consists of combination of applied loss
III. Effect on Bus Angle reduction methods on test model. Power system has been
simulated with following detailed techniques and termed as
A substation bus angle decides the synchronism Case 6.
maintaining of power system within the grid. Bus angles all
five cases have been presented at Table IX. (1) Maintaining of Generator Terminal Voltage
(2) Active Power Dispatching
TABLE IX EFFECT ON BUS ANGLES
(3) Shunt Capacitor Placement
Bus Name Case 1 CASE2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5
(4) SVC Placement

Bus2 5.757 5.135 3.608 5.843 5.774 Load flow results of integrated model of modified IEEE 14
Bus3 14.562 13.123 12.509 14.504 14.541 bus system has been detailed in Fig. 8.
Bus4 11.703 10.455 9.892 11.720 11.717
Bus5 10.000 8.922 8.365 10.063 10.027
Bus6 16.589 15.071 14.840 16.487 16.513
Bus9 17.345 15.764 15.512 17.133 17.260
Bus10 17.558 15.970 15.737 17.416 17.466
Bus11 17.234 15.673 15.447 17.130 17.146
Bus12 17.612 16.040 15.848 17.505 17.542
Bus13 17.707 16.127 15.936 17.640 17.697
Bus14 18.716 17.070 16.898 18.583 18.963

As shown in Table the Bus angles have been decreased in


all cases with respect to Case I.

IV. Effect on Loading of Lines


Load flow of lines depends upon the connected system,
voltage magnitudes, angles and the active, reactive power.
Table X depicts the loadings of lines for different cases as per Fig. 8 Load Flow Analysis of Case 6 Integrated Approach
the method implemented it is varying from case 1 to case 5.
Results of Load flow studies can be concluded with
following studies.
a) Generator 1 active power loading reduced from 234.31
to 159.03 MW in Case 6 as compared to Case 1.

978-1-4673-8962-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE


7th IEEE Power India International Conference (PIICON-2016)
b) Total system MW losses are reduced from 15.3108 REFERENCES
MW to 10.728 MW in Case 6 as compared to Case 1. [1] http://www.indiastat.com/power/26/villageelectrification19502017/4497
Total system MVAR losses are reduced from 40.2307 MVAR 20/villageelectrificationprogrammes19972017/447502/stats.aspx.
to 21.3348 MVAr in Case 6 as compared to Case 1. System [2] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, Tata McGraw Hill
publications, New Delhi, 2007.
loss reduction of 18.8959 MVAr has been obtained in case 6
[3] Rajasthan Electricity Regulatory Commission Grid Code, Jaipur, (As
as compare to case 1. per Electricity Act, 2003),
TABLE XI COMPARISION OF POWER LOSS REDUCTION OF [Online] Available: http://www.rvpn.co.in/aboutus/GridCode-01.pdf.
BASE CASE & INTEGRATED APPROACH [4] Soham Ghosh, “Loss Reduction and Efficiency Improvement: A Critical
Parameters MW MVAr Appraisal of Power Distribution Sector in India”, International Journal
15.310 (5.60%) 40.2307
of Modern Engineering Research, ISSN: 2249-6645, Vol.2, Issue.5,
Case 1 Base Case
Sep-Oct. 2012 pp-3292-3297.
Case 6 (Integrated Approach) 10.728 (3.98 %) 21.3348
Loss Reduction 4.5828 18.8959 [5] P. Preedavichit and S.C. Shrivastava, “Optimal Reactive Power
Case 6a (Base Case with + 10% Load) 22.140 66.666 Dispatch considering FACTS devices” Published in Advances in Power
Case 6b (Integrated Approach with + 10% Load) 13.492 32.829 System Control, Operation and Management, 1997, APSCOM-97 on
Loss Reduction 8.648 33.837 11-14 Nov. 1997.
Case 6 = With Integrated Approach and Base Load (259 MW)
[6] T.W. Eberly,R.C. Schaefer, “Voltage versus VAr/power-factor
Case 6a = Without Integrated Approach and Increased 10 % Base load (284 MW) regulation on synchronous generators”, 6-10 Dec., IEEE Transactions
Case 6b= With Integrated Approach and with Increased 10 % Base load (284 MW) on Industry Applications, Volume:38, Issue:6 Dec. 2002.
[7] Carson W. Taylor “Line drop compensation, high side voltage control,
Integrated approach has resulted in modifications in power secondary voltage control -why not control a generator like a static var
flows as obtained from load flow studies Table XI details the compensator”, 16-20 July, 2000, Power Engineering Society Summer
loss reduction in MW and MVAr showing significant loss Meeting.
reductions in Test system as compared with Base Case. As [8] W.N.W Abdullah, H. Saibon and K.L. Lo, “Genetic Algorithm for
well as the future inclination over the applicability of methods Reactive Power Dispatch” Published in Energy Management and Power
Delivery 1998, under Proceedings of EMPD, on 5 March 1998.
practiced can also be emphasized from Table XI.
[9] D. Thukaram and A. Lomi, "Selection of static VAR compensator
location and size for system voltage stability improvement", ELECtric
VI. CONCLUSION POWer System Research, Elsevier Sequoia, 54(2), 2000, pp.
Among the various available methods of loss reduction in [10] http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.ELC.LOSS.ZS
literature, a few basic applications when applied in [11] MI-Power simulation software “Developed by PRDC Pvt. Ltd.,
integration and coordination of power utilities, laid to Bangalore”, [Online] http://www.prdcinfotech.com/products.html.
fulfillment of eminent necessities of auxiliaries that is
indirectly contributing towards reduction in grid losses. In this
paper, simulation studies have been carried out to analyze the APPENDIX
effect of loss reduction by maintaining the generator terminal
voltage setting, active power dispatching of real power, shunt 21/08/16 MiPower
BUS DATA FOLLOWS
100.00 2016 S Case : 1 Cont :0 Sch No : 0

capacitor placement and static var compensation. Test system 1 Bus1


2 Bus2
3 Bus3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
1.0000
0.9920
0.9695
0.00
-5.76
-14.56
0.00
-21.70
-94.20
0.00
-12.70
-19.00
234.31
40.00
0.00
-32.84
50.00
40.00
69.000
69.000
69.000
1.000 100.000 -100.000
1.000 50.000 -40.000
1.010 40.000 0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
0
0

4 Bus4 1 1 0 0.9653 -11.70 -47.80 3.90 0.00 0.00 69.000 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0
simulations were carried out to reduce power losses. 5 Bus5
6 Bus6
7 Bus7
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
2
0
0.9688
0.9735
0.9737
-10.00
-16.59
-15.40
-7.60
-11.20
0.00
-1.60
-7.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
24.00
0.00
69.000
13.800
13.800
1.000 0.000 0.000
1.000 24.000 -6.000
1.000 0.000 0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0
0
0
Following are the conclusions of studies made in this paper:- 8 Bus8
9 Bus9
10 Bus10
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
0
1.0000
0.9633
0.9570
-15.40
-17.34
-17.56
0.00
-29.50
-9.00
0.00
-16.60
-5.80
0.00
0.00
0.00
14.94
0.00
0.00
18.000
13.800
13.800
1.000 24.000 -6.000
1.000
1.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.19
0.00
0
0
0
11 Bus11 1 1 0 0.9614 -17.23 -3.50 -1.80 0.00 0.00 13.800 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0
12 Bus12 1 1 0 0.9575 -17.61 -6.10 -1.60 0.00 0.00 13.800 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0
13 Bus13 1 1 0 0.9526 -17.71 -13.50 -5.80 0.00 0.00 13.800 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0
1. Losses reduced from 15.3108 MW (5.60 %), in Case 1 to 14 Bus14
-999
1 1 0 0.9388 -18.72 -14.90 -5.00 0.00 0.00 13.800 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0

BRANCH DATA FOLLOWS


10.728 MW (3.98 %), in Case 6. A loss reduction of 4
4
5
7 1 1 1 1
9 1 1 1 1
6 1 1 1 1
0.00021
0.00056
0.00025
0.20912
0.55618
0.25202
0.0000100
0.0000100
0.0000100
100
100
100
100
100
100
7
9
6
0
0
0
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.900
0.900
0.900
1.100
1.100
1.100
0.0125
0.0125
0.0125
62.10
62.10
62.10
75.90
75.90
75.90

4.5828 MW in Case 6 with integrated approach has been 8


7
1
7 1 1 1 1
9 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 1 0
0.00018
0.00011
0.01938
0.17615
0.11001
0.05917
0.0000100
0.0000100
0.0528140
100
100
140
100
100
140
8
9
0
0
0
0
1.000
1.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.900
0.900
0.000
1.100
1.100
0.000
0.0125
0.0125
0.0000
16.20
12.42
0.00
19.80
15.18
0.00
1 5 1 1 1 0 0.05403 0.22304 0.049270 70 70 0 0 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.00
obtained. 2
2
2
3 1 1 1 0
4 1 1 1 0
5 1 1 1 0
0.04699
0.05811
0.05695
0.19797
0.17632
0.17388
0.043870
0.034070
0.034670
70
70
70
70
70
70
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3 4 1 1 1 0 0.06701 0.17103 0.012870 70 70 0 0 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.00

2. Simulation studies indicate that loading on lines & 4


6
6
5 1 1 1 0
11 1 1 1 0
12 1 1 1 0
0.01335
0.09498
0.12291
0.04211
0.19890
0.25581
0.000070
0.000015
0.000015
70
15
15
70
15
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
6 13 1 1 1 0 0.06615 0.13027 0.000015 15 15 0 0 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.00
transformers from Case 2 to case 6 with integrated 9
9
10
10 1 1 1 0
14 1 1 1 0
11 1 1 1 0
0.03181
0.12711
0.08205
0.08450
0.27038
0.19207
0.000015
0.000015
0.000015
15
15
15
15
15
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
12 13 1 1 1 0 0.22092 0.19988 0.000015 15 15 0 0 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.00
approach has been reduced as compare to existing 13
-999
14 1 1 1 0
LOSS ZONES FOLLOWS
0.17093 0.34802 0.000015 15 15 0 0 0.000 0.00 0.000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 0.00

condition in Case 1. Redundancy available on lines and 1 Zone1


-99
INTERCHANGE DATA FOLLOWS
0 1 SwingName 0.0 1.0 AreaCo AreaName
transformers in Case 6 can be used for load growth. -9
TIE LINES FOLLOW
0 0 0 0 0
-999
3. Network voltage has been significantly improved with the END OF DATA

availability of reactive power, as dynamic behavior of


SVC is concerned.
4. An estimated energy savings of 276.20 LU’s as well as
Cost Savings of 13.81 Crores Annually could be achieved
by practical application of loss reduction methods in
integrated manner at transmission level.
Thus proposed research work can be executed for real time
substations at city/state level to submit loss reduction which is
4-5 % at transmission level.

978-1-4673-8962-4/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE