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Principal Consultant, EICE International Inc.

What is Flow Assurance?

Economic Justification

to processing Fluid Flow Heat Transfer Fluid Properties Chemical Treatment Integrated Analysis

Pipeline Network

Heavy Oil

Radial Conduction

Free Convection

Forced Convection

Black Oil Modeling

Vapor-Liquid Equilibria

PVT Analysis

Hydrate Inhibition

Wax Suppression

Emulsification

Reservoir Inflow

Nodal Analysis

Artificial Lift

Steam Injection Annulus Radiation Hydrate Prediction Corrosion Pressure Maintenance

CO2 Sequestration Wellbore Heating Wax Deposition Drag Reduction Integrated Asset Model

LNG & NGL Lines Pipeline Cooldown Asphaltene Water Treatment Well Testing

Transient Analysis Transient Analysis Water Analysis Asphaltene Inhibition Well Completion

1

The Challenge of Flow Assurance

Ensure uninterrupted flow 24x7x365 at target rates

Avoid operating in hydrate region for extended periods

Control wax deposition in pipeline

Limit asphaltene precipitation in well

12000 Manage impact of slugs on processing facilities

Design Objectives

10000 Adequate throughput capacity for life of field production

Pressure (psi)

Infrastructure in place to respond operationally

Reservoir

8000

Chemicals

6000 WELLBORE

Insulation

4000 Heating

PIPELINE

Asphaltene

Boosting

Bubble Point

2000

RISER

0

Platform

0 50 100 150 200 250

2

Temperature (°F)

Course Outline

Day 1 –Basics of Flow Assurance

D. Thermodynamics H. Integrated Flow Assurance Analysis

Introduction •Single phase properties – oil, gas and water •Combining fluid flow, heat transfer and

•Introductions •Black oil and empirical models thermodynamics

•What is Flow Assurance •Compositional PVT analysis •Deepwater/subsea systems

•The Challenge (Operations and Design) •Hydrates, wax and asphaltenes prediction •Heavy oil transport

•Course Overview •Scales •Drag reduction

•Monitoring and control

A. Fundamentals of Fluid Flow E. Transport Properties

•Single phase flow •Viscosity prediction methods I. Integrated Production Analysis

•One-dimensional momentum balance equation •Oil-water viscosity – emulsions •The economics of flow assurance

•The concept of friction factor •Other fluid properties •Reservoir decline – how it impacts production

•Pipeline transmission applications •Introduction to artificial lift methods

F. Heat Transfer Analysis •Integrated asset modeling – reservoir,

B. Multiphase Flow Fundamentals •conduction, convection and radiation production, process plant, economics

•Basic multiphase flow concepts •Heat transfer through composite layers

•Flow patterns, holdup and pressure drop •Wellbore heat transfer J. Flow Assurance Considerations in

•Horizontal and near-horizontal flow •Pipeline heat transfer Conceptual Design & Operations

•Vertical, inclined and downward flow •Wellbore and pipeline heating A hands-on session where participants will

learn to apply the concepts discussed in the

C. Multiphase Phenomena in Flow Assurance G. Transient Phenomena preceding sessions in a practical example

•Modeling multiphase flow behavior •Basic principles of single phase transient involving the creation of a field development

•Three-phase oil-gas-water flow flow plan for a hypothetical asset with particular

•Impact of multiphase flow on corrosion / erosion •Multiphase flow transients emphasis on the impact of flow assurance

•Hydrodynamic slugging •Pipeline startup, shut-in and blowdown issues on the overall design and operation.

•Terrain induced slugging

3

A. Fluid Flow Fundamentals

4

Single Phase Flow

Gas Gathering System Condensate, Water, Network

Gas Transmission Throughput, Compression

Gas Distribution Low Pressure Network

Refined Products Batch Movement

Heavy Oil Viscosity

Volatile Hydrocarbon PVT behavior

• Hydraulics

analyze flow and predict pressure from fluid behavior

• Heat Transfer

analyze and predict temperature behavior

• Thermodynamics

how pressure and temperature impact fluid behavior

5

Momentum Balance

From the Law of Energy Conservation:

B

L

A

φ

+ Kinetic Energy at A Pipe = + Kinetic Energy at B

Pressure Gradient due to Friction (Frictional Loss)

+ Pressure Gradient due to Elevation (Potential Energy)

+ Pressure Gradient due to Velocity Change (Kinetic Energy)

where (with appropriate units):

frictional gradient = - f ρ v |v| / (2 gc D)

elevation gradient = - ρ g/ gc . Sin φ

kinetic energy gradient = - ρ v . dv/dL

is relatively small and generally ignored

(except for high velocity gradients, e.g. flare lines)

6

Example A1 – Pipeline Pressure Gradients

Determine the pressure at B, when the pressure at A is 1000 psi

B

D = 12 inch L = 10,000 ft

A v = 25 ft/sec

Φ = 5 deg

ρ = 5 lb/ft3

f = 0.01

= - 0.01 * 5 * 252/ (2 * 32.2 * 1)

= - 0.49 (lbf/ft2) / ft

= - 0.49 / 144 (in^2/ft^2) = -3.37E-3 psi/ft

2) elevation gradient = - ρ g/ gc . Sin φ

= - 5 * sin(5) / 144 = -3.03 E-3 psi/ft

3) kinetic energy gradient = 0

4) Total pressure gradient = - 3.37E-3 - 3.03E-3 = -6.4E-3 psi/ft

5) Pressure at B = 1000 – 10000 * 6.4E-3 = 936 psi

7

Friction Factor

frictional gradient = - f ρ v |v| / (2 gc D)

Moody Chart: f = f(Re,Є/D) Re = v D ρ / (6.72E-4 * μ)

Note: multiplier is to convert viscosity from cp to lb/sec/ft

f = 64 / Re

• Colebrook-White Equation:

f = 1 /(1.74 – 2 log (2 Є/D) + 18.7 / Re f0.5) 2

relative roughness = Є/D

• Jain’s eqn:

1/(f1/2) = 1.14-2 log(e/d+21.25/Re0.9)

2300< Re < 4000

8

Example A2 – Friction Factor

Find the friction factor in a 12-inch gas transmission pipeline, given the following

data: v = 25 ft/sec, D = 12 inch, Є = 0.0018 inch, ρ = 5 lb/ft3, μ = 0.01 cp

2) Reynolds number Re = v (D/12) ρ / (6.72E-4 x μ)

= 25 x (12/12) x 5 / (6.72E-4 x 0.01) = 18,601,190

3) From Moody chart, friction factor f = 0.015 (estimate)

2) Update f for next iteration from Colebrook-White equation:

f = 1 /(1.74 – 2 log (2 Є/D) + 18.7 / Re f0.5)2

= 1 / (1.74 – 2 log (2 x 0.00015) + 18.7 / 18601190 x √0.0185) 2

= 0.01302455

3) Repeat previous step with f’ = 0.01302455

4) Converge until error within tolerance (3 iterations, f=0.01302956)

9

Example A3 – Transition Zone Friction Factor

Determine the friction factor for a 12-inch heavy oil pipeline, given

the following :

v = 1 ft/sec, D = 12 inch, Є = 0.0018 inch, ρ = 60 lb/ft^3, μ = 30 cp

= 1 x (12/12) x 60 / (6.72E-4 x 30) = 2976 (transition)

10

Terminology

Symbol Definition

f Friction factor

ρ Density (lb/ft^3)

v Velocity (ft/sec)

P Pressure (psi)

Re Reynolds number

11

B. Multiphase Flow Fundamentals

12

Basic Concepts of Two-Phase Flow

τwG

Gas Phase (with Liquid Entrainment) AG

VG τi

Diameter

VL τi

Liquid Phase (with Gas Bubbles) AL

hL

τwL

Slippage = vG - vL Holdup HL = AL / (AL + AG)

Extending Single Phase Flow:

New concept of holdup HL as the volumetric liquid phase fraction and HL ns as the no-slip

holdup

HL ns = qL / (qL + qG ) where qL and qG the phase volumetric flow rates at in situ conditions

Significant slippage between phases (gas is faster, except for downhill flow)

HL > HL ns

Frictional pressure gradient much higher (due to interfacial shear τi)

Velocity of wave propagation is orders of magnitude slower

Distribution of phases based on prevailing flow pattern (dependent on geometry, in situ rates,

fluid properties)

Concept of superficial phase velocities:

vSG = qG / Area of Pipe = vG x (1 - HL)

13

and Mixture Velocity, vm = vSL + vSG

Example B1: Multiphase Flow Parameters

Given an average holdup of 0.25, predict all relevant multiphase flow parameters

in a horizontal 3-inch ID flowline operating at a pressure of 147 psia and 100 deg

F producing 1000 BPD at a GOR of 1000 SCF/BBL. Use an average

compressibility factor of 0.9 and assume that none of the gas is in solution.

Area = π D2 / 4 = (3.14) x ( 3/12)2 /4= 0.049 ft2

QL = 1000 BPD x 5.615 (ft3/bbl) / 86400 (sec/day) = 0.065 ft3/sec @ Std conditions

Assuming incompressible liquid, qL= QL = 0.065 ft3/sec

QG = 1000 BPD x 1000 (SCF/bbl) / 86400 (sec/day) = 11.574 ft/sec @ Std conditions

qG = QG x Pstd / (P/z) x (T + 460) / (Tstd+ 460)

= 11.574 x (14.7 / (147/0.9)) x (460+100) / 520 = 1.122 ft3/sec

v SL = qL/ Area = 0.065 / 0.049 = 1.3 ft/sec

v SG = qG / Area = 1.122 / 0.049 = 17.3 ft/sec

HL ns = qL / (qL + qG ) = 0.065 / (0.065 + 1.122) = 0.055

vL = vSL / HL = 1.3 / 0.25 = 5.3 ft/sec

vG = vSG / (1 – HL) = 17.3 / 0.75 = 23 ft/sec

14

Multiphase Flow Patterns

• Horizontal Flow

Stratified (both Smooth and Wavy)

Intermittent (Elongated Bubble and Slug)

Dispersed Bubble

Annular

Vertical Flow

Bubble (Bubbly and Dispersed Bubble)

Intermittent (Slug & Churn)

Annular

Inclined Flow

Upward Inclination (see Vertical Flow)

Downward Inclination (see Horizontal Flow)

Flow pattern boundaries may vary significantly with even slight changes in inclination

angle. As such, empirical horizontal and vertical pattern maps are not suitable for

predicting flow patterns in a pipe or wellbore where the inclination deviates by even a few

degrees from vertical/horizontal. Computer-generated mechanistic models that rigorously

account for inclination (e.g. Barnea et al) are more appropriate for such predictions.

15

Horizontal Flow Patterns

• at high rates in liquid dominated systems

• the flow is a frothy mixture of liquid and entrained gas bubbles

• flow is steady with few oscillations.

• also called as froth or bubble flow.

Stratified Flow

• at low flow rates the liquid and gas separated due to gravity Mandhane Map

• at low gas velocities the liquid surface is smooth, (stratified (Empirical)

smooth)

• at higher gas velocities, the liquid surface becomes wavy, Dispersed

Flow

(stratified wavy, or wavy flow) Bubble,

• some liquid droplets might form in the gas phase. Elongated

Bubble

Slug

Flow

Flow

Annular

Flow

Stratified Flow

pipeline. Wav

• Possible vibration problems, increased corrosion, and e

Flo

downstream equipment problems due to its unsteady behavior. w

• part of the liquid flows as a film around the pipe circumference

• the gas and remainder of the liquid (entrained droplets) flow in the

center

• of the pipe.

• the liquid film thickness asymmetric due to gravity also called as

16 annular-mist or mist flow..

Vertical Flow Patterns

Well Flow

Taitel-Dukler-Barnea Model

(Mechanistic)

Vertical Pipe Flow Patterns

Superficial Liquid Velocity (m/s2)

DISPERSED BUBBLE

BARNEA

BUBBLY

TRANSITON

ANNULAR

SLUG OR CHURN

FLOW FLOW FLOW FLOW

SuperficialLiquid

Superficial Liquid

Gas Velocity

Velocity

Velocity (m/s22)) 2)

(m/s

(m/s

17

Example B2: Predicting Flow Pattern

operating at a pressure of 147 psia and 100 deg F producing 1000 BPD at a GOR

of 1000 SCF/BBL. Use an average compressibility factor of 0.9 and assume that

none of the gas is in solution.

Procedure:

From inclination angle, determine appropriate prediction map to use

Estimate in situ rates from standard production rates

Compute superficial phase velocities

Predict flow pattern from map

Assuming incompressible liquid

qL = 1000 BPD x 5.615 (ft3/bbl) / 86400 (sec/day) = 0.065 ft3/sec

(14.7 / (147/0.9)) x (460+100) / 520 = 1.122 ft3/sec

v SG = qG / Area = 1.122 / 0.049 = 17.261 ft/sec

18

Pressure Gradient in Two-Phase Flow

Pressure Gradient due to Friction (Frictional Loss)

+ Pressure Gradient due to Elevation (Potential Energy)

+ Pressure Gradient due to Velocity Change (Kinetic Energy)

where:

frictional gradient = - f TP ρ TP vTP |vTP| / (2 gc D)

elevation gradient = - ρs g/ gc . Sin φ

kinetic energy gradient = - ρTP v TP . dv TP /dL

slip-weighted mixture density (based on holdup correlation):

ρs = ρL . HL + (1 – HL) ρG

two-phase density, friction factor and velocity:

ρTP , fTP , vTP which are all dependent on the pressure drop

calculation method (correlation)

19

Recommendations

Multiphase Flow Correlations

(from Chevron Pipeline Design Manual)

Pressure Drop

Near Horizontal General Modeling Guidelines

Low GOR - Beggs & Brill

Gas/Condensate

High Velocity – Eaton-Oliemans Liquid holdup accuracy requires detailed pipeline elevation profile

Low Velocity – None

Near Vertical Flow pattern-dependent mechanistic analysis is required for

Gas/Condensate – Gray, Hagedorn & Brown accurate holdup prediction

Gas/Oil - Hagedorn & Brown

Inclined Up - Beggs & Brill (fair) Pressure profile is dependent on holdup accuracy (elevation

Inclined/Vertical Down – None (Beggs & Brill with caution) gradient)

Near Horizontal pressure/high velocity)

Low GOR - Beggs and Brill

Gas/Condensate – none (Eaton better than Choice of correlation should be based on a range of factors

others) including geometry, fluid characteristics and field history

Near Vertical

Gas/Condensate – no slip Mechanistic correlations (OLGAS, Tulsa) generally scale up better

Gas/Oil - Hagedorn and Brown

Inclined Up Rigorous 3-phase analysis may be required for low velocity flow

Low GOR - Beggs and Brill with significant water cut

Gas/Condensate

High Velocity – none (use no slip)

Other – none (use Beggs & Brill with

caution)

Inclined/Vertical Down – none (Beggs & Brill with caution)

Flow Patterns

Near Horizontal – Taitel-Dukler (except Dispersed-Bubble

boundary where a fixed VSL = 10 ft/sec is recommended)

Near Vertical – Taitel-Dukler-Barnea

20

Terminology

Symbol Definition

VL , VG Phase velocities (ft/sec)

HL Liquid Holdup

HL ns No slip holdup

Subscript Definition

L, G, O, W Liquid, Gas, Oil, Water

i, w Interface, wall

std Standard conditions (60 °F, 14.7 psia)

TP Two-phase

ns No slip

m mixture

21

C. Multiphase Phenomena in Flow Assurance

Slugging phenomena

22

Modeling Multiphase Flow Behavior

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

HL P T FP HL P T FP HL P T FP HL P T FP HL P T FP HL P T FP HL P T FP HL P T FP

Temperature, Fluid Characterization Pressure or Flow Rate Boundary

Pressure or Flow Rate Boundary

Establish Flow Pattern

Determine Holdup

Calculate Pressure Drop

Empirical vs. Mechanistic correlations

Empirical correlations are primarily regression-based

Pressure

Mechanistic models are based on physics + data

To model flow behavior in a pipe (or well)

Input Data

pipe geometry (diameter, length, elevation profile)

Temperature

Fluid characteristics (oil, gas & water gravities)

Phase ratios (water cut, GOR)

Specified boundary conditions may be:

Holdup

Pressure at inlet and Flow Rate at Outlet

Pressure at both ends

Flow Rate at Inlet and Pressure at Outlet

Calculation Procedure is Sequential and Iterative

Pipe divided into Segments Distance Along Pipeline, X

Temperature traverse calculations in parallel

Fluid properties (e.g. density, viscosity at every segment)

Results: pressure, holdup, flow pattern, temperature and phase properties at every

pipe segment

23 Network models (e.g. gathering system) are significantly more complex

Uncertainties in Multiphase Flow Modeling

Why will the computed pressure drop for Path 2 ALWAYS be greater?

Path 1

A

Path 2

B

Common Uncertainties:

Flow pattern boundaries are not fully understood (and “blurry”)

Holdup predictions do not scale up well for large diameter pipes

Pressure drop error could be as high as 20 percent

Errors greater for rough terrain, extreme velocities (high or low)

Define elevation profile in as much detail as possible

Define fluid accurately

use measurements (where available), e.g. bubble point, viscosity

Use correlations as appropriate for the situation (pipeline geometry, field

history, applicability)

Validate, validate, validate

leverage available data and past history to adjust model

24

Three-Phase Flow Analysis

Two-Phase Flow

τwG

Gas Phase (with Liquid Entrainment)

VG τi

VL τi

Combined Oil + Water Liquid Phase (with Gas Bubbles) hL

τwL

Slippage = VG - VL Holdup HL = AL / (AL + AG)

Rigorous Three-Phase Flow

τwG

Gas Phase (with Oil and Water Entrainment)

VG τi

VO τi

Oil Phase (with Gas Bubbles and Entrained Water Droplets)

τIW

VW τIW

Water Phase (with Gas Bubbles and Entrained Oil Droplets) τwL

Slippage (gas-oil) = VG – VO Holdup HL = AL / (AL +

Slippage (oil-water) = VO - VW AG)

Water Fraction HLW = AOW / AL

Rigorous 3-phase flow analysis is an order of magnitude more complex

Most analysis methods tend to lump oil and water into a common

homogeneous liquid phase with no slippage between oil and water

When segregation does occur, water fraction in the liquid phase

Note: When segregation occurs, the water fraction in the liquid phase may

be several times higher than the water cut of the produced fluid. Why?

25

Example C1: Three-Phase Flow

Example B1: Given an average holdup of 0.25, predict all relevant multiphase

flow parameters in a horizontal 3-inch ID flowline operating at a pressure of 147

psia and 100 deg F producing 1000 BPD at a GOR of 1000 SCF/BBL. Use an

average compressibility factor of 0.9 and assume that none of the gas is in

solution.

Extend your original analysis (in Example B1) to the three-phase flow scenario where there is segregation

between oil and water, assuming a produced water cut of 10 percent and the volumetric fraction of the water

being 40 percent of the total liquid phase.

From Example B1 (two-phase)

HL = 0.25

Pipe Area = 0.049 ftt2

qL = 0.065 ft3/sec

qG = 1.122 ft3/sec

v SG = qG / Area = 1.122 / 0.049 = 17.3 ft/sec

HL ns = qL / (qL + qG ) = 0.065 / (0.065 + 1.122) = 0.055

VG = VSG / (1 – HL) = 17.3 / 0.75 = 23 ft/sec

Water Cut, FW = 0.10

Water Fraction HLW = 0.40

v SW = qL * FW / Area = 0.065 * 0.1 / 0.049 = 0.13 ft/sec

VO = VSO / HL / (1-HLW) = 1.19 / 0.25 / 0.6 = 7.95 ft/sec

VW = VSW / HL / HLW = 0.13 / 0.25 / 0.4 = 1.32 ft/sec

Slip O-W = VO – VW = 6.62 ft/sec

26

Factors Impacting Corrosion / Erosion

Produced gas is sour (definition: partial pressure of H2S and CO2 > 0.05)

> 0.5 percent mole fraction for 1000 psi system pressure

Water volume is high

Water velocity is low

Low lying areas of water accumulation are at highest risk

Stratified Flow – corrosion damage can occur at low water velocity

Slug Flow – high shear increases corrosion rate and reduces inhibitor

performance

Annular Flow – high velocity combined with sand accelerates erosion/corrosion

Higher water volume in line (e.g. 10% water cut has 40% volume)

Lower water velocity (from 5.3 ft/sec to 1.3 ft/sec)

Where

27 ρns = ρL . HL + (1 – HL) ρG

Hydrodynamic Slugging

Hydrodynamic slugs are generated at moderate liquid and gas rates (see flow pattern

map) and are a common occurrence in most multiphase flowlines.

Slug Length Prediction

A. Prudhoe Bay Model (Brill et al)

Mean slug length (ft) is given by:

ln(Lm) = - 3.579 + 7.075 (ln(D) 0.5 + 0.059 ln(Vm) – 0.7712 ln(D) (16+24-in 1981)

1) Calculate Lockhart-Martinelli parameter

X = (VSL / VSG )0.9 x (ρL / ρ G ) 0.4 x (μL / μG )0.1

2) Estimate holdup from X using Taitel-Dukler stratified model (see Figure)

Liquid Holdup

3) Determine gas and liquid phase velocities from holdup

HLst

4) Determine slug frequency (slug/hr) from:

1.39

HL,slug = 1 / (1 =1/(1+ (Vm / 28.4) )) X

2) Assume liquid holdup in bubble HL,bubble to be approx 20 percent (Lockhart-Martinelli parameter)

3) From material balance, slug factor (ratio of slug length to total slug + bubble length):

SF = (HL - HL,bubble) / (HL,slug - HL,bubble)

4) Slug Length is given by: Ls = SF x Vm / (Fs / 3600)

Example C2: Slug Size and Frequency

The following data are available for a 10 inch horizontal pipeline operating in the slug flow regime:

average holdup = 50 percent, vSL = 3 ft/sec, vSG = 6 ft/sec. Predict the mean slug length and slug

frequency.

Fluid properties: liquid density = 55 lb/ft3, liquid viscosity = 6 cp

gas density = 2 lb/ft3 gas viscosity = .01 cp

Mixture Velocity, vm = 3 + 6 = 9 ft/sec

Liquid Holdup

Lm = exp(- 3.579 + 7.075 (ln(D)) 0.5+ 0.059 ln(Vm) – 0.7712 ln(D)) = 247 ft

HLst

From Hill & Wood (BP) Model:

From chart in preceding slide, Taitel-Dukler stratified model holdup HLst@ X=3.84 is 0.68

Liquid velocity when stratified = vL / HLst = 3 / 0.68 = 4.41 ft/sec

Gas velocity when stratified = 6 / (1 – 0.68) = 18.75 ft/sec

Slug frequency, Fs = 2.74 HLst x (18.75 – 4.41) / (D/12) / (1 – HLst) = 100 slug/hr

X

(Lockhart-Martinelli

Calculate Slug frequency/length: parameter)

HL,slug = 1/(1+ (Vm / 28.4)1.39)) = 1 / (1 + (9/ 28.4)1.39) = 0.83

HL,bubble = 0.2 (assumed liquid hold up in the bubble)

Slug Factor = (HL - HL,bubble) / (HL,slug - HL,bubble) = (0.5 – 0.2) / (0.83 – 0.2) = 0.47

Mean slug length (for Hill & Wood model) Ls = 0.47 x 9 / (100 / 3600) = 154 ft

Slug Frequency (for Brill et al Prudhoe Bay model) = 3600 * 0.47 * 9 / 247 = 62 slug/hr

29

Terminology

Symbol Definition

30

D. Thermodynamics

31

Single Component (Average) Properties for

Oil, Gas, and Water

To be able to solve the oil or gas problems, pressure-volume-

temperature (PVT) relationships and physical properties of gases, and

liquids are essential.

To get these properties, one can define a multi-component fluid system

compositionally, or just as Liquid, Gas, and Water mixture based on the

overall measurable data.

• Specific gravity,

• Compressibility factor, z

• Density,

• Specific volume, v

• Isothermal gas compressibility coefficient, cg

• Vapor- Liquid Equilibrium

• Gas formation volume factor, Bg

• Gas expansion factor, Eg

• Oil Formation Volume Factor, Bo

The Gas Oil Ratio, and Water Cut are easy to measure in the field.

32

Ideal Gas Law

PV=nRT

where

p = absolute pressure, psia

V = volume, ft3

T = absolute temperature, °R

n = number of moles of gas, lb-mole

R = the universal gas constant which, for the above units, has the

value 10.730 psia ft3/lb-mole °R

n = m/ MW

PV = ( m / MW ) R T

where

m = weight of Gas, lb

MW = Molecular Weight of the Gas

ρg = m / V = (P MW) / (R T)

where

ρg = Density of gas, lb/ft3

at Psc = 14.7 psia, Tsc = 60 °F = 520 °R

33

Real Gas

results – 2-3 %

• At higher pressures, the use of the ideal gas Lawte may lead to errors

as great as 500%

more accurately, the z-factor, is introduced.

PV=znRT

34

Black Oil and Empirical Models

Black Oil Model is where the phase behavior of the mixture is based on

experimentally derived prediction methods of gas and liquid phases for

bubble point pressure, solution GOR, FVF, and viscosity.

• The relative gravity of the oil, gas, and water phase are required.

• All three phase gravities has to be known even if they are not expected to be

present in the mixture.

Empirical Models predict the fluid properties that will define the behavior of

the fluid mixture with changes in Pressure and Temperature.

• Gas Compressibility

• Solution Gas Oil Ratio

• Oil, Water Formation Volume Factor

• Gas, Oil densities

• Gas, Oil Viscosities

35

Gas Compressibility

• Standing-Katz

Tpr= T/Tpc where Tpc = Σ (yi*Tci)

Ppr= P/Ppc where Ppc = Σ (yi*Pci)

z = [ 0.06125 Ppr t/ Y ] exp [ -1.2 (1 –t )2 ]

t = reciprocal of the pseudo-reduced temperature, i.e., Tpc / T

Y = the reduced density that can be obtained as the solution of

the following equation:

X2 = ( 14.76 t – 9.76 t2 + 4.58 t3 )

X3 = ( 90.7 t – 242.2 t2 + 42.4 t3 )

X4 = ( 2.18 + 2.82 t )

defined to modify the z-factor.

i.e. Witcher-Aziz Correction

T’pc = T pc – ε

36

Example D1 – Gas Thermodynamic Properties

Determine the following properties for the natural gas with the given composition.

Mol Weight and critical Temperature and Pressure data is also supplied from Pure

Component Data tables.

Component y M Tc Pc

C1 0.790 16.04 343.34 667.00

C2 0.007 30.07 550.07 707.80

C3 0.004 44.10 665.93 615.00

N2 0.012 28.01 227.52 492.80

CO2 0.017 44.01 547.73 1070.00

H2s 0.170 34.08 672.40 1300.00

Total 1.000

SGgas=0.687461379

z-factor for the gas at 90 °F and 1200 psia. ( ignore

contaminants)

z-factor = 0.75

3) Update the z-factor for the contaminants

z-factor = 0.82

4) Calculate gas density at 90 °F and 1200 psia. Use the

Engineering EOS

ρg=5 lb/cuft

37

Procedure for Predicting Gas Compressibility

Procedure

Calculate the Apparent Molecular Weight of the gas Mg =Σ (yi*Mi) 19.93 lb/lb-mol

Calculate the Specific Gravity of the gas SGg Mg / Mair 0.688

Calculate the Pseudo Critical temperature Tpc = Σ (yi*Tci) 404 °F

Calculate the Pseudo Critical Pressure Ppc = Σ (yi*Pci) 779 psia

Calculate the Pseudo Reduced Temperature Tpr = T/Tpc

1.36 °F

Calculate the Pseudo Reduced Temperature Ppr = P/Ppc 1.54 psia

Read the corresponding Compressibility Factor from

the Standing and Katz Chart z-factor 0.75

sum the mol fraction of H2Sand CO2

If more than % 5, calculate the Adjustment Factor, ε,

for the contaminants ε= 120*(A0.9-A1.6)+15*(B0.5-B4.0 ) 40.9 °F

where

A=(yH2S+yco2) 0.187

B

= yH2S 0.17

Calculate the Adjusted Pseudo Critical Temperature T’pc = Tpc- ε 363 °F

Calculate the Adjusted Pseudo Critical Pressure P’pc = (Ppc* T’pc)/(Tpc+B(1-B)*ε 690.6 psia

Recalculate the Pseudo Reduced Temperature and

the Pseudo Reduced Pressure using the adjusted Pseudo Critical T and P

T’pr 1.51 °F

P’pr 1.75 psia

Read the Gas Compressibility Factor from

38 the Standing and Katz chart z-factor 0.82

Solution Gas Oil Ratio

• Solution Gas Oil Ratio (Rs )

The bubble point pressure equation is reversed to solve for the solution gas oil ratio.

When oil is reaches to surface conditions some natural gas to come out of solution due to the P

and T change. The gas/oil ratio (GOR) is defined as the ratio of the volume of gas that comes out of

solution, to the volume of oil at standard conditions.

A point to check is whether the volume of oil is measured before or after the gas comes out of

solution, since the oil volume will shrink when the gas comes out.

In fact gas coming out of solution and oil volume shrinkage will happen at many stages of the flow

while the hydrocarbon stream from reservoir through the wellbore and processing plant to export.

• Lasater

for Rs≤Rp Rs = [ (379.3*35*ϒo,,sc)/Mo]/[ϒg /(1-ϒg ] ( suggested for °API>15

)

• Standing

for P≥1000 Rs = ( ϒg*(P*X)1.20482/ (18)1.20482 ( suggested for °API<15

)

for P<1000 Rs = ϒg*[X(P/13.36)0.93023 ]1.24082

where X = 10(1.0125API-0.00091T)

• Vazquez-Beggs

for API≤30 Rs =SG*(P1.0937)1011.172A

for API>30 Rs =SG*(P1.187 )1010.393A

39

where A= API/(T+460)

Oil and Water Formation Volume Factor

Oil Formation Volume Factor ( Bo)

Standing

for P < Pb Bo = 0.972 + 0.000147 * F1.175 + C

Glaso

Vazquez-Beggs

for P < Pb and API ≤30 Bo = 1+4.67x 10-4* 0.175 D*10-4 -1.8106RsD*10-8

for P > Pb and API >30 Bo = 1+4.67x 10-4* 0.175 D*10-4 -1.8106RsD*10-8

where D=(T-60)API / SG

40

Example D2 – Liquid Phase Density

Determine the liquid phase density for a 3 phase mixture given the

following data.

Gas Gravity= .85 Water Cut = 10%

Assume oil formation volume factor is 1.2 and Rs is 100 scf/stb at insitu

conditions.

SGoil= 0.876

ρLIQ = 48.11lb/cuft

41

Composional PVT Analysis

Not only the properties of oil, gas, and water, but also the phase behavior

changes with the changes in Pressure and Temperature. The phase behavior

will determine the condensation or the evaporation of the phases, hence

determine the vapor-liquid split and the thermodynamic properties of the

phases.

Water mixture based on the equilibrium, enthalpy, and property correlations.

Flash calculations are based on the Equation of State to decide for the phase

separation., i.e.:

Peng-Robinson

Suave-Redlich-Kwong

42

Example D3 – Liquid Fraction

Determine the Liquid Fraction of the HC mixture from the given Phase

Diagram at the following conditions:

psia

10 mol %

2) At 425 °F and 2250

psia 20 mol %

psia

psia

43

Hydrates

Gas Hydrates are formed by the C1, C2, CO2, H2S at ≈ P>166 psi

the right combination of P and T; favored by low T, above 32 °F and high P

Hydrate forming components have to be present in the system

Some water must be in the system, not too much, not too little

Turbulence Courtesy of Petrobras

High velocity- through chokes, narrowing valves due to Joule Thompson effect

Agitation, i.e. heat exchangers, separators

Nucleation sites are the points where phase change is favored, such as:

Imperfections in the pipeline

A weld spot

Fittings

Scale

Dirt

Sand

Presence of Free Water not necessary but the gas-water interface

creates a nucleation site for hydrate to form

44

Hydrate Prediction

The point at which hydrates form is dependent on the composition of the

gas.

is valid for gases with similar compositions to those

shown in the table below. It is invalid in the presence

of H2S or CO2.

EXAMPLE: For a gas with a specific gravity of 0.7, and a pressure of 1000 psia, the temperature

below which hydrates would be expected to start forming would be 64ºF.

If the pressure is reduced to 200 psia, the temperature below which hydrates would

be expected to start forming reduces to 44ºF

45

Hydrate Formation Prevention

Water removal

• Separation

Separation will remove most of the free water from gas stream

• Higher System Temperatures

Pipe insulation and bundling, or steam or electrical heating

process

• Lower System Pressures

High temperature system pressure drops design through line

choking.

• Alcohol Inhibitors injection

Acting as antifreezes, alcohols will decrease hydrate formation

temperature below operating temperature

• Kinetic (Polymer dissolved in solvent) Inhibitors

Will bond on the hydrate surface to prevent crystal growth. shift the

hydrate equilibrium conditions towards lower temperatures and

higher pressures , or increase hydrate formation time.

• Antiagglomerants

These dispersants will cause water phase be suspended as

small droplets in oil or condensate

46

Comparison of Hydrate Formation Prevention

Methods

• MeOH

• EG, DEG, MEG, TEG, and TREG

• TEG, TREG are too viscous , too soluble in HCs

• Drying is Preferred until not economical

• Used :

• upstream of chokes

• Short gathering lines

• Heating the flow line

Initial investment

Attention needed - minimum

Fuel - readly available

Cost - low

• Adding Ckemicals:

• Long flow lines

47

Methanol versus Glycol

Methanol Glycol

• Used at any Temperature • Not under 15 oF high viscosity

• Prevents hydrate formation better then • Difficult to separate from liquid HCs

DEG and EG on per lb basis • DEG has higher vaporization when <20 oF

• Injection technique not critical over EG

• Good fraction of Methanol • If not sprayed properly on the wet gas, as

evaporates into gas. fine droplets , then it may not work

• Not as economical • Diluted glycols

• Low recovery cost • Separate

• High vaporization loss • Reconcentrate

• Unless feeds into TEG unit, where • Reuse

easily recovered in the regen • Good for

• Good for • Continuous injection

• Low gas volumes • High gas volumes

• Temporary cases • Not in long lines

• Rarely needed • Do not dissolve hydrates that already

• Long flow lines formed

• Dissolves the hydrates already formed

48

Methanol Injection Problems in Facilities

• If gas feeds into a glycol plant for dehydration after methanol injection:

Any methanol released atmosphere with H2O vapor - hazardous

concentration in H2O)

to be absorbed

49

Economics -

Comparison of Hydrate Prevention Methods

• High OPEX • Low OPEX • OPEX depends on the fuel

Rule of Thumb:

both upstream and downstream of the hydrate

hydrate plug - may damage bends and even lines - EXPLOSION

50

Cloud Point and Pour Point Definitions

longer completely soluble, precipitating as a second phase giving the fluid a

cloudy appearance.

In the petroleum industry, cloud point refers to the temperature below which wax

in liquid hydrocarbon form a cloudy appearance. The presence of solidified

waxes thickens the oil and clogs.

Temperature, (WAT) and Wax Precipitation Temperature (WPT).

Pour point of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow

under prescribed conditions. It is a rough indication of the lowest temperature at

which oil is readily pumpable. In crude oil a high pour point is generally

associated with a high paraffin content.

51

Waxes

Waxes are :

• The organic compounds of the crude

• Insoluble in the crude at the producing conditions

• High molecular weight C18-C60 alkanes

• C18 to C36 (paraffin waxes, macrocystalline waxes)

• C30 to C60 (microcrystalline waxes),

• They are:

• aliphatic hydrocarbons (both straight and branched chain),

• aromatic hydrocarbons,

• naphthenes

• resins and asphaltenes.

• Melting point, Boiling point, and Solubility of the HC mix is profoundly

effected by the presence of alicyclic, aromatic, and condensed rings.

• Deposits as solid when the temperature falls below the cloud point

• The cloud point determines the rheology of waxy crudes

• Above the cloud point, flow is Newtonian

• Below the cloud point flow is non-Newtonian due to wax/solid

precipitation

52

Problems with Waxes

• Reduced permeability around the well bore/formation damage

• Pumping cost increase because of:

• Increase in viscosity can be 10 folds

• Increased horse power requirement to transport the fluid through

• Area for flow decreases due to wax deposition on the inner pipe wall

Increases pressure drop, can eventually plug the production string

• Loss of production:

• Can eventually plug the production string and/or pipeline

• Can deposit in the surface facilities

• Decreased equipment volume, hence reduced volume/flow

53

Formation of Wax

Wax Formation

flowlines with components C7+. Reservoir Fluid

Pressure

Wax deposits have potential to Bubble Point

when it gets down to the Cloud No Wax

Point, or Wax Appearing

Temperature.

Temperature

Wax formation Temperature can be Temperature/Pressure Relationship in Formation of Wax

determined within ± 5 °C.

measured, but it is usually calculated

via thermodynamic prediction based

on Dead Oil values.

54

Wax Mitigation and Prevention:

Wax Deposition Removal Techniques:

• Mechanical

Pigging - Scraping wax from the pipe wall and mixing it with the crude

in front of the pig

• Thermal

Maintaining or increasing the temperature of the crude above the WAT

can prevent wax from settling on the pipe wall, or help to remove softened

wax.

• Chemical

Chemical Solvents and Dissolvers

• substituted aromatics blended with gas oil.

• Chlorinated solvents – environmental concerns.

Wax Prevention

Wax Inhibitors

• Crystal Modifiers

• Pour Point Depressants

• Dispersants

• Surfactants

55

Wax Deposition Rate Measurements

Test Description Advantages Disadvantages

Static cold finger A cold surface is immersed in a reservoir of oil for set Quick Simple No flow effects.

duration then removed and inspected. The surface can Small volumes of sample. Risk of depletion of wax in small

simple cooled block or finger, cooled tube or Deposit formed. sample volume.

sophisticated probe. Deposit directly inspected.

Accurate control of temperatures.

Useful inhibitor screening tool. Adaptable for live oil.

Dynamic cold finger As above but shear can be applied to flow the oil over As above Risk of depletion of wax in small

the surface. This can be achieved with stirring or Addition of shear sample volume.

immersing the surface in a flowing stream. Accurate control of shear/stress or flow Difficult to simulate pipeflow and

For better control concentric cylinders are used. velocity. turbulence.

Difficult to monitor in-situ deposition

Useful inhibitor screening and deposition until end of test.

characterization tool.

Capillary/tube blocking Warm oil is displaced through a narrow bore tube until Quick Simple No direct measure of deposit.

pressure increase indicated restriction or blockage. Small vols of sample Laminar flow regimes only.

Often used in uncontrolled cooling but better results Qualitative measure of in-situ Uncertain temperature profiles and heat

achievable with set temperature regimes. deposition rates. transfer rates.

Live oils.

Recirculating flowloops Oil is pumped through a section of pipe in which Simulates pipeflow regimes. Complex equipment.

conditions of temperature and flow can be defined. Limited sample volumes No direct measure of deposit at specific

Deposition can be detected by increasing pressure and Control of temperature and flow rate. points.

recovering of deposit. Qualitative measure of in=situ Need to recondition recirculating oil.

Useful qualitative tool for assessing deposition deposition rates/ DP insensitive in Laminar flow.

characteristic. Potential waxing outside deposition

section.

56

Cloud Point Methods

- Recommended Indirect Methods

Test Description Advantages Disadvantages

DSC When wax crystallizes from crude oil, small Small sample size. High cooling rates potential for

quantities of heat are generated(Much like heat Automated. subcooling.

given off when water freezes). The temperature at Quick. Sensitivity: low wax contents difficult.

which this “heat of fusion” first occurs can be Can estimate wax content. Subject to interpretation.

detected by a Differential Scanning Calorimeter,

DSC.

Infrared Detection/ Light Infrared Detection/ Light Scattering Wax crystals Sensitive. Unrepresentative sample size.

Scattering will deflect and scatter light passing through the Small sample size. Subject to interpretation

oil. Infrared can be absorbed by waxes and will Suitable for live fluids. Little published validation.

penetrate black oils. Changes in light reflected or

absorbed as the oil cools will indicate wax

forming.

Small sample size. Little published validation.

Estimate solid wax content. Subject to interpretation.

Suitable for live fluids.

Thermodynamic Model uses compositional analysis of oil and Predicts cloud point and solid wax Very detailed input data.

prediction published properties of components to predict phase for range of pressures and oil Needs tuning to measured value.

solubility of wax components. compositions.

57

Cloud Point Methods- Not Recommended Methods

Test Description Advantages Disadvantages

Visual and turbidity test The term cloud point is taken from turbidity test Simple. Sensitivity( needs finite amount of

used to determine wax precipitation from fuels. Representative sample size. crystals)

(ASTM D2500) The wax crystals are detected by a change in Adaptable for live fluids. Operator dependent (Visual only)

turbidity as the wax crystallizes. Often this test is Wide range of cooling rates. Other solids may be detected

performed by eye but turbidity meters increase Not suitable for Black Oils.

sensitivity.

Viscosity As solid wax crystallizes it will effect the oils Representative sample size. Sensitivity. May require presence of

rheology causing non-Newtonian behavior. The significant solid wax phase.

Newtonian viscosity / temperature relationship of Underestimating initial crystallization.

the oil is altered as the solid phase increases. May detect other solids formation.

Subject to interpretation.

Pyknometry Crystallization will change the temperature / Representative sample size. May detect other solids formation.

density relationship of the fluid as it cools. Suitable for live fluids. Sensitivity. May require presence of

(New techniques are improving significant solid wax phase.

sensitivity) Underestimating initial crystallization.

Subject to interpretation.

No published validation.

58

Asphaltenes

Asphaltenes

• Soluble in toluene but insoluble in lower n- alkanes such as pentane and hexane.

• Asphaltenes are the heaviest and largest molecules in a typical hydrocarbon mixture

• Oils from which asphaltenes are likely to precipitate

• have low API gravity (are more dense), and have higher viscosities.

• Deposits can be in the form of shiny and black graphite like appearance, or brown

sticky soft deposits.

• Asphaltenes often co-precipitate with wax and even scale.

59

59

Treatment and Prevention of Asphaltenes:

operating conditions

• If it cannot be prevented via design and the operating conditions, then treatment

is necessary to prevent flocculation of the asphaltenes particles.

• solvents

• dispersant/ solvents

• oil/dispersants/solvents

• The dispersant/solvent approach is used for removing asphaltenes from

formation minerals.

Batch treatments are common for dehydration equipment and tank bottoms. There

are also asphaltenes precipitation inhibitors that can be used by continuous

treatment or squeeze treatments

60

60

Asphaltenes

61

Asphaltenes Test Methods Summary

62

Scale and Mitigation Strategies:

There are different types of scales.

• Calcium Carbonate

• naturally exists in the resevoir (carbonate reservoirs)

• Scale forms:

• with co-mingling of produced fluids from different producing zones or

reservoirs

• normally with decrease in pressure, carbon dioxide is released, and pH

changes to form scale.

• Mitigation:

• dissolution by acidification or application of calcium carbonate scale

inhibitor.

• Barium Sulphate

• In general barium sulphate scale results from water incompatibility,

• primarily from either seawater injection and / or seawater breakthrough,

• co-mingling with produced water rich in barium.

• highly insoluble and will deposit at temperature drops across the production

processing plant.

• Mitigation strategies::

• removal of sulphate ions from seawater for re-injection,

• application of barium sulphate scale inhibitors

• treatment with dissolvers.

63

Scale and Mitigation Strategies:

• Iron Sulphide

• Iron Sulphide scale is deposited where microbial enhanced corrosion has

become a serious problem.

• The scale is derived from the reaction of iron oxide from corrosion and

hydrogen sulphide,

• a by-product of sulphate reducing bacteria metabolism.

• Treatment for iron sulphide is application of a specialist chelating and

dissolution agent followed by microbial control with biocide application.

• Calcium Sulphate

• Calcium Sulphate scale is relatively soluble and only poses a real problem when

conditions are close to the solubility limit and super-saturation occurs.

• Sodium Chloride

• Sodium Chloride scale is caused by a saturation and evaporation process and is

readily removed by warm water in most cases.

64

E. Transport Properties

Gas viscosity

65

Viscosity Definitions

Oil viscosity μo = F( P,T, SGo,SGg, Rs) usually reported in PVT Analysis. If not

available, then the correlations are used.

Dead Oil Viscosity Viscosity of the oil at atmospheric conditions with

no gas in solution and the system temperature.

1. Calculate the Dead Oil Viscosity μob at Tres

2. Adjust the dead oil viscosity for Gas Solubility effects at the desired

temperature

1. Calculate the Dead Oil Viscosity μob at Tres

2. Adjust the dead oil viscosity for Gas Solubility effects at the desired

temperature

3. Include the effects of compression and under saturation of the

reservoir

66

• Viscosity Prediction Methods

Dead Oil Viscosity Correlations

• Beal

• Beggs-Robinson

• Glaso

• Chew- Connaly

• Beggs-Robinson

μL = 10 X -1

Where

X = 103.0324-0.02023 API / T1.163

and Atmospheric pressure (after Beal)

67

• Oil-Water Viscosity – Emulsions

Emulsion Viscosity

• Woelflin Correlation

Good Bw< 40%

Bw> 40% too high

Good Bw< 40%

Bw> 40% not high enough

μe/μo = 1 +2.5 Cw

Woelflin Viscosity Data

where Cw is the Water Fraction of the Water Phase When Brine in mixture is above 60-70%,

brine becomes the continuous phase.

68

Example E1 –Emulsion Viscosity

characterized from lab analysis by the following Oil Viscosity vs. Temperature

relationship: 600.0

500.0

Viscosity, cp

300.0

0.0

50.0 70.0 90.0 110.0

percent?

69

Emulsion Mitigation

Causes of emulsions High WATER Content

• That is the way with some wells

• Poor Cementing

• Poor reservoir management

• Poor Operating practices

• Production of excess water

• Excess turbulence in flow created by

• Over pumping

• Poor maintenance of plunger

• Maintenance Valves in rod pumps

• More than needed gas lift gas

• Centrifugal pumps with a downstream throttling valve

• Do not unnecessarily choke or have control valve before water separation.

• Maintain plungers, rod pumps, valves

• Centrifugal pumps without a downstream throttling valve

• Some operators prefer Cavity Pumps, Reciprocating Pups, or Gear pumps

• Optimize Gas Lift

• Optimize production at integrated asset level

Else use:

• Emulsifiers

70

• Other Fluid Properties

multiphase flow.

Plays role in Gas – Oil interface, as well as gas –water interface, and oil-

water interface.

Baker and Swerdloff

Katz et. al.

Specific Heat Capacity of the fluid - Very important parameter in heat transfer

71

F. Heat Transfer Analysis

72

Heat Transfer Phenomena

T ambient

Buried Pipeline Area of Cross-Section

T inlet T fluid

The rate of heat transfer per unit length (Btu/hr/ft) is given by:

dH/dL = U A (T fluid – T ambient)

where U overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-degF

A cross-sectional area of pipe, ft2

T ambient temperature of surrounding, deg F

T fluid average temperature of fluid in pipe, deg F

From basic calorimetric calculations, the change in pipeline fluid temperature due to heat transfer

to the surroundings is given by:

where Cp specific heat capacity of fluid mixture, Btu/lb/deg F

The heat transfer coefficient U is determined by analyzing the combined effect of the

three modes of heat transfer:

Conduction - within a solid or between solid bodies (e.g. pipe wall and soil)

Convection - achieved through the movement of fluid (e.g. submerged pipe)

Radiation - energy emitted as electromagnetic waves from a hot body

Note that radiation heat transfer is generally not significant in flow assurance (with the

exception of steam injection)

73

Example F1 – Pipeline Heat Transfer

T ambient = 40 deg F

Buried Pipeline, U = 1.0 Btu/hr-ft^2-degF, Pipe Length = 10,000 ft Pipe Outer Diameter = 12 inch

T inlet =100 deg F

Q = 5000 BPD Oil Gravity = 0.8, Specific Heat Capacity = 0.5 Btu/lb/degF

Determine the outlet temperature for 12-inch x 10,000 ft buried crude oil (sp gravity =

0.8) pipeline flowing at 5000 BPD, given an overall heat transfer coefficient of 1.0 Btu/hr-

ft2-degF.

Temperature at the inlet of the pipeline is 100 deg F and the ambient temperature is 40 deg F.

Assume that the specific heat capacity of the oil is 0.5 Btu/lb/de gF.

Procedure

1. Area of pipe cross-section = 3.14 / 4 * (12/12)2 = 0.785 ft2

2. Mass flow rate = 5000 BPD /24 hr/day * 5.615 ft33/bbl * (0.8 * 62.4) lb/ft3 = 58,396 lb/hr

3. Estimate outlet temperature = 60 deg F

4. Heat transfer gradient, dH/dL = U A (T fluid – T ambient) = 1.0 x 0.785 x (80-40) = 31.4 Btu/hr/ft

5. Change in temperature = dH / Cp / mass flow rate = 31.4 * 10,000 / 0.5 / 58396 = - 10.8 deg F

6. Revised outlet temp (iteration 1) = 100 – 10.8 = 89.2 deg F (error = - 29.2)

7. Repeat Steps 4-6 with new outlet temp

8. Revised outlet temp (iteration 2) = 85.3 deg F (error = 3.9)

9. Repeat iteration steps until convergence

10.Converged outlet temperature (after 4 iterations) = 85.8 deg F (error = 0.1)

74

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Classical Shell Balance

Total Resistance = sum of resistances from convection / Convection due to boundary layer - film

conduction layers

Conduction at inner wall, coating, Insulation

where: κ - thermal conductivity, Btu/day-ft-degF

Outer surface: submerged (convection), buried

0.8) (conduction) or exposed (free convection)

Resistance due to film (convection) = diainner / (0.0225 * k * Re

Resistance due to conduction (buried pipe) = diameter * loge((2Z+ (4Z2 – dout2220.5)/dout) / 2ksoil

where Z is the distance from the surface to the centerline of the pipe

= diameter / (10 k *(0.26694 * log10(Re,surrounding)1.3681))

Where

Re,surrounding= 1.47 x Reynolds number calculated from pipe outer diameter and surrounding fluid properties

75

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, OHTC

76

Subsea Flowline Insulation Methods

• External Coatings

• Flowline Burial

• Pipe-in-Pipe (PIP)

• Electrical Heating

• Hot WaterAnnulus

77

Thermal Conductivities of Soil

Kersten(1949) Κsoil = [ 0.9 log(ω) -0.2]*100.01*ρ

where

Κsoil soil thermal conductivity, [BTU-in/(ft2-hr-°F)]

ρ dry density , lb/ft3

78

Flowline Burial Depth

Loch (2000)

depth and the Outside Diameter is

greater than 4, the decrease in the

U value is insignificant.

the limit on Minimum and Maximum

Burial Depths.

flowline disturbance buckling need

to be considered .

79

Example F2 – Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for the pipeline in Example F1

given the following data:

pipe diameter (inner) 12 inch

pipe wall thickness 0.25 inch

Determine the relative contribution

insulation 0.5 inch of insulation and burial on the

Burial depth (center line to surface) 24 inch

Pipe Thermal Conductivity 600 Btu/day/ft/F

overall resistance to heat transfer.

Insulation Thermal Conductivity 0.96 Btu/day/ft/F

Soil Thermal Conductivity 24 Btu/day/ft/F Change the heat transfer coefficient

Oil Flow Rate 5000 BPD

Oil Specific Gravity 0.8 water = 1 in Ex F1 to the calculated value and

Oil Specific Heat Capacity 0.5 Btu/lb/degF evaluate the impact.

Oil Thermal Conductivity 1.6 Btu/day/ft/F

Oil Viscosity 3.5 cp

Procedure

1. Area of cross-section = 3.14 / 4 * (12/12)2 = 0.785 ft2

2. Fluid velocity = 5000 BPD x 5.615 ft3/bbl / 86400 sec/day / 0.785 = 0.41 ft/sec

3. Reynolds number = 1488 * 0.41 * (12/12) * (0.8 * 62.4) / 3.5 = 8785

4. Film resistance (convection) = (12/12) / (0.0225 * 1.6 * 87850.8) = 1.944 E-2

5. Pipe wall resistance (conduction) = (12/12) x 1/(2*600) loge (12.5/12) = 3.4 E-5

6. Insulation resistance (conduction) = (12.5/12) x 1/(2*0.96) loge (13.5/12.5) = 4.175 E-2

7. Soil resistance (conduction) = log( (4*242– 13.52)0.5/13.5)/(2 x 24) = 2.877E-2

8. Total resistance = 1.044E-2 + 3.4E-5 + 4.175E-2 + 2.877E-2 = 9.00 E-02

9. Overall heat transfer coefficient U = 1/(9E-2 x 24) = 0.46 Btu/fr/ft2/degF

Overall contribution of burial = 2.877 / 9 = 32.0 %

Updating Ex F1 with U=0.46 changes the calculated outlet temperature from 85.8 deg F to 93 deg F

80

Heat Transfer In Wellbores

Classic Shell Balance

• Infinite Conduction

For a vertical well, the surrounding formation extends

outwards infinitely – the finite depth burial model for Convection due to boundary layer - film

conduction described earlier needs to be modified.

Conduction at inner wall, coating, Insulation

In steam injection wells, there may a significant time-

dependent effect as the surrounding formation heats Outer surface: submerged (convection), buried

(conduction) or exposed (free convection)

up and heat transfer rates change as a consequence

(heat transfer rate during the early time period will be

higher). The Ramey function is used to analyze this

time dependent effect.

thermal conductivity to change around the wellbore

due to the evaporation of water.

Heat transfer in the annulus due to convection of the

static annulus fluid (water/oil/gas/vacuum) needs to be

taken into account. Additionally, radiation effects are

sometimes important (e.g. in some steam injection

systems, a reflecting coating is painted on the inside

wall of the casing to reduce radiation effects).

81

Terminology

Symbol Definition

82

G. Transient Phenomena

83

Common Transient Operations

Transient Condition Operation Impact

Ramp Up / Down Rate change Rate surge

Startup Rate change from zero Pressure surge

Rate surge

Shutdown Compressor / Pump Pressure surge

shutdown

Blowdown Pressure reduction

Terrain Slugging Caused by topography Slug formation, growth and

dissipation

Sphering Periodic operation Rate surge

Pipeline leak / rupture Unplanned Product loss

Environmental damage

Pressure surge

84

Flow Rate Ramp Up

BEFORE AFTER

How Big is the Surge?

Predicted Liquid Inventory Rate ramped up from155 MMscfd to 258 MMscfd

10000

1200

8000 1000

Inventory, bbl

6000 800

600

4000

400

2000 200

0 0

0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 0 20 40 60

Rate, MMscfd Time, hr

Difference give the amount of liquid to be swept out

Estimate transition time as residence time for final inventory

Transition Time = Final Inventory / Final Rate

Estimate Transition Rate

Transition Rate = Final Rate + Inventory Change / Transition Time

85

Example G1 - Marlin Pipeline Transient

From the pipeline inventory prediction provided for Marlin, use Cunliffe’s method to

approximate the surge rate at the downstream slug catcher when the gas rate at the inlet

is ramped up from 155 MMscfd to 258 MMscfd over a period of one hour. Compare the

predicted surge rate to the actual data and recommend additional steps to improve the

estimation.

35000

30000 1200

25000 1000

69 bbl/MMscf liquid loading 800

20000

Inventory,

15000 600

10000 400

bbl

5000 200

0 0

0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 0 10 20 30 40 50

Final inventory at 258 MMscfd = 17600 bbl

Liquid to be swept out = 19200 – 17600 = 1600 bbl

Liquid Rate (Final) = Liq Loading x Gas Rate = 69 x 258/ 24 = 742 bph

Transition Time = Final Inventory / Final Rate = 17600 / 742 = 23.7 hr

Transition Rate = Final Rate + Inventory Change / Transition Time = 742 + 1600 / 23.7 = 809 bph

From data:

Actual surge rate > 1000 bph – the discrepancy is caused by the high transition time

Lowering the effective transition time estimate would improve prediction(see spreadsheet)

86

Pipeline Blowdown (depressurization)

Blowdown is the controlled depressurization of a gas (or gas-dominated) pipeline

generally achieved over a period of time. Blowdown is generally a safety procedure

used to reduce the risk of pipeline rupture and fire in an emergency.

The key concerns during blowdown are:

1) How long will it take to depressurize the pipeline (to near atmospheric conditions)

2) What is the cooldown temperature profile given that the temperature will drop

below ambient due to Joule-Thompson cooling (potential for hydrate formation)

The discharge rate is generally controlled through an orifice (or valve) to ensure that

these operational issued are addressed.

the mass flow rate (lb/sec) through an orifice is given by the relationship:

W = Cd K A P (MW / zT)0.5

K is the specific heat capacity ratio for the gas

A is the area of cross-section

MW is the molecular weight

P is the upstream (pipeline) pressure

87

Example G2 - Pipeline Blowdown

Determine the pressure profile for the blowdown of a 5 mile x 6 inch (ID) gas pipeline

operating at 800 psi when the gas (gravity=0.8) is released through a 3-inch orifice (Cd

= 1.0). Average compressibility is 0.9, k = 1.4, and assume that the pipeline

temperature does not change from its initial value of 39 deg F.

Procedure

1. From geometry, orifice area = 3.14/4 * (3/12)2 = 0.049 ft2

2. Pipeline volume = 3.14/4 * (6/12)2 * (5 x 5280) = 5181 ft3

3. Gas Molecular Weight = 28.97 x 0.8 = 23.18

4. Initial density of gas = 800 * 23.18 / (0.9 * 10.73 * (460+39) = 3.85 lb/ft 3

5. Initial mass of fluid (gas) in pipeline = 3.85 * 5181 = 19934 lb

6. Initial rate of gas flowing through the orifice = 1 x 1.4 x 0.049 x 800 * (23.18/0.9/(460+39)) 0.5 = 12.48 lb/sec

7. Starting from time =0, calculate the following at 100 second intervals

1. Mass rate of gas through the orifice (from the orifice equation)

2. Remaining mass of gas in the pipeline (previous mass – mass rate * time increment)

3. Gas density = remaining mass / pipeline volume

4. Average pipeline pressure = density * z * 10.73 * (460+39) / 23.18

5. Determine the gas discharge rate at standard conditions from the mass rate

6. Plot the pressure and gas flow rate profiles as a function of time

Flow Rate Profile (MMcfd vs. time)

1000 20.00

800

15.00

600

400 10.00

200 5.00

0 0.00

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000

88

Pipeline Cooldown

When pipeline is shut-in, the fluid temperature drops over an extended

period of time until ambient conditions are achieved. A significant

parameter for cooldown analysis is the “no-touch” period which is the time

available before the pipeline must be started up again.

For a pipeline transporting waxy crude, the no-touch period is the time

before pour point (plus safety margin) is reached

by :

C = U * Area of Contact / (mass of fluid * specific heat capacity)

89

Example G3 - Pipeline Cooldown

Given a 10,000 ft x 12 inch subsea pipe with a heat transfer coefficient of 1

Btu/hr/ft2/F and an average fluid temperature of 100 deg F, estimate the no-touch time

when the surrounding temperature is 40 deg F.

Crude oil characteristics: specific gravity = 0.8, heat capacity = 0.5 Btu/lb/F, pour point = 50 deg F

Solution:

From the Lumped Capacitance Cooldown Model, the temperature

T is given by : 120.0

80.0

where Ti is the inside fluid Temperature

Fluid Temp, F

T(t) is the inside fluid Temperature at time t 60.0

To is the ambient temperature

t = period after shut-in 40.0

C = U * Area of Contact / (mass of fluid * specific heat capacity)

20.0

Procedure:

0.0

Fluid mass = 3.14/4 * (12/12) 2 * 10,000 * (62.4 * 0.8) = 391,872 lb 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00

For a range of time periods (e.g. 0-24 hrs in 1 hr increment) calculate and plot T(t)

From the plot (see right), no-touch time = 11 hr (actual time will be lower)

90

H. Integrated Flow Assurance

Deepwater/subsea systems

91

Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer & Thermodynamics

Hydrate Management

Thermodynamics establishes hydrate limits

Temperature and pressure determine hydrate performance

Heat transfer controls temperature profile

Fluid Flow influences Heat Transfer Fluid Flow Analysis

Predicts Flow & Pressure Behavior

Thermodynamic Analysis

Predicts Fluid PVT Properties Flow Assurance

Integrated Analysis

of Flow Behavior,

Pressure and

Temperature Production Performance

Performance, and Flow rates establish production

Fluid Properties performance

Heavy Oil Transport Pressure determines flow rates

Heat Transfer determines temperature profile PVT properties impact pressure and

Temperature controls viscosity behavior temperature profile

Fluid viscosity establishes fluid flow Temperature and pressure influence

Fluid Flow influences Heat Transfer PVT properties

92

Predicts Temperature Behavior

Flow Assurance in Deepwater / Subsea

16000

14000 Wax

Fewer wells, minimal intervention

Premium on reliability 12000

Reservoir

10000

Pressure

Hydrate

Commingling of Limited monitoring of 8000

incompatible fluids wells, pipeline & riser

6000 Asphaltene

4000

Bubble Point

2000 Facilities

High back-pressure Deeper, colder

Need for boosting plugging & deposition 0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Temperature

Flow assurance in deepwater is about designing and operating systems that handle

the many unique challenges of subsea production while mitigating unnecessary risk to

ensure the continuous flow of oil and gas from capital-intensive projects

93

Example H1 – Heavy Oil Throughput Capacity

T ambient = 40 deg F

Buried Pipeline, U = 1.0 Btu/hr-ft^2-degF, Pipe Length = 20 miles Pipe Outer Diameter = 12 inch

T inlet =100 deg F

Q = 5000 BPD Oil Gravity = 0.8, Specific Heat Capacity = 0.5 Btu/lb/degF

Determine the throughput (BPD capacity) for a 12-inch x 20 mile heavy oil pipeline with

an inlet conditions of 250 psi and 100 deg F. The minimum outlet pressure is 100 psi.

The viscosity of the crude is characterized as a function of temperature (deg F) by the

following exponential fit of lab data:

viscosity, cp = 500 x exp (-0.035 (temp in deg F – 50))

Solution Procedure

1.Set the initial estimate of the throughput to be 30,000 - 50,000 BPD

2. Use the iterative procedure described in Example F1 (Pipeline Heat Transfer) for calculation of outlet

temperature for the given inlet temperature of 100 deg F. With a reasonable outlet temperature estimate,

the solution should converge in 4 iterations (or less).

3. Compute the velocity from the estimated flow rate.

4. Compute the viscosity at the average fluid temperature (mean of fixed and calculated outlet temp)

5. Update Reynolds number with the new velocity and viscosity

6. Update friction factor using the laminar flow equation (validate that Reynolds number is within range)

7. Calculate the frictional pressure gradient from the friction factor

8. Compute the outlet pressure for the estimated flow rate.

9. Update the estimated flow rate and repeat Steps 2-8 until the outlet pressure is approx 100 psi. This is the

calculated throughput for the pipeline.

94

Drag Reduction

• Drag Reduction Additives (DRA) are long-chain,

ultra-high molecular weight (1-10 million)

polymers that are injected into liquid pipelines

(both crude and refined products) to increase

throughput capacity.

• DRA does not alter the fluid properties or coat

the pipe wall, but rather drag reduction occurs

due to the suppression of energy dissipation by

eddy currents in the transition zone between

the laminar sub-layer near the pipe wall and the

turbulent core at the center of the pipe.

• Turbulent flow in the pipe is therefore a

prerequisite for DRA to be effective.

• In crude oil pipelines, DRA injection rates vary in the range of 10-50 ppm, with the

corresponding drag reduction effectiveness, the fractional reduction in frictional

pressure drop in the treated line, typically about 30-70 percent, and generally more

effective in lighter crudes.

• Modeling the effect of DRA injection in a pipeline is relatively straightforward.

• Vendor supplied Performance Curves the effective drag reduction as a function

of flow rate for a range of concentrations.

• These curves are pipeline specific and are generated from flowline

95 tests conducted by the vendor.

I. Integrated Production Analysis

•Reservoir performance

– how it impacts production

– reservoir, production, process plant, economics

96

• Economics of Flow Assurance

Cap Ex and annual Op Ex Costs based on the projected revenue stream.

•

• Higher investments in Cap Ex are justified when the field is expected to produce

economically for a longer period (the projected life of a typical offshore field

varies from 10-30+ years).

(especially for gas)

97

• Economics of Flow Assurance

Some of the key components of Cap Ex and Op Costs that need to be

included in any economic analysis for evaluating flow assurance alternatives:

• Capital Expenditure

• Drilling and completion of wells

• Pipelines and gathering system installation

• Installation of prime movers (compressors / pumps / multiphase pumps)

• Facilities (platform, slug catcher, separator, heaters, recovery and reinjection,

other topsides)

• Artificial lift installations including related facilities such as compression, power

lines etc.

• Operating Costs

• Facilities maintenance

• Inhibitors/chemicals for hydrates (methanol/glycol), wax, asphaltenes, corrosion,

surfactants, etc.

• Power costs for compressors, pumps, heaters, topsides, etc.

• Personnel (platform, onshore, central support)

• QHSE

98

• Reservoir performance–how it impacts

production

Reservoir Decline

Reservoir Pressure (current) = Reservoir Pressure (previous) * Decline Rate * Cum Production

Note: for gas fields p/z is sometimes used instead of pressure (p) in the above equation

Maximum Drawdown

Drawdown is generally limited to avoid problems such as sand production

• Introduction to Artificial Lift Methods

potential to naturally produce- during the early

phases of production.

• As reservoir pressure decrease, water

encroachment will naturally cause all wells to slow

down in production.

• At some point, an artificial lift will be used to

continue or increase production.

• On the other hand most water producing wells will

need some kind of artificial lift due to the high

hydrostatic pressure it creates on the oil, gas, or

both.

Pressure (Psi)

• A well with high water rate will be usually put on

an artificial lift from the beginning.

• Available technologies add energy to the system

to lift the fluids to the surface. There are times an

oil well may need:

• ESP • Hydraulic Pumps

• Gas Lift • PCP

• Rod Pump • Plungers

100

• Integrated Asset Modeling, IAM –

Reservoir, Production, Process Plant, Economics

IAM help to determine :

• impacts of new drilling

• best locations to set compression

• to influence the order and location of the new drilling

• evaluating the impact of third party activity

• investigating gathering system improvement opportunities

• for tubing sizes and evaluation of options versus performance

• identifying wellwork candidates and other production enhancement

opportunities

and to analyze:

• upsets and production losses

• requests from Infill Team on lateral capacity

• uplift for future

• pressure changes for future pipeline projects,

• pressure changes for future compressor projects

• for debottlenecking

In summary, the reservoir decline, added wellhead compressor, the new wells

feeding into the same line, the increased compressor suction pressures, and

the availability of processing facilities, along with the economics can be

coordinated to give the optimized production scenerios.

101

Flow Assurance Monitoring & Control

Subsea monitoring

FPSO

& control data

pump

multiphase

meter

manifold

ESP flowline

measurements

DTS

102

IAM Visualization

Near Real-Time Field Data and Model Results Monitoring

Business value of these new operating tools achieved

through improved operations efficiency, integrity

management, and organizational performance, by

integrating activities around reservoir, wells,

pipelines, facilities, and commercial decision-making

103 103

Map-based Visualization

104

104

IAM Online Model Calculations

calculated)

• Mixture Velocity

• Liquid Hold-up

105 105

Reservoir Inflow

Production rate as a function of flowing wellbore pressure, (Pwf). Productivity Index

in Under-Saturated Reservoirs

P

Pwf

r

PI = Qo / (PR - Pwf) Linear

Slope = 1 / PI

Qo = Qomax (1 – 0.2 Pwf /PR – 0.8 (Pwf /PR)2)

where Qomax is a hypothetical maximum rate at Pwf = 0

Qo

Qomax

The following equation can be used when Pwf < PB < PR

Qo = PI (PR - PB) + 0.5 PI / PB(PB 2 – Pwf2)

Oil Production Rate

QG = Cp [ (PR) 2 – (Pwf) 2]n for 0.5 < n < 1.0

106

Example I1 - Oil Well IPR

From a well test, the bottom-hole pressure was measured as 1234 psi at a rate of 2345

bpd. The static pressure in the reservoir after the well was shut-in for 48 hours was

measured as 3636 psi. Lab tests show that the bubble point pressure at the reservoir

temperature of 200 deg F was 2222 psi. Determine the productivity index and

absolute open flow potential and use these values to plot the IPR curve for the well.

= 1.07 bpd/psi 4000

3500

Qomax = Qo / (1 – 0.2 Pwf /PR – 0.8 (Pwf /PR) 2) 3000

Pressure (psi)

= 2792 bpd 2500

2000

Calculate Qo for a range of Pwf using the equation: 1500

1000

Qo = PI (PR - PB) + 0.5 PI / PB(PB2- Pwf2)

500

0

Where: PR = 3636 psi 0.0 1000.0 2000.0 3000.0

PB = 2222 psi Rate (bpd)

PI = 1,07 bpd/psi

107

Example I2 - Integrated Production System

An integrated gas production system extends from the reservoir through the wellbore,

pipeline and compressor flowing into the separation facilities. Estimate the delivery

capacity to a downstream trunk line operating at a fixed pressure of 1000 psia. The

following data applies:

Reservoir

Pressure = 5000 psia, Temperature = 200 deg F, Gravity = 0.75

Deliverability: Cp = 7.8E-6, n = 0.9

Well

Depth = 10,000 ft, Diameter = 4 inch

Average friction factor = 0.015, Average Z = 0.8

Surface Pipeline

Length = 20 miles, Diameter = 6 inch

Surface Temperature = 80 deg F

Average friction factor = 0.01, Average Z = 0.9

Procedure

2. From the reservoir pressure, calculate the flowing BHP using the gas deliverability equation

3. Estimate the average wellbore temperature to be the average of the reservoir and surface temp (140 F)

4. Approximating the average wellbore pressure to the FBHP, calculate the estimated velocity and density

5. Calculate the frictional pressure gradient from the friction factor, density and velocity

6. Calculate the elevation gradient from the density

7. Determine the wellhead pressure for the estimated rate from the two pressure gradient terms

8. Estimate the surface velocity and density using the same approach as that for the wellbore

9. Calculate the surface frictional gradient and use this to calculate the delivery pressure from the wellhead

pressure for the estimated rate.

10.Compare the delivery pressure with the 1000 psia delivery requirement, adjust the estimated rate,

and repeat steps 2-9 until convergence is achieved.

11.The final converged estimate of throughput is approximately 31 MMscfd

108

Flow Assurance Issues

109

Terminology

Symbol Definition

Pwf Flowing bottom hole pressure (psi)

PI Productivity Index (bpd/psi)

PR Reservoir pressure (psi)

Qo,max Absolute open flow (bpd)

Cp Gas deliverability constant

N Gas deliverability exponent

PB Bubble point pressure (psi)

110

Unit Conversions

bar bar = psia x

0.068948

Temperature deg F deg C deg C = (deg F – 32)

*/ 1.8

Oil Gravity deg API specific gravity SG = 141.5 / (131.5

+ API)

Pipe Length ft meter meter = ft x 0.3048

Liquid Volume bbl ft3 ft3 = bbl x 5.615

meter3 meter3 = ft3 x 0.0283

meter3 = bbl x 0.159

Gas Volume scf (ft3) sm3 (meter3) meter3 = ft3 x 0.0283

Gas Rate MMscfd km3/d km3/d = 28.3 x

MMsm3/d MMscfd

MMsm3/d = .0283 x

MMscfd

Absolute Zero: -460 deg F (-273 deg C)

111

J. Flow Assurance Considerations in

Conceptual Design & Operations

concepts discussed in the preceding sessions will be applied to two

practical example involving the creation of:

impact of flow assurance issues on the overall design.

investment

112

Workshop J1- Conceptual Design Problem

Platform

Diameter = 10 inch Minimum Delivery Pressure to Trunk Line = 1750 psia

Satellite

U = 6 Btu/hr/ft2/degF Compressor Power / Stage = 150 HP

After Year 5 Subsea MAOP = 1250 psia Overall Compressor Efficiency = 80%

Manifold Roughness = .0012 inch Initial Number of Stages (Year 1-5) = 3

Final Number of Stages (Year 6 +) = ?

Contractual Rate = 20 MMscfd Pipeline Length = 10 mile Riser Base

Est. Inlet Temp at Manifold = 68 deg F Diameter = 8 inch

Roughness = .0012 inch

U = 3.3 Btu/hr/ft2/degF

Ambient Subsea Temp = 39 deg F

MAOP = 1550 psia

Diameter = 6 inch Average Compressibility = 0.9

U = 6.5 Btu/hr/ft2/degF Specific Heat Capacity = 0.7

Geothermal grad = 1.2 deg F / 100 ft Cp / Cv Ratio = 1.31

Roughness = .0012 inch

Bottom Initial Reservoir Pressure = 5000 psia

Hole Decline Rate = 0.01 psi/MMscf

Reservoir Temperature = 120 deg F

Max Drawdown (avoid sand production) = 3000 psi

Deliverability Constant Cp = 8 E-6 MMscf/psi2

Reservoir Deliverability Exponent n = 0.90

the first five years of operation.

After five years, a satellite field is being brought on-stream at the subsea

manifold with a contractual rate of 20 MMscfd. What is the impact on existing

production and how much additional compression is needed to produce both

fields?

113

Workshop J1 - Engineering Design Concepts

Basic Engineering Concepts Applied:

Reservoir Reservoir Decline

Gas deliverability equation (see Reservoir Pressure (current)

Reservoir Deliverability) = Reservoir Pressure (previous) * Decline Rate * Cumulative

Reservoir decline Production

Drawdown limit Note: for gas fields p/z is sometimes used instead of pressure

Wellbore (p) in the above equation

Pressure gradient (see Momentum Maximum Drawdown

Balance) Drawdown is generally limited to avoid problems such as sand

Heat transfer (see Heat Transfer) production

Manifold

Bottom Hole Pressure > Reservoir Pressure – Max Drawdown Limit

Fluid mixing – temperature

Fluid Mixing at Junction (Subsea Manifold)

Subsea Pipeline

Pressure gradient Mixture Temperature (downstream)

Heat transfer = (Stream1 Temp*Stream1 Rate + Stream2 Temp*Stream 2 Rate)

/ (Stream 1 Rate + stream 2 Rate)

Hydrate prediction temperature

Note: for multiple streams, the downstream temp is the mass-

Riser weighted temperature of all incoming streams

Pressure gradient Simplified Hydrate Prediction

Heat transfer The following empirical model (Hammerschmidt) is used:

Platform Hydrate formation temp (deg F) =8.9 x psia0.85

Compression Compressor Power

HP = 550 * Mass Rate (lb/s) * Head (ft) / Efficiency / g

Head = n / (n – 1) * Pinlet * (Ratio ((n-1)/n) – 1))

114

Workshop J1- Summary of Operating Constraints

Reservoir NA NA NA

pressure

Solution cannot violate any of the above constraints for the projected 10-year operating scenario

115

Workshop J1- (Excel File)

Spread Sheet 1 of the Excel file Workshop J1 defines the full problem to be

solved:

Lines 5-10 summarizes the results for a simulation scenario in terms of the

pressure & temp at the key points along the system.

The bright yellow fields in Column D represent the variable to be changed (well

rate, satellite rate, cumulative production, compressor stages).

DO NOT CHANGE ANY OTHER FIELDS

116

Solution to Workshop J1- (Excel File)

Spread Sheet 2 of the Excel file Workshop J1 is the worksheet used to determine the

cumulative production volume from the production profile.

1. In Spreadsheet 1, set satellite production = 0; number of compressor stages = 3 to start the analysis

2. For year 1, set cumulative production = 0 (new field) and adjust Well Production (range: 25-35 MMscfd) until none of the

constraints are violated. Enter this value in Sheet 2 for year 1 and determine the cumulative volume produced by the well

at the end of the year.

3. Enter the cumulative volume in Sheet 1 and repeat Step 2 for Year 2

4. Repeat Steps 2-3 for the first five years.

5. At Year 6, set satellite production = 20 MMscfD and determine the flow rate at which the minimum delivery pressure is

achieved.

6. Note that the hydrate temperature limit is violated because of the cooler satellite production stream. Add another stage of

compression (stages = 4) so that production from the Well increases and the pipeline temperature no longer falls below the

hydrate limit.

7. Repeat Steps 2-3 for the remaining years in the scenario

8. Note that the pipeline temperature falls as well production drops dues to reservoir decline. If temperature drops below the

hydrate limit, add more compression in Year 6 and repeat the steps through the end.

9. The plot on the right shows the predicted production profile for the ten year scenario.

Well Production Profile

35

Well Production, MMscfd

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0 5 10 15

117 Years of Production

Workshop J2

-Pipeline Operations Problem

88.8 km x16 inch branch line flowing from mainline to refinery (10 ¾ inch pipe for final 8 km)

Inlet Pump Station SP1 – 3x500 kW (1 spare), Intermediate Pump Station SP2 – 2x500kW

units (1 spare).

Pipeline Profile Distance Elevation OD 1500

Elevation, m

KM m inch 1000

Inlet Pump Station (SP1) 0 416 16

Intermediate Pump Station (SP2) 44.6 740 16 500

Highest Point 69.4 1263 16

16/10 Switch 80.8 1100 10.75 0

Refinery 88.8 431 10.75 0 20 40 60 80 100

Current Operations: Pipeline pressure profile (bar) from SCADA at 650 m3/hr:

Crude oil gravity = 0.83 avg. viscosity = 3 SP1 Outlet SP2 Inlet SP2 Outlet High Point Refinery

cSt

Operational service = 170day/yr 74.3 27.3 53 2.2 39.7

Average sand = 390 ppm

How much can pipeline throughput be increased without significant capital

investment (through a combination of existing pump capacity utilization and DRA

injection)? Assume DRA performance is for medium crude per chart on right.

a) Utility rates of euro 0.10/kWh

b) DRA injection cost of euro 10/gallon

118

Solution to Workshop J2 - (Excel File)

Spread Sheet 1 (Baseline) is the worksheet used to determine the baseline pipeline

operation from current operations data (SCADA pressure profile).

• Key Assumptions:

• Line fill compaction = 1.5% (change in volume at in situ pressure and

temperature)

• Wall thickness = 0.375 inch for 16 inch pipe, 0.365 for 10 inch pipe (Schedule 40)

• Adjust pipe roughness and pump efficiency until predicted profile matches SCADA

• Use adjusted values and calculated pipeline inlet pressure for all subsequent

analysis

scenarios

• Key Constraints:

• Pressure at Highest Point > 0 bar (else slack line conditions)

• Pipeline velocity < erosional limit (const in API RP14E = 135 for solid (sand)<1

lb/bbl)

Spread Sheet 3 (Costing): is the worksheet used to estimate the DRA and power

costs for the various scenarios.

119

Workshop J2 - Results Summary

The table above summarizes the results for the pipeline throughput analysis.

Flow Rate PS1 PS2 Drag Reduction Injection Rate Injection Injection DRA Cost Add. Power Cost Total

m3/hr units units US gal/day SP1 SP2 euro/day euro/day euro/day

650 2 1 0% 0 No No 0 0 0

Key Observations:

1) Pipeline is operating close to capacity under current conditions (spare pumps not

used, no DRA injection)

2) Throughput cannot be increased beyond 1000 m3/hr without additional capex (new

pump units, pipeline resizing, or looping)

3) Erosional velocity in the 10-inch line will not be a factor if sand is controlled

4) Pump operation (spare) is a more cost effective option than DRA injection

120

References:

2. Brill, J.P. and Beggs, D.H.: Two-Phase Flow in Pipes (any edition)

3. Golan, M. and Whitson, C.H.: Well Performance, Second Edition, 1995

4. Offshore Multiphase Production Operations, SPE Reprint Series No. 58

5. Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary (www.glossary.oilfield.com)

121

Contact Information

Dr. Kunal Dutta-Roy

16350 Park Ten Place

Houston, Texas 77084

United States of America

Nihal.G.Quadir@EICEinternational.com

Kunal.DuttaRoy@EICEinternational.com

cell: +1 (713) 459-9422

122

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