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Study page 研習專頁 B15

Phrasal verbs 短語動詞 Meaning of phrasal verbs


短語動詞的含義
What are phrasal verbs? 2 He sat down on the bed. 他坐到床上。
什麼叫 phrasal verb The meaning of some phrasal verbs, such as
﹙短語動詞﹚? sit down, is easy to guess because the verb
and the particle keep their usual meaning.
2 Jan turned down the chance to work abroad.
However, many phrasal verbs have idiomatic
簡回絕了往外地工作的機會。 meanings that you need to learn. The
Buying that new car has really eaten into my separate meanings of put, up and with, for
savings. example, do not add up to the meaning of put
買那輛新車的確耗掉我部份存款。 up with (= tolerate).
I don’t think I can put up with his behaviour 有些短語動詞的含義易猜,如 sit down ,因為動
much longer. 詞和小品詞都保持其通常的意思。但許多短語動
我再也不能容忍他的作為。 詞卻具有習語的意思,須通過學習才知道,如
put 、 up 和 with 各自的意思加起來並非 put up
Phrasal verbs (sometimes called multi-word
with﹙容忍;忍受﹚的意思。
verbs) are verbs that consist of two, or
sometimes three, words. The first word is 2 Some particles have particular meanings
a verb and it is followed by an adverb (turn that are the same when they are used with
down) or a preposition (eat into) or both (put a number of different verbs.
up with). These adverbs or prepositions are 有些小品詞具有特定的含義,與一些不同的動詞
sometimes called PARTICLES. 連用時意思不變:
短語動詞﹙有時也叫多詞動詞 multi-word verb﹚ I didn’t see the point of hanging around
指由兩個,有時三個詞組成的動詞,第一個詞為 waiting for him, so I went home.
動詞,其後接副詞﹙如 turn down﹚或介詞﹙如
我覺得閑蕩着等他也沒用,就回家去了。
eat into﹚或副詞加介詞﹙如 put up with﹚。此
I wish you wouldn’t leave all those books
類副詞或介詞有時稱作小品詞 (particle)。
lying around.
2 In this dictionary, phrasal verbs are listed at
我希望你不要再把那些書到處亂放。
the end of the entry for the main verb in
a section marked c. They are listed in Around adds the meaning of ‘with no
alphabetical order of the particles following them. particular purpose or aim’ and is also used in
a similar way with many other verbs, such as
本詞典中的短語動詞列在主要動詞詞條末有
play, sit and wait.
c 標示的部份,並按其後小品詞的字母順序
排列: around 增加了無一定目的或目標的含義,亦可以
同樣的方式與其他許多動詞連用,如 play、 sit 和
wait。
c 4fight 3back (against sb/sth) to resist strongly
or attack sb who has attacked you 奮力抵抗;還擊: 2 The meaning of a phrasal verb can sometimes
Don’t let them bully you. Fight back! 別讓他們欺侮 be explained with a one-word verb. However,
你。要還擊! z It is time to fight back against street
crime. 現在是打擊街頭犯罪行為的時候了。 4fight sth
phrasal verbs are frequently used in spoken
↔ 3back/ 3down to try hard not to do or show sth, English and, if there is a one-word equivalent,
especially not to show your feelings 忍住,抑制住﹙尤 it is usually more formal in style.
指情感﹚: She fought back the urge to run. 她盡力抑
制住不跑。 z He fought down his disgust. 他強忍住心 短語動詞的含義有時可用單個動詞解釋。不過,
况的厭惡。 4fight sb/sth ↔ 3off to resist sb/sth by 短語動詞常用於英語口語中,如果有一個與其含
fighting against them/it 抵抗;擊退: The jeweller was
stabbed as he tried to fight the robbers off. 珠寶商在試 義相同的單詞,這個詞通常在風格上較正式:
圖抵抗強盜時被刺傷了。 4fight 3out sth | 4fight it 3out I wish my ears didn’t stick out so much.
to fight or argue until an argument has been settled
以鬥爭方式解決;辯論出結果: The conflict is still 我期望我雙耳不太過招風。
being fought out. 仍在通過戰鬥解決這次衝突。 z They
still hadn’t reached any agreement so we left them to The garage projects 5 metres beyond the
fight it out. 他們還沒有達成任何協議,所以我們讓他 front of the house.
們去爭個水落石出。
汽車間在房子的正面伸出 5米。
B16 Study page 研習專頁
Both stick out and project have the same She tore the letter up.
meaning — ‘to extend beyond a surface’ — She tore up the letter.
but they are very different in style. Stick out 她把信撕碎了。
is used in informal contexts, and project in 2 When the object is a long phrase, it usually
formal or technical contexts.
comes after the particle.
stick out 和 project 含義相同,均有突出、伸出之
賓語為較長的短語時,通常置於小品詞之後:
意,但風格卻大不相同。 stick out 用於非正式語
She tore up all the letters he had sent her.
境,而 project 作正式用語或術語。
她把他寄給她的信都撕碎了。
2 When the object is a pronoun (for example it
standing for ‘the letter’), it must always go
Grammar of phrasal verbs between the verb and the particle.
短語動詞的語法 賓語為代詞時﹙如 it 代表 the letter﹚,必須將其
2 Phrasal verbs can be TRANSITIVE (they take 置於動詞與小品詞之間:
an object) or INTRANSITIVE (they have no She read the letter and then tore it up.
object). Some phrasal verbs can be used in 她看過信以後就把它撕毀了。
both ways.
2 In the dictionary, verbs that are separable are
短語動詞可能是及物的 (transitive),帶有賓語, written like this:
也可能是不及物的 (intransitive),不帶賓語。有
本詞典中,可分的短語動詞標示為:
些短語動詞用於兩種情況均可:
tear sth ↔ up
For heaven’s sake shut her up. (transitive)
2 The double arrow between the object and the
行行好,讓她住口吧。
particle shows that the object may come
He told me to shut up. (intransitive) either before or after the particle.
他叫我閉嘴。 賓語與小品詞之間的雙箭頭表示,賓語可置於小
2 INTRANSITIVE phrasal verbs are written in 品詞之前,也可置於小品詞之後:
the dictionary without sb (somebody) or sth
(something) after them. This shows that they
4call sth ↔ 3off to cancel sth; to decide that sth will not
do not have an object. happen 取消;停止進行: to call off a deal/trip/strike
在本詞典中,不及物 (intransitive) 短語動詞後無 取消交易/旅行/罷工 z They have called off their
engagement (= decided not to get married). 他們已經解
sb﹙某人﹚或 sth﹙某物﹚,表明其後無賓語: 除婚約。 z The game was called off because of bad
weather. 比賽因天氣惡劣被取消。
4eat 3out to have a meal in a restaurant, etc. rather than
at home 上館子吃飯;在外用餐: Do you feel like
eating out tonight? 你今晚想下館子嗎?
You can say 可說:They called the deal off.
and 和 They called off the deal.
Eat out is intransitive, and the two parts of the 他們取消了交易。
verb cannot be separated by any other word. 2 With other phrasal verbs (sometimes called
eat out 為不及物短語動詞,兩部份不能被其他任 INSEPARABLE verbs), the two parts of the
何單詞隔開。 verb cannot be separated by an object.
You can say 可說:Shall we eat out tonight? 其他短語動詞﹙有時也叫不可分動詞 inseparable
我們今晚吃館子好嗎? verb﹚的兩個部份不能用賓語隔開:
but not 但不可說: Shall we eat tonight out? I didn’t really take to her husband.
2 In order to use TRANSITIVE phrasal verbs 我真的沒有對她丈夫產生好感。
correctly, you need to know where to put the not 不可說: I didn’t really take her husband to.
object. With some phrasal verbs (often called I didn’t really take to him.
SEPARABLE verbs), the object can go either 我真的沒有對他產生好感。
between the verb and the particle or after the
not 不可說: I didn’t really take him to.
particle.
2 In the dictionary, verbs that are inseparable
要正確使用及物短語動詞需知道賓語的位置,有
些短語動詞﹙常稱作可分動詞 separable verb﹚
are written like this:
的賓語既可置於動詞與小品詞之間,也可置於小 在本詞典中,不可分的短語動詞標示為:
品詞之後: take to sb
Study page 研習專頁 B17
When you see sb or sth after the two parts of different types of clause and phrase are
a phrasal verb, and there is no double arrow, explained on study pages B12–14. When
you know that they cannot be separated by a phrasal verb can be used with a particular
an object. type of clause or phrase an example is given
短語動詞的兩部份後有 sb 或 sth ,而且無雙箭 in the dictionary entry, labelled with a special
頭,說明不能用賓語隔開: code.
與其他動詞一樣,某些短語動詞可與另一短語或
%run "into sb to meet sb by chance 偶然遇見,碰到 從句連用。不同類型的從句和短語見研習專頁
﹙某人﹚: Guess who I ran into today! 猜猜我今天碰
見誰了! B12–14 的說明。如果短語動詞可與某種類型的
從句或短語連用,本詞典的條目中有示例予以說
You can say 可說:I ran into Joe yesterday. 明,並用代號標示:
我昨天碰見喬。 [+ that] Suddenly it dawned on me that
but not 但不可說: I ran Joe into. they couldn’t possibly have met
2 There are a few phrasal verbs in which the before.
two parts of the verb must be separated by 我突然明白他們以前不可能見
the object. 過面。
有少數短語動詞兩部份必須用賓語隔開。 [+ wh] I can’t figure out how to do this.
You can say 可說:They changed the plans 我弄不懂怎樣幹這件事。
and messed everyone [+ to inf] I’m counting on you to help
around. me.
他們改變了計劃,給大家添 我在指望你幫我。
了麻煩。 [+ -ing] I didn’t bargain on finding
but not 但不可說: They changed the plans Matthew there as well.
and messed around 我沒想到還會在那况遇見湯姆。
everyone. [+ speech] ‘Help!’ he cried out.
2 In the dictionary, these verbs are written like “救命!”他喊道。
this:
在本詞典中,這類短語動詞的標示為:
mess sb around Related nouns 相關名詞
When you see sb or sth between the two 2 A particular phrasal verb may have a noun
parts of a phrasal verb and there is no double related to it. This noun will be mentioned at
arrow, you know that they must be separated the verb entry.
by the object.
短語動詞可能與某名詞相關,該名詞將在動詞條
短語動詞的兩部份之間有 sb 或 sth,而且無雙箭 目內提及:
頭,說明必須用賓語隔開。
2 Some transitive phrasal verbs can be made 4break 3in to enter a building by force 強行進入;破門
passive. 而入: Burglars had broken in while we were away.
我們不在家時,竊賊闖進屋况了。 — related noun
某些及物短語動詞可用於被動語態: BREAK-IN 4break sb/sth 3in 1 to train sb/sth in sth new
The deal has been called off. that they must do 訓練某人/某物;培訓: to break in
new recruits 訓練新兵 z The young horse was not yet
交易給取消了。 broken in (= trained to carry a rider). 那匹剛成長的馬還
沒被馴服。 2 to wear sth, especially new shoes, until
When this is common, you will find an example they become comfortable 把 穿得合身,使舒適自如
at the dictionary entry. ﹙尤指新鞋﹚4break 3in (on sth) to interrupt or disturb
sth 打斷;攪擾: She longed to break in on their
如果此用法常見,在本詞典的條目中有示例說明。
conversation but didn’t want to appear rude. 她很想打
斷他們的談話,但又不願表現魯莽。 z [ + speech ]
‘I didn’t do it!’ she broke in. “不是我幹的!”她插
嘴說。
Phrasal verbs used with 4break 3into sth 1 to enter a building by force; to open
a car, etc. by force 強行闖入;撬開﹙汽車等﹚: We
phrases and clauses had our car broken into last week. 我們的車上週被撬
了。 — related noun BREAK - IN 2 to begin laughing,
與短語和從句連用的短語動詞 singing, etc. suddenly 突然開始﹙笑、唱等﹚: As the
President’s car drew up, the crowd broke into loud
2 Like other verbs some phrasal verbs can be applause. 總統的座車停下時,ク眾中爆發出熱烈的
used with another phrase or clause. The 掌聲。
B18 Study page 研習專頁

4break 3out (of war, fighting or other unpleasant events


戰爭、戰鬥等不愉快事件) to start suddenly 突然開始;
爆發: They had escaped to America shortly before war
broke out in 1939. * 1939年戰爭爆發前不久他們逃到了
美國。 z Fighting had broken out between rival groups
of fans. 雙方球迷發生了打鬥。 z Fire broke out during
the night. 夜間突然發生了火災。 — related noun
OUTBREAK 4break 3out (of sth) to escape from a place
or situation 逃離﹙某地﹚;擺脫﹙某狀況﹚: Several
prisoners broke out of the jail. 幾名囚犯越獄了。 z She
needed to break out of her daily routine and do
something exciting. 她應該從日常事務中解脫出來,找
點有意思的事做。— related noun BREAKOUT

2 A noun is often related in meaning to only one


or two of the phrasal verbs using a particle.
Break-in is related to break in and the first
meaning of break into sth, but not to break
sb/sth in or break in (on sth). Breakout is
related to break out (of sth), whereas the
noun outbreak relates to break out.
一個名詞在意義上通常只與一、二個含小品詞的
短語動詞相關。 break-in 與 break in 以及 break
into sth 的第一義相關,但與 break sb/sth in 或
break in (on sth) 不相關。 breakout 與 break out
(of sth) 相關,而名詞 outbreak 與 break out
相關。