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MTHN14E

SOLID MENSURATION
Lec 2
Outline of the Syllabus
I. Review of Plane Figures
II. Planes and Angles in Space
III. Polyhedrons and Prisms
IV. Pyramids
V. Prismatoids and Truncated Prisms
VI. Cylinders
VII. Cones
VIII. Spheres
References:
1. Solid Mensuration by Jay P. Enriquez, Sergio M. Ymas Jr., Reynaldo Jesuitas
2. Solid Mensuration by Jonathan B. Cabero, Donata D. Acula, Lorina G. Salamat, Antonina C. Sta.
Maria
Outline of the Syllabus
I. Review of Plane Figures
1. Mensuration Formulas of Triangles
2. Mensuration Formulas of Quadrilaterals
3. Mensuration Formulas of Other Regular Polygons
4. Mensuration Formulas on Ellipses and Circles
5. Mensuration of Formulas on Arcs Sectors on Circles
6. Mensuration of Formulas on Similar Figures

II. Planes and Angles in Space

References:
1. Solid Mensuration by Jay P. Enriquez, Sergio M. Ymas Jr., Reynaldo Jesuitas
2. Solid Mensuration by Jonathan B. Cabero, Donata D. Acula, Lorina G. Salamat, Antonina C. Sta.
Maria
Review of Plane Figures
A. Mensuration Formulas of Other Regular Polygons
B. Mensuration Formulas on Ellipses and Circles
C. Mensuration of Formulas on Arcs Sectors on Circles
D. Mensuration of Formulas on Similar Figures
Review of Plane Figures
A. Regular Polygons (both equilateral & equiangular polygon)
1. Regular Hexagon (consists of
six equal equilateral triangles) r
P = 6s R=s
A = 3√3 s2 R
2 r = s√3 r = apothem
2
2. Regular Octagon (consist of eight equal isosceles triangles
P = 8s R= s
2 r
r = (√2 + 1) s
2 = √2 (2+ √2)
A = 2 (√2 + 1) s2 2
R
apothem - a line segment from the center to the midpoint of one of its sides
- line drawn from the center of the polygon that is perpendicular to one of its sides
Review of Plane Figures
A. Regular Polygons (both equilateral & equiangular polygon)
The area of any regular polygon can be calculated easily when the
number and length of its sides are given.
POLYGON NO. OF SIDES (n) AREA
Equilateral Triangle 3 0.433s2
Square 4 1.000s2
Regular Pentagon 5 1.720s2
Regular Hexagon 6 2.598s2
Regular Heptagon 7 3.634s2
Regular Octagon 8 4.828s2
Regular Nonagon 9 6.182s2
Regular Decagon 10 7.694s2
Regular Undecagon 11 9.366s2
Regular Dodecagon 12 11.196s2
Regular Pentadecagon 15 17.642s2
Review of Plane Figures
Convex Polygon of n Sides
 Each interior angle of a regular polygon of sides
2
= (1- n
) 180 °
 Sum of the interior angles = (n-2)180°
 Sum of the exterior angles = 360 °

B. Ellipses and Circles


Ellipse
A = π ab a
a = semi-major axis
B = semi-minor axis b

Circle
A circle is a set of points equidistant from a fixed point within
the center.
πd2 Cr d = 2r
A= πr2 = =
4 2
C = 2πr = πd 2A
=
r
Review of Plane Figures
C. Arcs and Sectors on Circles
Important application of a radian measure
-Stated in an elementary theorem in geometry
“On a circle of radius r, a central angle ( an angle whose vertex is the center
of the circle) of θ radius intercepts an arc whose length is equal to the
product of θ and r.”

s = rθ, θ in radians
Equivalent formulas
θ = s/r , θ in radians
r = s/θ
Review of Plane Figures
Areas of Sectors of Circle
Sector
-a part of a circle between two radii with the given central angle

Area of a Circle
A = πr2 = 1 ( 2π ) r2 , where 2π is the angle for the
θ 2 complete circle
r
Area of a sector of a circle of radius r
A = 1 r2θ
2
θ – denotes the central angle of the circle in radian
measure
Review of Plane Figures
D. Similar Figures
 If the corresponding angles in two figures are equal, it only means that
they have the same shape though not necessarily of the same size. Such
relation ships is called similar figures.
 Two segments are proportional if there exists a positive integer
k, such that the length of one segment is k times the length of the other.

 The proportion property of two similar figures is that a


correspondence exists between the figures in such a way that every
segment in the first has a length that is k times that of its corresponding
segment in the other.
Example:
If length L1 = 12 and L2 = 18 then there L1
exists an integer k = 6 (common
factor)such that the ratio of the two L2
lengths is 2:3.
Review of Plane Figures
D. Similar Figures
Example:
i. ΔABC ~ ΔA’B’C
ii. rt. ΔCMN ~ rt. ΔCM’N’
C C

A’ B’ M’ N’

A B N
M
Two polygons are similar (~)
 if their corresponding angles are equal and their corresponding sides are
proportional.
Review of Plane Figures
D. Similar Figures
A Example:
B’ E’ ABCDE ~ AB’C’D’E’
B E i. ABC = AB’C’
C’ D’
BCD = B’C’D’
BAE = B’A’E’
C D
ii. AB BC CD DE
= = =
AB’ B’C’ C’D’ D’E’
Planes and Angles in Space
A. Lines and Planes in Space
B. Locus
C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles
Planes and Angles in Space
A. Lines and Planes in Space
Plane
- A surface such that a straight line joining any two points in it lies
wholly in the surface
- Understood to be indefinite in extent, but usually represented by a
parallelogram lying in the plane
- May be designated by a single small letter at one vertex or two
capital letters at opposite vertices

Postulate 2.1.1. Conditions for Existence of Plane


A plane is determined by any one of the following conditions:
a. a line and a point not on the line
b. three noncollinear points
c. two intersecting lines
d. two parallel lines
Postulate 2.1.2.
If two planes intersect, their intersection is a line.
Planes and Angles in Space
A. Lines and Planes in Space
•Theorems on Perpendicular Lines and Planes
Theorem 2.1.1.
If a line is perpendicular to each of two other lines at their
point of intersection, it is perpendicular to the plane of the
two lines.
Theorem 2.1.2.
All perpendiculars to a line at a point lie in the plane, which is
perpendicular to the line at a given point.
Theorem 2.1.3.
At a given point on a line, only one plane perpendicular to the line can be drawn.
Theorem 2.1.4.
At a given external point, one and only one plane can be drawn perpendicular to a line.
Theorem 2.1.5.
Through a given point; there can be one and one plane perpendicular to a given plane.
Corollary 2.1.1.
The perpendicular line is the shortest line from a point to a plane.
Planes and Angles in Space
A. Lines and Planes in Space
•Theorems on Parallel Lines and Planes
A line and a plane are parallel if they cannot meet, far
they are produced. Some essential theorems on parallel lines
planes are as follows:
Theorem 2.1.6.
Two lines perpendicular to the same plane are parallel.
Theorem 2.1.7.
Any plane containing one of two parallel line is parallel to the
other.
Theorem 2.1.8.
If a line is parallel to a plane, the intersection of a plane with
any plane passed through the given line is parallel to the line.
Theorem 2.1.9.
Two planes perpendicular to the same line are parallel.
Theorem 2.1.10.
If a third plane intersects each of two parallel planes, the lines intersection
are parallel.
Planes and Angles in Space
A. Lines and Planes in Space
•Theorems on Parallel Lines and Planes
Theorem 2.1.11.
The line perpendicular to one of two parallel planes is
perpendicular to the other also.

Theorem 2.1.12.
If two intersecting lines are parallel to a plane, the plane
of these lines is parallel to that plane.

Theorem 2.1.13.
If two angles not in the same plane have their sides respectively
parallel and lying on the same side of the line joining their
vertices, they are equal, and their planes are parallel.
Planes and Angles in Space
Locus
Locus in three-dimensional space, as well as in two-dimensional
plane is defined
- geometric figure which contains only those points which
satisfies certain conditions that contain all such points.

• Locus in Plane
a. The locus of points at a given distance from
given point is a circle having the given point as
center and the distance as radius.

b. The locus of points at a given distance from


given line is a pair of lines parallel to the given
line and at same distance from it.

c. The locus of points equidistant from two given


points is the perpendicular bisector of the line
segment, joining the two points.
Planes and Angles in Space
Locus
• Locus in Plane
d. The locus of points equidistant from the sides of an angle is a line, which is the
bisector of the angle

e. The locus of the vertex of a right triangle having a given hypotenuse is the circle
having the hypotenuse as its diameter.
Planes and Angles in Space
Locus
• Locus in Space
a. The locus of points at a given distance from a
given point is a sphere having the given point as
a center and the distance as radius.

b. The locus of points at a given distance from a


given plane is a pair of planes parallel to a
given plane at the same distance from it.
Planes and Angles in Space
Locus
• Locus in Space
c. The locus of points equidistant from two
points is the plane, which is the perpendicular
bisector of the line joining the two points.

d. The locus of points equidistant from two


intersecting planes is the plane, which is the
bisector of the angle between them.
Planes and Angles in Space
Locus
• Locus in Space
e. The locus of the vertex of a right triangle having given hypotenuse is the sphere
having the hypotenuse as its diameter.
Planes and Angles in Space
C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles
• Dihedral Angle A
- the opening between two intersecting planes.
• Edge – the line of intersection CB of the plane D
edge
• Faces – the planes DC and AB face
face

B C
- Designated by its edge or by its two faces and its edge
Thus, the dihedral angle of the figure is designated by A
B
A-BC-D, or when no confusion arises, simply by BC.

C D
Planes and Angles in Space
C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles
• Dihedral Angle A
 The plane angle of a dihedral angle is the angle
formed by two straight lines, one in each face, D
perpendicular to the edge at the same point.

B C
 Adjacent dihedral angles are dihedral angles which
a have the same edge and a common face between them.
Example:
C-AB-D and D-AB-E are adjacent dihedral angles. C
D
B

A E
Planes and Angles in Space
C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles
• Dihedral Angle
 Right dihedral angles
-when one plane meets another to form equal adjacent
dihedral angles
 When one plane forms a right dihedral angle with
one another, the planes are perpendicular to each other.

 Two Vertical dihedral angles


- are dihedral angles that have the same edge and the
faces of one are prolongation of the faces of the other.
Planes and Angles in Space
C. Dihedral and Polyhedral Angles
• Polyhedral Angle
- A figure formed by three or more planes meeting at a common point
• Faces – are the intersecting planes
• Edges – are the lines of intersection of the faces
• Vertex – is the point of intersection of the edges
• Face angles – are the angles at the vertex formed by any two adjacent edges

• Dihedral angles of the polyhedral angle – are the dihedral angles formed
by the intersecting faces

• Section – formed if a plane cuts all faces of the polyhedral angle (but not at
the vertex) V
F E

A D

C
B