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Air Conditioning Systems

ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻫﻰ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻰ ﻟﻠﺜﺭﻤﻭﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﺎ ﻜﻤﻀﺨﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﻌﻤل ﻜﻨﻅﺎﻡ

ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻑ ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺩﻓﺌﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻟﻜﻰ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ

ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺎ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ ،ﻭﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ Summer air

conditioningﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺸﺘﻭﻯ ،Winter air conditioningﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ

ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺏ ،ﻓﻔﻰ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ

ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻴﻑ ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﻭﺍﺀ ﺭﻁﺏ ﺃﻗل ﻓﻰ

ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺃﻗل ﻓﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ،ﻭﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻰ ﻴﻤﺭ

ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺩﻯ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﺘﻘل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﺎﺜﻑ ﺒﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ،ﺃﻤﺎ

ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻭﻯ ﻓﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﻭﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻟﺭﻓﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ

ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ،ﻭﻓﻰ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻔﻰ

ﻟﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻭﻴﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭﺍﹰ ﻟﻠﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ

ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﻤل ﺒﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺠﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ.

ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺘﻌﻤل ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ

ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ TR = 25 o C ± 2ﻭﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ φ R = 50 % ± 5ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ،ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ

ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ Room heat loadﻴﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﻤل ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﻤﺤﺴﻭﺱ QSﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ

ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺴﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ ،ﻭﺤﻤل ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﻜﺎﻤﻥ Q Lﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ ،ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ

ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺴﻭﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻰ ﻟﻠﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺘﺴﻤﻰ Room sensible heat factor,

،RSHFﻭﻴﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻟﺨﻔﺽ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ

ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ.

ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻤﺭ ﺘﺠﻨﻴﺒﻰ

)(Summer air conditioning system without by pass

ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ) (١-٨ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﻪ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ ﻗﺒل ﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ

ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ،ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل ) (٢-٨ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ.

ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ Fresh airﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺠﻊ Return airﻟﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭﻩ ﻓﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ Air

handling unitﺜﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ،ﻭﻓﻰ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﻴﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻠﺘﺭ ﻟﺤﺠﺯ ﺍﻷﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻟﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ

ﺜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺴﻁﺤﺔ ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﺩﻯ ﻟﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻴﺒﺭﺩ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﺎﺜﻑ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺒﺨﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ

ﺜﻡ ﻴﻤﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻭﺍﺼل ﻟﺤﺠﺯ ﻗﻁﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﺜﻑ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺭﻭﺤﺔ ﻟﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺨﻼل ﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻔﺎﻕ

ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻜﻭﻥS ﻭﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻫﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ،ﻭﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﻟﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ

.90 % ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ5 ~ 10 oC ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻰ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ

ﻭﺒﻌﻤل ﺇﺘـﺯﺍﻥ ﺤـﺭﺍﺭﻯ، ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﺏR ﻭﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔo ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻊ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ

ﺜﻡ ﻴﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻠـﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴـﺩ، ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺘﺒﻌﺎﹰ ﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻁm ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻁ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ

ﻭﻫـﻰ ﻏﺎﻟﺒـﺎﹰ ﻤـﺎ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﺒﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﻨـﺴﺒﻴﺔS ﻓﺘﻘل ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺘﻪ ﻭﺘﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ

ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻨﺤﺩﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓa ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔφ = 100 % ﻴﺘﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺨﻁm→S ﻭﺇﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ، φ S = 90 %

ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﻭﺤـﺔ ﺇﻟـﻰS ﺜﻡ ﻴﺩﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ، Apparatus dew Point, Adp ﺴﻁﺢ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ

.ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ

Room heat load S→R,

Qt = m

& a (hR − hS ) (8-1)

Qcoil = m

& a (hm − hS ) (8-2)

hm − hS

η coil = (8-3)

hm − ha

&w = m

m & a (ω m − ω S ) (8-4)

Example 8-1

An air conditioning room is maintained at 25 oC db and RH 50 %. The ambient

conditions are 38 oC db and 27 oC wb. The room has sensible heat gain of 40 kW

and latent heat gain of 10 kW. The re-circulated air contains 30 % by weight fresh

air. The re-circulated air is supplied to the room at 14 oC. Calculate, the sensible

heat factor, the total amount of conditioned air, the cooling coil dew point, the

cooling coil capacity in TR, the cooling coil efficiency, and the rate of water

removed from the air.

Data: t R = 25 o C , RH R = 50 %, t o = 38 o C db, t o = 27 o

& o = 0.3 m

C wb , m &a

QS = 40 kW, QL = 10 kW , t S = 14 o

C

Required: RSHF , m& a , Adp, RC, η coil , m& w

Solution

As shown in Fig. 8-2 of Psychrometric chart and the air properties are,

hR = 50.34 kJ / kg , ho = 84.55 kJ / kg

& o = 0.3 m

m &a, m & R = 0.7 m

&a

Qt = QS + Q L = 40 + 10 = 50 kW

QS 40

RSHF = = = 0.8

QS + Q L 40 + 10

& o ho + m

m & R hR = m

& a hm

0.3 m & a × 50.34 = m

& a hm

hm = 60.6 kJ / kg , ω m = 12.5 g / kg da

S to R, room total heat released parallel to RSHF.

hS = 35.5 kJ / kg , ω S = 8.7 g / kg da , ha = 27 kJ / kg , t a = Adp = 9 o

C

Re-circulated air,

Qt = m

& a (hR − hS ), 50 = m

& a (50.34 − 35.5), ∴m

& a = 3.369 kg / s

& a (hm − hS ) 3.369 × (60.6 − 35.5)

m

RC = = = 24.162 TR

3.5 3.5

Cooling coil efficiency,

hm − hS 60.6 − 35.5

η coil = = = 0.747 = 74.7 %

hm − h a 60.6 − 27

Condensate water,

&w = m

m & a (ω m − ω S ), & w = 3.369 × (12.5 − 8.7) × 10 −3 × 60 = 0.768 kg / min

m

Example 8-2

In a summer air conditioning system shown the fresh air is mixed with return air

by equal mass before entering the cooling coil. After pre-cooled the air

adiabatically humidified in air washer to 90 % RH. The outside air conditions

are 35 ºC db and 17 ºC wb. The inside air conditions are 27 ºC db and 21 ºC wb.

Internal sensible heat gain is 35 kW and latent heat gain is 15 kW. Estimate; the

temperature to which the air is pre-cooled, the temperature to which the sprayed

water must be held, the amount of supplied air, the capacity of the pre-cooler, and

the make up water.

Data: t R = 27 C db, t R = 21 o C wb, , t o = 35

o o

C db, t o = 17 o

C wb

QS = 35 kW, Q L = 15 kW, RH S = 90 %

Required: t1 , t S , m& a , RC , m& w

Solution

hR = 60.68 kJ / kg , ho = 47.3 kJ / kg

&o = m

m & R = 0.5 m

&a

Qt = QS + Q L = 35 + 15 = 50 kW

QS 35

RSHF = = = 0.7

QS + Q L 35 + 15

Website: http://guider55.4t.com ٩٩ Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

& o ho + m

m & R hR = m

& a hm

0.5 m & a × 60.68 = m

& a hm

hm = 54 kJ / kg , ω m = 9 g / kg da

90 % RH, from S to 1 adiabatic line at cross with sensible cooling m→1.

t1 = 23.6 o

C dbt, ω1 = ω m

hS = 47 kJ / kg , ω S = 11.5 g / kg da , t S = 17.9 o

C db, t a = Adp = 16.6 o

C

Re-circulated air,

Qt = m

& a (hR − hS ), 50 = m

& a (60.68 − 47), ∴m

& a = 3.655 kg / s

& a (hm − h1 ) 3.655 × (54 − 47)

m

RC = = = 7.31 TR

3.5 3.5

Air washer efficiency,

t1 − t S 23.6 − 17.9

η washer = = = 0.8143 = 1.43 %

t1 − t a 23.6 − 16.6

&w = m

m & a (ω S − ω1 ), & w = 3.655 × (11.5 − 9) × 10 −3 × 60 = 0.5483 kg / min

m

(Summer air conditioning system with by pass)

Website: http://guider55.4t.com ١٠٠ Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

( ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺼﻴﻔﻰ ﺒﻪ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺯﺝ ﻗﺒل ﻤﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﺒﻨـﺴﺒﺔ٣-٨) ﺍﻟﺸﻜل

ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻟﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻤﻤﺭ ﺘﺠﻨﻴﺒﻰ ﻟﺨﻠﻁ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺨـﺎﺭﺝ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻠـﻑ

ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻨﻴﺒﻰ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ،ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺭﻴﺩ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻫﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ

( ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﺠـﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ٤-٨) ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻜل،S ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻓﻭﻉ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ

.ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ

Example 8-3

A summer air conditioning systems consists of water chiller and air re-heater as

shown below. The return air is mixed partially before the water chiller and by

passed after it with equal masses. The inside conditions are 25ºC db and 50 % RH

and outside conditions are 38 ºC db and 26ºC wb. Fresh air for ventilation is 0.5

m3/s. The internal sensible heat gain is 21 kW and internal latent heat gain is 7

kW. The air leaving water chiller saturated at 10 oC and the temperature difference

between inside and supply air is 8 ºC db. Determine the refrigeration capacity of

the water chiller and the heating capacity of the air reheated.

Data: t R = 25 o C , RH R = 50 %, t o = 38 o C db, t o = 26 o C wb , m& o = 0.5 m3 / s

QS = 21 kW, Q L = 7 kW , t S = 25 − 8 = 17 o

C , RH 1 = 100 %, t1 = 10 o

C

Required: RSHF , m& a , RC, Power reh

Solution

As shown in Fig. 8-4 of Psychrometric chart and the air properties are,

hR = 50.34 kJ / kg , ho = 80.05 kJ / kg , v o = 0.9047 m3 /kg, h1 = 29.5 kJ / kg

V& 0.5

& R1 = m

m &o = o =

& R2 , m = 0.5527 kg / s

v o 0.9047

Qt = QS + Q L = 21 + 7 = 28 kW

QS 21

RSHF = = = 0.75

Qt 28

hS = 37.5 kJ / kg

Qt = m

& a (hR − hS ), 28 = m

& a (50.34 − 37.5), ∴m

& a = 2.181 kg / s

& R1 + m

m & R2 = m&a −m &o

∴m & R1 = m& R2 = (2.181 − 0.5527) / 2 = 0.8142 kg / s

& o ho + m

m & R1 hR = (m

&o +m

& R1 )hm

&o + m

(m & R1 )h1 + m

& R 2 hR = m

& a h2

& a (hm − h1 ) 2.181 × (62.35 − 29.5)

m

RC = = = 20.47 TR

3.5 3.5

Capacity of re-heater,

Power = m

& a (hS − h2 ) = 2.181 × (37.5 − 37.28) = 0.479 kW

ﻧﻼﺣﻆ أن ﻗﺪرة اﻟﺴﺨﺎن اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﻰ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة ﺟﺪاً ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﻜﻤﯿﺔ ھﻮاء اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﻷن ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ھﻮاء اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ

واﻟﺴﺨﺎن اﻟﻜﮭﺮﺑﻰ ھﻨﺎ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ،ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﮭﻮاء اﻟﻘﺎدم ﻓﻰ اﻟﻤﻤﺮ اﻟﺘﺠﻨﯿﺒﻰ واﻟﮭﻮاء اﻟﺨﺎرج ﻣﻦ ﻣﻠﻒ اﻟﺘﺒﺮﯾﺪ

.ﻛﻤﯿﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺮارة اﻟﻤﺤﺴﻮﺳﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻰ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ھﻮاء اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻨﮫ ﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺣﻤﻞ ﺣﺮارى

Example 8-4

In an air conditioning unit, air is supplied at a rate of 0.65 m3/s with 25ºC db and

60 % RH. The unit consists of a cooling coil where air is cooled and dehumidified

to 5ºC db and 4 ºC wb. Then, the air passes through an electric heater and leaves it

at 20ºC db. After that, air passes through an air washer, where it is humidified to

90 % RH. Part of the air is by passed across the air washer to have final air relative

humidity of 60 %. Calculate, the capacity of cooling coil, the heater power, the by

pass factor for air washer, and the bypassed low rate.

Data: t o = 25 o C , RH o = 60 %, t1 = 5 o C db, t1 = 4 o C wb , m& o = 0.65 m3 / s

t 2 = 25 o

C , RH 3 = 90 %, RH S = 60 %

Required: RC , Power , BFwasher , m& b

Solution

ho = 55 kJ / kg , h1 = 16.6 kJ / kg , h2 = h3 = hS = 33 kJ / kg

ω 2 = 4.8 g / kg da , ω 3 = 8.2 g / kg da , v o = 0.8613 m3 / kg

ω S = 6.8 g / kg da , ω a = 8.5 g / kg da

V& 0.65

&o = o =

m = 0.755 kg / s

v o 0.8613

RC = m & o (ho − h1 ), RC = 0.755 × (55 − 16.6) = 28.992 kW = 8.283 TR

Power = m

& o (h2 − h1 ), Power = 0.755 × (55 − 33) = 16.61 kW

Air washer efficiency and bypass factor,

ω 3 − ω 2 8.2 − 4.8

= η washer = = 0.9189 = 91.89 %

ω a − ω 2 8.5 − 4.8

& o −m

(m & b )ω 3 + m

& bω 2 = m

& oω S

& o −m

(m & b )ω 3 + m

& bω 2 = m

& oω S , (0.755 − m

& b ) × 8.2 + m

& b × 4.8 = 0.755 × 6.8

m

ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻭﻯ ﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺩﻓﺌﺔ ﻭﻟﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ

ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻰ ﻟﻠﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ،ﻓﻔﻰ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻟﺸﺘﺎﺀ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ

ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺤﻤﺎل ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻹﻀﺎﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻬﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ،ﻭﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﺤﻤﺎل

ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔﹰ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻘﻑ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺒﻴﻙ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺴﺭﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ

ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺇﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺠﻰ ،ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﺒﺔ

ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺇﻤﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﻪ ،ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻤﺴﺨﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ Pre-

heaterﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺜﻡ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻁﻴﺏ Air washerﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻤﻠﻑ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ

Re-heaterﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻰ ﺸﻜل ).(٥-٨

ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻜل ) (٦-٨ﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻴﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻜﺭﻭﻤﺘﺭﻴﺔ ،ﻭﻤـﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺤـﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ

ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺨل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ Sﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ، TS = TR + 5 ~ 10 o Cﻭﻟﻜـﻥ

ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻁﺔ Sﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔ ω S > ω R Rﻓﻰ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜـﺎﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﻟـﺴﺎﻟﺏ

ﺃﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ،S→R ﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻹﺘﺠﺎﻩR ﻴﻤﻴﻨﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔRSHF ﻓﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺨﻁ

ﻓﻰ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠـﺏ ﻓـﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓـﺔω S < ω R R ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔS\ ﻟﻠﻨﻘﻁﺔ

\

ﺃﻤﺎ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻁﻴـﺏ، S\→R ﺘﺒﻊ ﺍﻹﺘﺠﺎﻩR ﻴﻤﻴﻨﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﻔل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻁﺔRSHF ﺍﻟﻐﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺨﻁ

. ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺩﻴﺎﺒﺎﺘﻴﻜﻰ ﺒﺜﺒﻭﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺜﺎﻟﺒﻴﺎHumidification ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ

Example 8-5

Air flow of 11 m3/min is supplied to air conditioning room at 24 oC db and 50 %

RH. The outside air conditions at 10 oC db and 90 % RH. The return air is mixed

with the fresh air before entering the primary heater in ratio of 2 to 1 by weight.

The air is first preheated until its wet bulb temperature is equal to the room wet

bulb temperature. Then, the air is adiabatic saturated in air washer to 90 % RH.

Finally the air is reheated to 35 oC before being supplied to the room. Determine

the heat added in both two heaters in kW, the mass of water evaporated in the air

washer, and the air washer efficiency.

Data: t R = 24 o

C db, RH R = 50 %, t o = 10 o

C db, RH o = 90 %, m

& a = 11 m3 / min

& o = 2, t S = 35

&R /m

m o

C db, RH 2 = 90 %

Required: Power1 , Power 2 , η washer

Solution

From Psychrometric chart as Fig. 8-6 and the air properties are,

hR = 47.83 kJ / kg , v R = 0.8546 m3 / kg , ho = 27.35 kJ / kg , v o = 0.8111 m3 / kg

V& 11

&a = a =

m = 0.215 kg / s

vR 60 × 0.8546

Heat balance of mixed point m,

& o ho + m

m & R hR = m& ahm, m &R /m& o = 2, m &a = m

&R +m

& o = 3m

&o

& o × 27.35 + 2m

m & o × 47.83 = (m

& o + 2m& o )h m

hm = 41 kg / s, h1 = hR = h2 = 47.83 kg / s

Process m→1→2→S, sensible heating from m to 1at h1 = hR , adiabatic air washer

from 1 to 2 at 90 % RH, sensible heating from 2 to S at 35 oC db.

hS = 65 .3 kJ / kg , ω1 = 8.5 g / kg da , ω 2 = 11 .8 g / kg da , ω a = 12 .3 g / kg da

Power1 = m

& a (h1 − hm ) = 0.215 × (47.83 − 41) = 1.468 kW

Power 2 = m

& a (hS − h2 ) = 0.215 × (65.3 − 47.83) = 3.756 kW

ω 2 − ω1 11.8 − 8.5

η washer = = = 0.86.84 = 86.84 %

ω a − ω1 12.3 − 8.5

Example 8-6

A winter air conditioning unit, consists of preheating coil, adiabatic air washer and

reheating coil is used to maintain the condition inside a room at 25 oC db and 50 %

RH. The re-circulated air is mixed with fresh air at equal parts by weight before

the preheating coil. An amount of 56.6 m3/min fresh air is supplied to the unit at 5

o

C db and 90 % RH. The air leaves the humidifier at 85 % RH and leaves the

reheating coil at 33 oC db and 35 % RH. Representation the processes on the

Psychrometeric chart and calculate the heating capacity of each heating coil, the

rate of water to be consumed in the humidifier, and the humidifying efficiency.

Data: t R = 25 o C db, RH R = 50 %, t o = 5 o C db, RH o = 90 %, m& R = m& o

V&o = 56.6 m3 /min, RH 2 = 85 % t S = 33 o

C db, RH S = 35 %

Required: Power1 , Power 2 , m& w , η washer

Solution

From Psychrometric chart as Fig. 8-5 and the air properties are,

hR = 50.34 kJ / kg , ho = 17.23 kJ / kg , v o = 0.7943 m3 / kg

V& 56.6

&o = o =

m = 1.188 kg / s

vo 60 × 0.7943

Heat balance of mixing process state R with state o by equal mass,

& o ho + m

m & R hR = m & a hm, m &R = m &o, m&a = m &R +m& o = 2m

& o = 2 × 1.188 = 2.376 kg / s

&R = m

m &o, m &a = m &R +m & o = 2m & o = 2 × 1.188 = 2.376 kg / s

& o × 50.34 + m

m & o × 17.23 = 2m & ohm

hm = 33.79 kg / s

State S at, t S = 33 o C db, RH S = 35 % , hS = 61.42 kJ / kg , ω S = 11.01 g / kg da

Process S→2, sensible heating from 2 to S, state 2 at RH = 85 %

h2 = 46.1 kJ / kg , ω 2 = ω S = 11.01 g / kg da

Process 1→2, adiabatic air washer from 1 to 2 at 85 % RH,

h1 = 46.1 kJ / kg , ω1 = ω m = 7.4 g / kg da , ω a = 11.5 g / kg da

Power1 = m& a (h1 − hm ) = 2.376 × (46.1 − 33.79) = 29.249 kW

Power 2 = m

& a (hS − h2 ) = 2.376 × (61.42 − 46.1) = 36.4 kW

&w = m

m

ω 2 − ω1 11.01 − 7.4

η washer = = = 0.8805 = 88.05 %

ω a − ω1 11.50 − 7.4

Example 8-7

A winter air conditioning unit consists of a preheating coil a spray system and a

reheating coil. The unit is designed to handle 3200 kg of air per hour and 100 % of

which is fresh air. The heat loss from the space is 9 kW. The outside air enters the

unit at 7 ºC db and 4 ºC wb. The air leaves the spray system at 90 % RH. The unit

delivers the air at 33 ºC db and 30 % RH. Note that SHF=1, determine the

condition maintained inside the space, and the heating capacities of preheating and

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reheating coil.

Data: t o = 7 o

C db, t o = 4 o

C wb, RH 2 = 90 %, m

& a = 3200 kg / hr = 0.889 kg / s

Qt = 9 kW, RSHF = 1, t S = 33 o

C db, RH S = 30 %

Solution

hS = 57.5 kJ / kg , h2 = 38.5 kJ / kg , ho = 16.6 kJ / kg

Process 2→S, sensible heating and state S at 33 oC db and 30 % RH. The state 2 is

at the horizontal line at RH = 90 %.

h2 = 38.5 kJ / kg , ω 2 = 9.6 g / kg da

Process 1→2, adiabatic air washer and state 1 at cross with sensible heating line

from state o which at 7 oC db and 4 oC wb.

h1 = 38.5 kJ / kg , ω1 = 3.8 g / kg da

Room heat load from state S to state R horizontal line, SHF = 1

Qt = m

& a (hS − hR ), 9 = 0.889 × (57.5 − hR ), hR = 47.4 kJ / kg

t1 = 23 o

C db, RH R = 55 %

Power1 = m

& a (h1 − ho ) = 0.889 × (38.5 − 16.6) = 19.469 kW

Power 2 = m

& a (hS − h2 ) = 0.889 × (57.5 − 38.5) = 16.891 kW

Example 8-8

In air conditioning system shown below, all dehumidification occurs in the

adsorbent dehumidifier (Adiabatic dehumidification). Sketch the cycle on the

Psychrometric chart and find the condition of air leaving the adsorbent

dehumidifier, and the amount of water required for cooling the air in each cooler.

Data: t1 = 35 o C db, t1 = 24 o C wb, V&1 = 70.8 m3 / min, t 2 = t 5 = 27 o

C

t 8 = 27 C db, t 8 = 17.5 C wb, V&8 = 127 m / min

o o 3

Qt = 9 kW, RSHF = 1, t S = 33 o

C db, RH S = 30 %

Solution

h1 = 71.75 kJ / kg , v1 = 0.8931 m3 / kg , ω1 = 14.24 g / kg da

h8 = 49.06 kJ / kg , v8 = 0.8622 m3 / kg , ω8 = 8.58 g / kg da

V& 70.8

m& 1 = a1 = = 1.321 kg / s

v1 60 × 0.8931

V& 85

m& b1 = b1 = = 1.643 kg / s

v8 60 × 0.8622

V& 42

m& b2 = b2 = = 0.812 kg / s

v8 60 × 0.8622

Process 1→2, sensible cooling and state 2 at 27 oC db, h2 = 63.49 kJ / kg

Heat balance at mixing point b1, to locate state 3 at 27 oC.

m& 1h1 + m

& b1 h8 = (m

&1 + m

& b1 )h3

1.321 × 71.75 + 1.643 × 49.06 = (1.321 + 1.643) × h3

h3 = 59.17 kJ / kg , ω 3 = 12.5 g / kg da

Supplied air and room total heat load,

& a = (m

m &1 + m& b1 + m

& b 2 ) = (1.321 + 1.643 + 0.812) = 3.776 kg / s

Qt = m& a (h8 − h7 ), 63 = 3.776 × (49.06 − h7 ), ∴ h7 = 32.38 kJ / kg

Room latent heat load, sensible heat, and room sensible heat factor,

QL = m

& w × h fg = (0.68 / 60) × 2437.8 = 27.62 kJ / kg

QS = Qt − Q L = 63 − 27.62 = 35.37 kJ / kg

RSHF = QS / Qt = 35.37 − 63 = 0.56

State 7 at cross of RSHF with h7,

Process 6→7 sensible cooling and state 6 at 27 oC db, h6 = 41.5 kJ / kg

Heat balance at mixing point b2, to locate state 5 at at 27 oC db.

m& 5 h5 + m

& b 2 h8 = (m

&5 + m

& b 2 )h6

(1.321 + 1.643) × h5 + 0.812 × 49.06 = (1.321 + 1.643 + 0.812) × 41.5

h5 = 39.43 kJ / kg

Process 4→5 sensible cooling and state 4 at the intersect of adiabatic line from

state 3 and horizontal line from state 5.

h4 = 59.17 kJ / kg , t 4 = 45.5 o

C db, ω 4 = 4.8 g / kg da

Heat balance of cooler 1,

& w1C Pw ∆t w = m

m & 1 (h1 − h2 )

& w1 × 4.18 × (17.5 − 13) = 1.321 × (71.75 − 63.49), ∴ m

m & w1 = 0.5801 kg/s

Heat balance of cooler 2,

& w2 C Pw ∆t w = m

m & 6 (h6 − h7 )

& w2 × 4.18 × (17.5 − 13) = 3.776 × (41.5 − 32.38), ∴ m

m & w2 = 1.8308 kg/s

Problems

1. A certain building is to be air conditioned in summer. The following data are

given. The outside air is 38 ºC db, 25 ºC wb, and inside air 24 ºC db, 50 % RH.

Website: http://guider55.4t.com ١١٠ Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

Estimated heat from the building is 17.6 kW, electric lighting and machines are

40 kW. The total number of persons is 100, and sensible heat per person is 80

W and latent heat per person is 103 W. The ratio of return air and fresh air is

2:1 by mass. The air leaves the cooling coil at 90 % R.H. Determine the

sensible heat factor, the total amount of conditioned air, the cooling coil dew

point, the cooling coil capacity in TR, the cooling coil efficiency, and the rate

of water removed from the air.

2. In a summer air conditioning system, employing evaporative cooling equal

masses of fresh air and return air, after mixing air first pre-cooled then

adiabatically humidified to 100 % R.H by passing through a spray water

system. The outside air conditions are 35 ºC db and 17 ºC wb. The inside air

conditions are 27 ºC db, and 21 ºC wb. Internal sensible heat gain is 30 kW and

latent heat gain is 15 kW. Find the temperature to which the air is pre-cooled,

the temperature to which the sprayed water must be held, the amount of

supplied air, the capacity of the pre-cooler, and the make up water.

conditioning plant. The outside design conditions are 38 ºC db, 28 ºC wb and

the inside design conditions are 21 ºC db, 70 % RH. Internal sensible heat gain

is 175 kW and internal latent heat gain is 65 kW. Outside fresh air to total air is

50 % by mass. Temperature difference between supply air and return air is 8 ºC

db. Determine the conditions of the supply air, the quantity of supply air, the

cooling capacity of the plant, the cooling coil efficiency and by pass factor, and

the rate of water removed from the air.

4. A summer air conditioning systems consists of water chiller and by pass. Uses

return air before the water chiller and by pass air after it. The given data are,

inside conditions 26ºC db & 50 % R.H and outside conditions 35ºC db & 26ºC

wb. Fresh air for ventilation is 2 m3/s. The internal sensible heat gain is 40 kW

and internal latent heat gain is 17.5 kW. The relative humidity of air leaving

water chiller is 90 % and the temperature difference between inside and supply

Website: http://guider55.4t.com ١١١ Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

air is 9 ºC db. Equal masses for return and by pass air. Determine the

refrigerating capacity of the water chiller and the condensate water by lit/min.

5. A winter air conditioning unit, consists of preheating coil, adiabatic air washer

and reheating coil is used to maintain the condition inside a room at 25 oC db

and 50 % RH. The re-circulated air is mixed with fresh air at equal parts by

weight before the preheating coil. An amount of 56.6 m3/min fresh air is

supplied to the unit at 5 oC db and 90 % RH. The air leaves the humidifier at 85

% RH and leaves the reheating coil at 30 oC db and 45 % RH. Draw a sketch

for this unit and its representation on the Psychrometeric chart. Then calculate

the heating capacity of each heating coil, the rate of water to be consumed in

the humidifier, and the humidifying efficiency.

6. A winter air conditioning unit consists of air pre-heater, air washer and air

reheater. The re-circulated air is admitted partially as return air before the air

preheated and the rest is by passed after the air washer. Inside condition is 25

ºC db and 50 % RH. Outside condition is 5 ºC db and 70 % RH. Fresh air

enters the systems at the rate of 28 m3/min. Temperature of air leaving pre-

heater equal 21 ºC db and the relative humidity of air leaving air washer is 95

%. The temperature difference of supply air is high than room air by 7 ºC db.

Equal masses of fresh air, return air and by-pass air are used, draw the system

with its all details and represent it in the Psychrometric chart, then calculate the

capacity of both pre-heater and re-heater, internal heating load, and make up

water.

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