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# Hybrid Quick Sort + Insertion Sort: Runtime

Comparison

Anirban Ray

16 March 2018

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Introduction

## Numerous sorting algorithms are available

Some well known methods include Merge Sort, Heap Sort, Quick Sort,
Insertion Sort, Selection Sort etc.
Focus on Quick Sort and Insertion Sort

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## Fastest known general sorting algorithm in practice

Provides best run-time in average cases
Recursive algorithm
High overhead cost for repetitive calls for relatively small arrays

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## Efficient for small array sizes

Iterative algorithm, and takes only constant memory space
Sort an array as it receives it
Does not lag too much for moderately large arrays, provided the array
is substantially sorted

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Objective

## To combine these two algorithms in an “optimum” way

Speed of quick sort should prevail, if not improved
Taking advantage of effectiveness of insertion sort for smaller partially
sorted array
Finding an “optimal” sorting algorithm

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Insertion Sort: Steps

## Consider any particular iteration, say the k-th one

The first k elements are already sorted
Removes the (k+1)-th element
Finds its ordered position in the sorted array of the first (k+1) elements
Inserts it there
The first (k+1) elements become sorted

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Insertion Sort: Algorithm

INSERTIONSORT(A)
for j = 2 to A.length
key = A[j]
i = j - 1
while i > 0 and A[i] > key
A[i + 1] = A[i]
i = i - 1
A[i + 1] = key

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Quick Sort: Steps

## Choose a pivot element in the array

Such that all elements before it is not more than the pivot element
And all after are not less than that
Divides the array into two sub-arrays with respect to this pivot element
None of the sub-arrays are sorted themselves, but each element in the
former one are less than every element in the latter one
Repeats same for both the sub-arrays
Continue until all sub-arrays are of size 1
All these sub-arrays are sorted trivially within themselves
Merging these sub-arrays completes the sorting process

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Quick Sort: Choice of Pivot

## Different choices of the pivot element are available

Each choice suitable for different types of the input array
The last element may be used always, but not ideal for sorted array
(due to Lomuto)
Similar problem for first element of the array (due to Hoare)
Random elements may be chosen, but there is some cost for random
number generation
Ideal choice is median, but it is hard to find median without sorting the
array
Compromised choice is median of the first, last and middle most entry
(due to Singleton)
For random inputs, no particular pivot is preferred over the other
We will use random arrays throughout in this project
We will use the first element of the array

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Quick Sort: Partition Algorithm

PARTITION(A, p, r)
x = A[p]
i = p - 1
j = r + 1
while TRUE
repeat
j = j - 1
until A[j] <= x
repeat
i = i + 1
until A[i] >= x
if (i < j) exchange A[i] with A[j]
else return j

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Quick Sort: Main Sorting Algorithm

QUICKSORT(A, p, r)
if p < r
q = PARTITION(A, p, r)
QUICKSORT(A, p, q)
QUICKSORT(A, q + 1, r)

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Hybrid Sort: Formulation

## Points to keep in mind

Quick sort works by dividing the array recursively in smaller sub-arrays
These are not sorted within themselves, but sorted between themselves
Insertion works better for arrays with partially sorted sub-arrays of small
size
Hybrid method should start the sorting procedure by partition approach
of quick sort
It should continue to do so until the sub-arrays are of size not more
than a specified cut-off
At this stage, we have an array of partially sorted sub-arrays
Apply insertion sort over the array to get the sorted output

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Hybrid Sort: Algorithm

HYBRIDSORT(A, p, r, k)
if (p < r)
if (r - p + 1 > k)
q = PARTITION(A, p, r)
HYBRIDSORT(A, p, q, k)
HYBRIDSORT(A, q + 1, r, k)

INSERTIONSORT(A)

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Steps for finding the Optimum Cutoff Size

## Our hybrid sorting algorithm is now defined

Now, we wish to find the “optimum” cut-off for array size
Optimality will be considered in terms of average run-time
We will use simulation study to choose this optimum cut-off
We take some choices of cut-offs in the range from 1 to 1000
For fixed array size, we find out average runtime for each choice over
25 replications
Vary the array size and repeat the same procedure

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Graph 1

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Graph 2

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Graph 3

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Graph 4

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Observations from the Graphs: Initial sharp fall

## Proves the effectiveness of the hybrid algorithm over quick

For the choice of cut-off as 1, hybrid and quick algorithms are
equivalent

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Observations from the Graphs: Increasing trend in
run-time with increase in cut-off size

## Depicts slow nature of insertion sort

As cut-of increases, insertion is applied over larger sub-arrays
Benefit for partially sortedness is significant only for “small” arrays

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Observations from the Graphs: Skewed U-shaped pattern

## Governed by the two opposite reasons to increase the run-time

Trade-off between these two is balanced in the lower part of the graph

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Observations from the Graphs: No unique point of minima

Minimum occurs in all graphs, but those vary with each other
Quite expected in simulation studies
(100, 200) can be considered to be broad interval containing the
optimum
We will use 140 as cut-off in following section

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Improvement over Quick Sort

## That we gain by hybrid algorithm over quick is already established

We now wish to measure the extent of improvement, if possible
At least, we want to see if that varies with array size or not
We again do a simulation study
Fix an array size and sort 50 random arrays of that size by both
methods
Calculate average run-times in both cases and compute the percentage
improvement
Vary the array size and do the same

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Graph 5

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Explanation of Graph

## Evidently, hybrid sort always outperforms quick sort

But, improvement is decreasing as array size increasing
Reason is the insertion sort applied in the last step over the whole array
Large array size restricts the efficiency of insertion sort for partially
sorted arrays
Alternatively, insertion may be applied over each sub-arrays
But then there will be a high overhead cost for too many calls
We can ignore this as it still beats quick by around 40%, sufficient
enough for real life situations

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Summary

## We have developed the hybrid algorithm

We have provided a guideline about the optimum cut-off size
We verified that it outperforms the quick sort significantly for all
practical purposes
Hybrid algorithm can be implemented quite easily, once we have