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‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬


‫‪Air Conditioning Systems‬‬

‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻫﻰ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﺜﺭﻤﻭﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ ﻜﻤﻀﺨﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻌﻤل ﻜﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺩﻓﺌﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ‪Summer air‬‬
‫‪ conditioning‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺸﺘﻭﻯ ‪ ،Winter air conditioning‬ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻰ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻴﻑ ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﻭﺍﺀ ﺭﻁﺏ ﺃﻗل ﻓﻰ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﻗل ﻓﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻰ ﻴﻤﺭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺩﻯ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﺘﻘل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﺎﺜﻑ ﺒﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻭﻯ ﻓﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻟﺭﻓﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻔﻰ‬
‫ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭﺍﹰ ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﻤل ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻰ )‪(Summer Air Conditioning Systems‬‬


‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ‪ TR = 25 o C ± 2‬ﻭﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ‪ φ R = 50 % ± 5‬ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ ‪ Room heat load‬ﻴﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﻤل ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﻤﺤﺴﻭﺱ ‪ QS‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﻤل ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﻜﺎﻤﻥ ‪ Q L‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺘﺴﻤﻰ ‪Room sensible heat factor,‬‬
‫‪ ،RSHF‬ﻭﻴﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻟﺨﻔﺽ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻤﺭ ﺘﺠﻨﻴﺒﻰ‬
‫)‪(Summer air conditioning system without by pass‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (١-٨‬ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﻪ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ ﻗﺒل ﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (٢-٨‬ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪Fig. 8-1 Summer air conditioning system‬‬

‫‪Fig. 8-2 Summer air conditioning processes‬‬


‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ ‪ Fresh air‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﻊ ‪ Return air‬ﻟﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭﻩ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ‪Air‬‬
‫‪ handling unit‬ﺜﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻴﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻠﺘﺭ ﻟﺤﺠﺯ ﺍﻷﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻟﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺴﻁﺤﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺩﻯ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﺒﺭﺩ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﺎﺜﻑ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺒﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻴﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻭﺍﺼل ﻟﺤﺠﺯ ﻗﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﺜﻑ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺨﻼل ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻔﺎﻕ‬

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‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬S ‫ ﻭﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬،‫ﻭﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‬
.90 % ‫ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬5 ~ 10 oC ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬
‫ ﻭﺒﻌﻤل ﺇﺘـﺯﺍﻥ ﺤـﺭﺍﺭﻯ‬،‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺏ‬R ‫ ﻭﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‬o ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﺜﻡ ﻴﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠـﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴـﺩ‬،‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺘﺒﻌﺎﹰ ﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻁ‬m ‫ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻁ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬
‫ ﻭﻫـﻰ ﻏﺎﻟﺒـﺎﹰ ﻤـﺎ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﺒﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﻨـﺴﺒﻴﺔ‬S ‫ﻓﺘﻘل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﻭﺘﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫ ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻨﺤﺩﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬a ‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬φ = 100 % ‫ ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺨﻁ‬m→S ‫ ﻭﺇﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬، φ S = 90 %
‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﻭﺤـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬S ‫ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬، Apparatus dew Point, Adp ‫ﺴﻁﺢ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ‬
.‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ‬
Room heat load S→R,
Qt = m
& a (hR − hS ) (8-1)

Cooling coil capacity and efficiency m→S and a,


Qcoil = m
& a (hm − hS ) (8-2)
hm − hS
η coil = (8-3)
hm − ha

Condensate water through dehumidification process m→S,


&w = m
m & a (ω m − ω S ) (8-4)

Example 8-1
An air conditioning room is maintained at 25 oC db and RH 50 %. The ambient
conditions are 38 oC db and 27 oC wb. The room has sensible heat gain of 40 kW
and latent heat gain of 10 kW. The re-circulated air contains 30 % by weight fresh
air. The re-circulated air is supplied to the room at 14 oC. Calculate, the sensible
heat factor, the total amount of conditioned air, the cooling coil dew point, the
cooling coil capacity in TR, the cooling coil efficiency, and the rate of water
removed from the air.
Data: t R = 25 o C , RH R = 50 %, t o = 38 o C db, t o = 27 o
& o = 0.3 m
C wb , m &a
QS = 40 kW, QL = 10 kW , t S = 14 o
C
Required: RSHF , m& a , Adp, RC, η coil , m& w

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Solution
As shown in Fig. 8-2 of Psychrometric chart and the air properties are,
hR = 50.34 kJ / kg , ho = 84.55 kJ / kg
& o = 0.3 m
m &a, m & R = 0.7 m
&a
Qt = QS + Q L = 40 + 10 = 50 kW

QS 40
RSHF = = = 0.8
QS + Q L 40 + 10

Heat balance of mixing point m,


& o ho + m
m & R hR = m
& a hm

& a × 84.55 + 0.7 m


0.3 m & a × 50.34 = m
& a hm

hm = 60.6 kJ / kg , ω m = 12.5 g / kg da

Processes m→S→R, cooling and dehumidification from m to S at 90 % RH, from


S to R, room total heat released parallel to RSHF.
hS = 35.5 kJ / kg , ω S = 8.7 g / kg da , ha = 27 kJ / kg , t a = Adp = 9 o
C

Re-circulated air,
Qt = m
& a (hR − hS ), 50 = m
& a (50.34 − 35.5), ∴m
& a = 3.369 kg / s

Cooling coil capacity,


& a (hm − hS ) 3.369 × (60.6 − 35.5)
m
RC = = = 24.162 TR
3.5 3.5
Cooling coil efficiency,
hm − hS 60.6 − 35.5
η coil = = = 0.747 = 74.7 %
hm − h a 60.6 − 27

Condensate water,
&w = m
m & a (ω m − ω S ), & w = 3.369 × (12.5 − 8.7) × 10 −3 × 60 = 0.768 kg / min
m

Example 8-2
In a summer air conditioning system shown the fresh air is mixed with return air
by equal mass before entering the cooling coil. After pre-cooled the air
adiabatically humidified in air washer to 90 % RH. The outside air conditions
are 35 ºC db and 17 ºC wb. The inside air conditions are 27 ºC db and 21 ºC wb.
Internal sensible heat gain is 35 kW and latent heat gain is 15 kW. Estimate; the

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temperature to which the air is pre-cooled, the temperature to which the sprayed
water must be held, the amount of supplied air, the capacity of the pre-cooler, and
the make up water.
Data: t R = 27 C db, t R = 21 o C wb, , t o = 35
o o
C db, t o = 17 o
C wb
QS = 35 kW, Q L = 15 kW, RH S = 90 %
Required: t1 , t S , m& a , RC , m& w

Solution

From Psychrometric chart and the air properties are,


hR = 60.68 kJ / kg , ho = 47.3 kJ / kg
&o = m
m & R = 0.5 m
&a
Qt = QS + Q L = 35 + 15 = 50 kW

QS 35
RSHF = = = 0.7
QS + Q L 35 + 15

Heat balance of mixing point m,


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& o ho + m
m & R hR = m
& a hm

& a × 47.3 + 0.5 m


0.5 m & a × 60.68 = m
& a hm

hm = 54 kJ / kg , ω m = 9 g / kg da

Processes m→1→S→R, sensible cooling from m to 1, but S at cross of RSHF with


90 % RH, from S to 1 adiabatic line at cross with sensible cooling m→1.
t1 = 23.6 o
C dbt, ω1 = ω m

hS = 47 kJ / kg , ω S = 11.5 g / kg da , t S = 17.9 o
C db, t a = Adp = 16.6 o
C

Re-circulated air,
Qt = m
& a (hR − hS ), 50 = m
& a (60.68 − 47), ∴m
& a = 3.655 kg / s

Cooling capacity of pr-cooler,


& a (hm − h1 ) 3.655 × (54 − 47)
m
RC = = = 7.31 TR
3.5 3.5
Air washer efficiency,
t1 − t S 23.6 − 17.9
η washer = = = 0.8143 = 1.43 %
t1 − t a 23.6 − 16.6

Make up water in air washer,


&w = m
m & a (ω S − ω1 ), & w = 3.655 × (11.5 − 9) × 10 −3 × 60 = 0.5483 kg / min
m

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﻤﻤﺭ ﺘﺠﻨﻴﺒﻰ‬


(Summer air conditioning system with by pass)

Fig. 8-3 Summer air conditioning system with by pass


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‫( ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﻪ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ ﻗﺒل ﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ‬٣-٨) ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬
‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻤﻤﺭ ﺘﺠﻨﻴﺒﻰ ﻟﺨﻠﻁ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﺭﺝ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻠـﻑ‬
‫ ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻨﻴﺒﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻫﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ‬
‫( ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺠـﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ‬٤-٨) ‫ ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل‬،S ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬
.‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬

Fig. 8-4 Summer air conditioning processes with by pass

Example 8-3
A summer air conditioning systems consists of water chiller and air re-heater as
shown below. The return air is mixed partially before the water chiller and by
passed after it with equal masses. The inside conditions are 25ºC db and 50 % RH
and outside conditions are 38 ºC db and 26ºC wb. Fresh air for ventilation is 0.5
m3/s. The internal sensible heat gain is 21 kW and internal latent heat gain is 7
kW. The air leaving water chiller saturated at 10 oC and the temperature difference
between inside and supply air is 8 ºC db. Determine the refrigeration capacity of
the water chiller and the heating capacity of the air reheated.
Data: t R = 25 o C , RH R = 50 %, t o = 38 o C db, t o = 26 o C wb , m& o = 0.5 m3 / s
QS = 21 kW, Q L = 7 kW , t S = 25 − 8 = 17 o
C , RH 1 = 100 %, t1 = 10 o
C
Required: RSHF , m& a , RC, Power reh
Solution

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As shown in Fig. 8-4 of Psychrometric chart and the air properties are,
hR = 50.34 kJ / kg , ho = 80.05 kJ / kg , v o = 0.9047 m3 /kg, h1 = 29.5 kJ / kg
V& 0.5
& R1 = m
m &o = o =
& R2 , m = 0.5527 kg / s
v o 0.9047
Qt = QS + Q L = 21 + 7 = 28 kW

QS 21
RSHF = = = 0.75
Qt 28

State S is at cross of RSHF with ts = 17 oC


hS = 37.5 kJ / kg

Qt = m
& a (hR − hS ), 28 = m
& a (50.34 − 37.5), ∴m
& a = 2.181 kg / s

& R1 + m
m & R2 = m&a −m &o
∴m & R1 = m& R2 = (2.181 − 0.5527) / 2 = 0.8142 kg / s

Heat balance of mixing point m,


& o ho + m
m & R1 hR = (m
&o +m
& R1 )hm

0.5527 × 80.05 + 0.8142 × 50.34 = (0.5527 + 0.8142)hm , hm = 62.35 kJ / kg

Heat balance of mixing point 1 with R and m& R2 ,


&o + m
(m & R1 )h1 + m
& R 2 hR = m
& a h2

(0.5527 + 0.8142) × 29.5 + 0.8142 × 50.34 = 2.181 × h2 , h2 = 37.28 kJ / kg

Cooling capacity water chiller,


& a (hm − h1 ) 2.181 × (62.35 − 29.5)
m
RC = = = 20.47 TR
3.5 3.5
Capacity of re-heater,
Power = m
& a (hS − h2 ) = 2.181 × (37.5 − 37.28) = 0.479 kW

‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ أن ﻗﺪرة اﻟﺴﺨﺎن اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﻰ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة ﺟﺪاً ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﻜﻤﯿﺔ ھﻮاء اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﻷن ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ھﻮاء اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ واﻟﺴﺨﺎن اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﻰ ھﻨﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬،‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﮭﻮاء اﻟﻘﺎدم ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻤﺮ اﻟﺘﺠﻨﯿﺒﻰ واﻟﮭﻮاء اﻟﺨﺎرج ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻒ اﻟﺘﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬
.‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﺤﺴﻮﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ھﻮاء اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﮫ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺣﺮارى‬

Example 8-4
In an air conditioning unit, air is supplied at a rate of 0.65 m3/s with 25ºC db and
60 % RH. The unit consists of a cooling coil where air is cooled and dehumidified

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to 5ºC db and 4 ºC wb. Then, the air passes through an electric heater and leaves it
at 20ºC db. After that, air passes through an air washer, where it is humidified to
90 % RH. Part of the air is by passed across the air washer to have final air relative
humidity of 60 %. Calculate, the capacity of cooling coil, the heater power, the by
pass factor for air washer, and the bypassed low rate.
Data: t o = 25 o C , RH o = 60 %, t1 = 5 o C db, t1 = 4 o C wb , m& o = 0.65 m3 / s
t 2 = 25 o
C , RH 3 = 90 %, RH S = 60 %
Required: RC , Power , BFwasher , m& b

Solution

From Psychrometric chart and the air properties are,


ho = 55 kJ / kg , h1 = 16.6 kJ / kg , h2 = h3 = hS = 33 kJ / kg
ω 2 = 4.8 g / kg da , ω 3 = 8.2 g / kg da , v o = 0.8613 m3 / kg
ω S = 6.8 g / kg da , ω a = 8.5 g / kg da
V& 0.65
&o = o =
m = 0.755 kg / s
v o 0.8613
RC = m & o (ho − h1 ), RC = 0.755 × (55 − 16.6) = 28.992 kW = 8.283 TR

Power = m
& o (h2 − h1 ), Power = 0.755 × (55 − 33) = 16.61 kW

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‫‪Air washer efficiency and bypass factor,‬‬
‫‪ω 3 − ω 2 8.2 − 4.8‬‬
‫= ‪η washer‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.9189 = 91.89 %‬‬
‫‪ω a − ω 2 8.5 − 4.8‬‬

‫‪BFwashwe = 1 − η washer = 1 − 0.9189 = 0.081 = 8.1 %‬‬

‫‪Mass balance of air after bypassed and air washer,‬‬


‫‪& o −m‬‬
‫‪(m‬‬ ‫‪& b )ω 3 + m‬‬
‫‪& bω 2 = m‬‬
‫‪& oω S‬‬

‫‪& o −m‬‬
‫‪(m‬‬ ‫‪& b )ω 3 + m‬‬
‫‪& bω 2 = m‬‬
‫‪& oω S ,‬‬ ‫‪(0.755 − m‬‬
‫‪& b ) × 8.2 + m‬‬
‫‪& b × 4.8 = 0.755 × 6.8‬‬

‫‪& b = 0.311 kg / s‬‬


‫‪m‬‬

‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻭﻯ )‪(Winter Air Conditioning Systems‬‬


‫ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻭﻯ ﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﻓﺌﺔ ﻭﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻔﻰ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺤﻤﺎل ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻹﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﺤﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔﹰ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻘﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺭﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺇﻤﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﺴﺨﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ‪Pre-‬‬
‫‪ heater‬ﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺜﻡ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻁﻴﺏ ‪ Air washer‬ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‬
‫‪ Re-heater‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺸﻜل )‪.(٥-٨‬‬

‫‪Fig. 8-5 Winter air conditioning system‬‬


‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل )‪ (٦-٨‬ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤـﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ‪ S‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ‪ ، TS = TR + 5 ~ 10 o C‬ﻭﻟﻜـﻥ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻁﺔ ‪ S‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ ‪ ω S > ω R R‬ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜـﺎﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﻟـﺴﺎﻟﺏ‬

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‫ ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ‬،S→R ‫ ﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻹﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬R ‫ ﻴﻤﻴﻨﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬RSHF ‫ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺨﻁ‬
‫ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠـﺏ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓـﺔ‬ω S < ω R R ‫ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬S\ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬
\

‫ ﺃﻤﺎ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻁﻴـﺏ‬، S\→R ‫ ﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻹﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬R ‫ ﻴﻤﻴﻨﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﻔل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ‬RSHF ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺨﻁ‬
.‫ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺩﻴﺎﺒﺎﺘﻴﻜﻰ ﺒﺜﺒﻭﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺜﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎ‬Humidification ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬

Fig. 8-6 Winter air conditioning processes

Example 8-5
Air flow of 11 m3/min is supplied to air conditioning room at 24 oC db and 50 %
RH. The outside air conditions at 10 oC db and 90 % RH. The return air is mixed
with the fresh air before entering the primary heater in ratio of 2 to 1 by weight.
The air is first preheated until its wet bulb temperature is equal to the room wet
bulb temperature. Then, the air is adiabatic saturated in air washer to 90 % RH.
Finally the air is reheated to 35 oC before being supplied to the room. Determine
the heat added in both two heaters in kW, the mass of water evaporated in the air
washer, and the air washer efficiency.
Data: t R = 24 o
C db, RH R = 50 %, t o = 10 o
C db, RH o = 90 %, m
& a = 11 m3 / min
& o = 2, t S = 35
&R /m
m o
C db, RH 2 = 90 %
Required: Power1 , Power 2 , η washer
Solution
From Psychrometric chart as Fig. 8-6 and the air properties are,

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hR = 47.83 kJ / kg , v R = 0.8546 m3 / kg , ho = 27.35 kJ / kg , v o = 0.8111 m3 / kg
V& 11
&a = a =
m = 0.215 kg / s
vR 60 × 0.8546
Heat balance of mixed point m,
& o ho + m
m & R hR = m& ahm, m &R /m& o = 2, m &a = m
&R +m
& o = 3m
&o
& o × 27.35 + 2m
m & o × 47.83 = (m
& o + 2m& o )h m
hm = 41 kg / s, h1 = hR = h2 = 47.83 kg / s
Process m→1→2→S, sensible heating from m to 1at h1 = hR , adiabatic air washer
from 1 to 2 at 90 % RH, sensible heating from 2 to S at 35 oC db.
hS = 65 .3 kJ / kg , ω1 = 8.5 g / kg da , ω 2 = 11 .8 g / kg da , ω a = 12 .3 g / kg da
Power1 = m
& a (h1 − hm ) = 0.215 × (47.83 − 41) = 1.468 kW

Power 2 = m
& a (hS − h2 ) = 0.215 × (65.3 − 47.83) = 3.756 kW

ω 2 − ω1 11.8 − 8.5
η washer = = = 0.86.84 = 86.84 %
ω a − ω1 12.3 − 8.5

Example 8-6
A winter air conditioning unit, consists of preheating coil, adiabatic air washer and
reheating coil is used to maintain the condition inside a room at 25 oC db and 50 %
RH. The re-circulated air is mixed with fresh air at equal parts by weight before
the preheating coil. An amount of 56.6 m3/min fresh air is supplied to the unit at 5
o
C db and 90 % RH. The air leaves the humidifier at 85 % RH and leaves the
reheating coil at 33 oC db and 35 % RH. Representation the processes on the
Psychrometeric chart and calculate the heating capacity of each heating coil, the
rate of water to be consumed in the humidifier, and the humidifying efficiency.
Data: t R = 25 o C db, RH R = 50 %, t o = 5 o C db, RH o = 90 %, m& R = m& o
V&o = 56.6 m3 /min, RH 2 = 85 % t S = 33 o
C db, RH S = 35 %
Required: Power1 , Power 2 , m& w , η washer
Solution
From Psychrometric chart as Fig. 8-5 and the air properties are,
hR = 50.34 kJ / kg , ho = 17.23 kJ / kg , v o = 0.7943 m3 / kg
V& 56.6
&o = o =
m = 1.188 kg / s
vo 60 × 0.7943

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Heat balance of mixing process state R with state o by equal mass,
& o ho + m
m & R hR = m & a hm, m &R = m &o, m&a = m &R +m& o = 2m
& o = 2 × 1.188 = 2.376 kg / s
&R = m
m &o, m &a = m &R +m & o = 2m & o = 2 × 1.188 = 2.376 kg / s
& o × 50.34 + m
m & o × 17.23 = 2m & ohm
hm = 33.79 kg / s
State S at, t S = 33 o C db, RH S = 35 % , hS = 61.42 kJ / kg , ω S = 11.01 g / kg da
Process S→2, sensible heating from 2 to S, state 2 at RH = 85 %
h2 = 46.1 kJ / kg , ω 2 = ω S = 11.01 g / kg da
Process 1→2, adiabatic air washer from 1 to 2 at 85 % RH,
h1 = 46.1 kJ / kg , ω1 = ω m = 7.4 g / kg da , ω a = 11.5 g / kg da
Power1 = m& a (h1 − hm ) = 2.376 × (46.1 − 33.79) = 29.249 kW

Power 2 = m
& a (hS − h2 ) = 2.376 × (61.42 − 46.1) = 36.4 kW

& a (ω 2 − ω1 ) = 2.376 × (11.01 − 7.4) × 10 −3 × 60 = 0.515 kg / s


&w = m
m

ω 2 − ω1 11.01 − 7.4
η washer = = = 0.8805 = 88.05 %
ω a − ω1 11.50 − 7.4

Example 8-7
A winter air conditioning unit consists of a preheating coil a spray system and a
reheating coil. The unit is designed to handle 3200 kg of air per hour and 100 % of
which is fresh air. The heat loss from the space is 9 kW. The outside air enters the
unit at 7 ºC db and 4 ºC wb. The air leaves the spray system at 90 % RH. The unit
delivers the air at 33 ºC db and 30 % RH. Note that SHF=1, determine the
condition maintained inside the space, and the heating capacities of preheating and
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reheating coil.
Data: t o = 7 o
C db, t o = 4 o
C wb, RH 2 = 90 %, m
& a = 3200 kg / hr = 0.889 kg / s
Qt = 9 kW, RSHF = 1, t S = 33 o
C db, RH S = 30 %

Required: Room conditions , Power1 , Power 2


Solution

From Psychrometric chart, and the air properties are,


hS = 57.5 kJ / kg , h2 = 38.5 kJ / kg , ho = 16.6 kJ / kg
Process 2→S, sensible heating and state S at 33 oC db and 30 % RH. The state 2 is
at the horizontal line at RH = 90 %.
h2 = 38.5 kJ / kg , ω 2 = 9.6 g / kg da
Process 1→2, adiabatic air washer and state 1 at cross with sensible heating line
from state o which at 7 oC db and 4 oC wb.
h1 = 38.5 kJ / kg , ω1 = 3.8 g / kg da
Room heat load from state S to state R horizontal line, SHF = 1
Qt = m
& a (hS − hR ), 9 = 0.889 × (57.5 − hR ), hR = 47.4 kJ / kg
t1 = 23 o
C db, RH R = 55 %

Power1 = m
& a (h1 − ho ) = 0.889 × (38.5 − 16.6) = 19.469 kW

Power 2 = m
& a (hS − h2 ) = 0.889 × (57.5 − 38.5) = 16.891 kW

Example 8-8
In air conditioning system shown below, all dehumidification occurs in the
adsorbent dehumidifier (Adiabatic dehumidification). Sketch the cycle on the
Psychrometric chart and find the condition of air leaving the adsorbent

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dehumidifier, and the amount of water required for cooling the air in each cooler.
Data: t1 = 35 o C db, t1 = 24 o C wb, V&1 = 70.8 m3 / min, t 2 = t 5 = 27 o
C
t 8 = 27 C db, t 8 = 17.5 C wb, V&8 = 127 m / min
o o 3

V&a = 85 m3 / min, V&b = 42 m3 / min


Qt = 9 kW, RSHF = 1, t S = 33 o
C db, RH S = 30 %

Required: Conditions of state 4, m& w1 , m& w2


Solution

From Psychrometric chart, and the air properties are,


h1 = 71.75 kJ / kg , v1 = 0.8931 m3 / kg , ω1 = 14.24 g / kg da

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h8 = 49.06 kJ / kg , v8 = 0.8622 m3 / kg , ω8 = 8.58 g / kg da
V& 70.8
m& 1 = a1 = = 1.321 kg / s
v1 60 × 0.8931
V& 85
m& b1 = b1 = = 1.643 kg / s
v8 60 × 0.8622
V& 42
m& b2 = b2 = = 0.812 kg / s
v8 60 × 0.8622
Process 1→2, sensible cooling and state 2 at 27 oC db, h2 = 63.49 kJ / kg
Heat balance at mixing point b1, to locate state 3 at 27 oC.
m& 1h1 + m
& b1 h8 = (m
&1 + m
& b1 )h3
1.321 × 71.75 + 1.643 × 49.06 = (1.321 + 1.643) × h3
h3 = 59.17 kJ / kg , ω 3 = 12.5 g / kg da
Supplied air and room total heat load,
& a = (m
m &1 + m& b1 + m
& b 2 ) = (1.321 + 1.643 + 0.812) = 3.776 kg / s
Qt = m& a (h8 − h7 ), 63 = 3.776 × (49.06 − h7 ), ∴ h7 = 32.38 kJ / kg
Room latent heat load, sensible heat, and room sensible heat factor,
QL = m
& w × h fg = (0.68 / 60) × 2437.8 = 27.62 kJ / kg
QS = Qt − Q L = 63 − 27.62 = 35.37 kJ / kg
RSHF = QS / Qt = 35.37 − 63 = 0.56
State 7 at cross of RSHF with h7,
Process 6→7 sensible cooling and state 6 at 27 oC db, h6 = 41.5 kJ / kg
Heat balance at mixing point b2, to locate state 5 at at 27 oC db.
m& 5 h5 + m
& b 2 h8 = (m
&5 + m
& b 2 )h6
(1.321 + 1.643) × h5 + 0.812 × 49.06 = (1.321 + 1.643 + 0.812) × 41.5
h5 = 39.43 kJ / kg
Process 4→5 sensible cooling and state 4 at the intersect of adiabatic line from
state 3 and horizontal line from state 5.
h4 = 59.17 kJ / kg , t 4 = 45.5 o
C db, ω 4 = 4.8 g / kg da
Heat balance of cooler 1,
& w1C Pw ∆t w = m
m & 1 (h1 − h2 )
& w1 × 4.18 × (17.5 − 13) = 1.321 × (71.75 − 63.49), ∴ m
m & w1 = 0.5801 kg/s
Heat balance of cooler 2,
& w2 C Pw ∆t w = m
m & 6 (h6 − h7 )
& w2 × 4.18 × (17.5 − 13) = 3.776 × (41.5 − 32.38), ∴ m
m & w2 = 1.8308 kg/s

Problems
1. A certain building is to be air conditioned in summer. The following data are
given. The outside air is 38 ºC db, 25 ºC wb, and inside air 24 ºC db, 50 % RH.
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Estimated heat from the building is 17.6 kW, electric lighting and machines are
40 kW. The total number of persons is 100, and sensible heat per person is 80
W and latent heat per person is 103 W. The ratio of return air and fresh air is
2:1 by mass. The air leaves the cooling coil at 90 % R.H. Determine the
sensible heat factor, the total amount of conditioned air, the cooling coil dew
point, the cooling coil capacity in TR, the cooling coil efficiency, and the rate
of water removed from the air.
2. In a summer air conditioning system, employing evaporative cooling equal
masses of fresh air and return air, after mixing air first pre-cooled then
adiabatically humidified to 100 % R.H by passing through a spray water
system. The outside air conditions are 35 ºC db and 17 ºC wb. The inside air
conditions are 27 ºC db, and 21 ºC wb. Internal sensible heat gain is 30 kW and
latent heat gain is 15 kW. Find the temperature to which the air is pre-cooled,
the temperature to which the sprayed water must be held, the amount of
supplied air, the capacity of the pre-cooler, and the make up water.

3. The following information was obtained in designing the summer air


conditioning plant. The outside design conditions are 38 ºC db, 28 ºC wb and
the inside design conditions are 21 ºC db, 70 % RH. Internal sensible heat gain
is 175 kW and internal latent heat gain is 65 kW. Outside fresh air to total air is
50 % by mass. Temperature difference between supply air and return air is 8 ºC
db. Determine the conditions of the supply air, the quantity of supply air, the
cooling capacity of the plant, the cooling coil efficiency and by pass factor, and
the rate of water removed from the air.
4. A summer air conditioning systems consists of water chiller and by pass. Uses
return air before the water chiller and by pass air after it. The given data are,
inside conditions 26ºC db & 50 % R.H and outside conditions 35ºC db & 26ºC
wb. Fresh air for ventilation is 2 m3/s. The internal sensible heat gain is 40 kW
and internal latent heat gain is 17.5 kW. The relative humidity of air leaving
water chiller is 90 % and the temperature difference between inside and supply
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air is 9 ºC db. Equal masses for return and by pass air. Determine the
refrigerating capacity of the water chiller and the condensate water by lit/min.
5. A winter air conditioning unit, consists of preheating coil, adiabatic air washer
and reheating coil is used to maintain the condition inside a room at 25 oC db
and 50 % RH. The re-circulated air is mixed with fresh air at equal parts by
weight before the preheating coil. An amount of 56.6 m3/min fresh air is
supplied to the unit at 5 oC db and 90 % RH. The air leaves the humidifier at 85
% RH and leaves the reheating coil at 30 oC db and 45 % RH. Draw a sketch
for this unit and its representation on the Psychrometeric chart. Then calculate
the heating capacity of each heating coil, the rate of water to be consumed in
the humidifier, and the humidifying efficiency.
6. A winter air conditioning unit consists of air pre-heater, air washer and air
reheater. The re-circulated air is admitted partially as return air before the air
preheated and the rest is by passed after the air washer. Inside condition is 25
ºC db and 50 % RH. Outside condition is 5 ºC db and 70 % RH. Fresh air
enters the systems at the rate of 28 m3/min. Temperature of air leaving pre-
heater equal 21 ºC db and the relative humidity of air leaving air washer is 95
%. The temperature difference of supply air is high than room air by 7 ºC db.
Equal masses of fresh air, return air and by-pass air are used, draw the system
with its all details and represent it in the Psychrometric chart, then calculate the
capacity of both pre-heater and re-heater, internal heating load, and make up
water.

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