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Tourism Defined

The origin of the word “tourism” is often traced in the Old Saxon term Torn (England). This
word extends to Torn-us (what gives turns) and torn-are (to give turns). The meaning of the
world “torn” can be roughly translated as a “departure with the intention of returning." In
practice, if referred to the rest (vacation) trips taken by peasants during the 12th century. By the
middle of the 18th century, the English noblemen used the term “turn” to refer to the trips
undertaken for education, search and cultural exploration. In reality, the purpose of the
noblemen’s trip to the different parts of asserting power was to acquire knowledge that was
useful for governing these areas (e.g. asserting power, imposing rules and regulations, etc.) The
genesis of the Grand Tour lies in the early tours taken by the nobility has laid the foundation of
tourism. The term “turn” is abandoned in favor of the “tour” a French influence. In Saxon, the
nouns of the original verbs are denominated with the suffix. It was during the 12th century the
nobleman who goes on a trip and returns to his or her place of departure would be called a Torn-
er. Centuries later, during the era of the bourgeoisie (18th and 19th centuries) the term er was
substituted by latin iste and Greek isme. During the 20th century, the term “tour-ist” and the act
of touring “tour-ism” are conceived. (Leiper,1983).

Although during the last few decades, tourism attracted a great deal of scholarly attention,
controversy surrounding the definition of tourism persisted. While adopting a sociological
approach towards seeking a solution to the problem, Cohen (1974) acknowledges that tourism is
an indistinct concept with ill-defined boundaries between tourist and non-tourist roles and with
many immediate categories. He identified seven characteristics of tourism to distinguish a tourist
form traveler. Thus according to Cohen “tourism” is:

1. Temporary, to distinguish it from the permanent travel of tramp and nomad;

2. Voluntary, to distinguish it from the forced travel of the exile and refugee;

3. Round trip, to distinguish it from the one-way journey of the migrant;

4. Relatively long, to distinguish it from the trip of the excursionist or trippers

5. Non-recurrent, to distinguish it from the recurrent trips of the holiday house owner;

6. Non-instrumental, to distinguish it from the travel as a means to another end of the business
traveler, traveling sales representative and pilgrims; and

7. for novelty and change, to distinguish it from travel for other purposes such as study. From a
sociological point of view, the displacement of people (trip, migration or Diaspora) has an
element in conjunction with tourism (Cohen, 1974). The migrant leaves his or her place of
habitual residence (home) in search of tangible or intangible resources, which cannot be found in
the home environment. In a similar way, the tourist is (self) displaced in search of finding
something exotic (landscapes, customs, etc.) that cannot be found in the home environment.
Tourism basically involves three elements (Wahab, 1975), namely, man (human element as the
creator of the act of tourism), space (the physical element to be necessarily covered by the act
itself,) and time (the temporal element which is compared bye the trip itself and the stay at the
destination). In economic parlance, tourism is now regarded as an industry. This in a way defies
the classical definition of the term. It is argued that tourism contributes to a countries (or
location’s) economic and social development as it activates many productive sectors. It creates
and varied industries.

Characteristics of tourism

Burkart and Medlik (1981) identified five major characteristics of tourism:

1. Tourism arises from the movement of people to, and their stay in, various destinations;

2. There are two elements in all tourism, the journey to the destinations and the stay, including
activities at the destination;

3. The journey and the stay take place outside the normal place of residence and work, so that
tourism gives rise to activities, which are distinct from those of the resident and working
populations of the places through which tourists travel and in which they stay;

4. The movement to destinations is of temporary, short-term character, with intention to return


within a few days, weeks or months; and

5. Destinations are visited for purposes other than taking up permanent residence or employment
remunerated from within the place visited

Archeological tourism

Archaeo tourism or Archaeological tourism is a form of cultural tourism, which aims to promote
public interest in archaeology and the conservation of historical sites.

Archaeological tourism can include all products associated with public archaeological
promotion, including visits to archaeological sites, museums, interpretation centers,
reenactments of historical occurrences, and the rediscovery of indigenous products, festivals,
or theaters. Archaeological tourism walks a fine line between promoting archaeological sites
and an area's cultural heritage and causing more damage to them, thus becoming invasive
tourism. Archaeologists have expressed concerns that tourism encourages particular ways of
seeing and knowing the past. When archaeological sites are run by tourist boards, ticket fees
and souvenir revenues can become a priority, and the question remains whether a site is worth
opening to the public or remaining closed and keeping the site out of harm's way. Damage to
irreplaceable archaeological materials is not only direct, as when remains are disordered,
altered, destroyed, or looted, but often the indirect result of poorly planned development of
tourism amenities, such as hotels, restaurants, roads, and shops. These can drastically alter the
environment in ways that produce flooding, landslides, or undermine ancient structures.

What is archeological tourism marketing?

Archeological Tourism marketing is the business discipline of attracting visitors to specific


archeological sites ( as well as related Hotels , cities, states, consumer attractions, convention
centers and other sites and locations) associated with consumer and business travel all apply
basic marketing strategies to specific techniques signed to increase visits.

Major reasons for tourist travel in archeological sites:

These are as follows:

 Educational opportunity
 Self-Relaxation
 Self-fulfillment
 Escape
 Prestige
 Social interaction
 Wish fulfillment
 Strengthening family bonds

The characteristics of archeological tourism

Archeological tourism can be defined according to the following basic principles:

• Developing natural and cultural heritage sites and tourism in harmony with one another.

• Planning tourism in heritage sites based on the meeting of tourists’ needs and the provision of
enjoyment

• Ensuring the clear reflection of the characteristics of local populations in tourism planning.

• Orienting archeological tourism towards benefiting the living standards of the local population,
and providing social and economic development.

• Strengthening the protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage in tourism
programs.

• Supporting foreign and domestic tourism with the principle of cultural exchange.
Defining archeological tourism product development

At one extreme tourism product development can be defined as embracing all elements with
which the visitor to a destination comes into contact. This includes infrastructure (e.g.
transport, utilities) the service personnel, places of lodging, attractions and activities, facilities
and amenities. At the more focused level, tourism product development can be defined as
comprising only those attractions, activities and facilities that are specifically provided for the
visitor.

Individual attractions, activities and facilities are components of an overall tourism product;
only extremely rarely are they the sole item that tourist visitors experience or utilize when in
the destination. An archeological tourism product is an amalgam of many different elements,
the provision of, and access to, which the tourist expects to be fully in line with his or her
needs. An archeological tourism product is, therefore, the lodging facility used, the places
visited, the museums, restaurants, shops and/or theatres patronized, as well as the journey to,
from and around the destination.

An archeological tourism product is comprised of three responses from the tourist:

1. Experiential – festivals, activities, community, event, entertainment, shopping, safety, service


etc.

2. Emotional – human, cultural and historic resources, hospitality.

3. Physical – infrastructure, natural resources, accommodation, restaurants, shops and other


buildings visited.

The range of attractions and activities that falls under the umbrella term of ‘tourism products’
is extensive, covering natural features, history and cultural heritage, the built environment, and
the people of the destination themselves.

Characteristics of archeological tourism product marketing

Every destination differs in respect of its combination of natural resources, location vis-a-vis
source markets, size and spread of population, history and cultural heritage, socio-economic
and political systems, stage of development and levels of, and possibilities for, industrialization.

The tourism destination:

 is one product but also many,


 involves many stakeholders with differing objectives and requirements,
 is both a physical entity and a socio-cultural one,
 is a mental concept for potential tourists,
 is subject to the influence of current events, natural disasters, terrorism, health scares,
etc.,
 is subject to historical, real and fictitious events,
 is evaluated subjectively in terms of what represents value-for-money based on reality
compared with expectations, and
 Differs in size, physical attractions, infrastructure, benefits offered to visitors and degree
of its own unique and authentic attributes.

Factors effect on the development of archeological tourism marketing

Archeological tourism marketing is driven by a host of factors, some of which might seem to
have nothing to do with tourism. The tourism industry must respond to global events, financial
considerations, the changing demographics and tastes of the traveling public and the available
sources of funding to create timely and effective marketing. Only a complete understanding of
these factors and how they can effect on archeological tourism business will ensure tourism
marketing development is on target.

1) Political-legal factors.

The political-legal environment includes such factors as political stability, strategic development
objectives, small and medium business promoting, the government executed archeological l
tourism promotion and regulatory policy, the Bangladesh tourism board ,the business of
archeological tourism regulating legislation, environmental protection legislation. Legal and
bureaucratic restrictions are one of the main obstacles for the development of archeological
tourism business. Usually legal documents promote the tourism activity but there are cases when
due to specific conditions the tourism activity may be legally restricted especially in order to
avoid a negative impact on the environment. In Bangladesh the business of archeological tourism

Government Support

In many cases, government-run tourism boards are the sole source of funding for a travel and
tourism marketing campaign. The government of a given region has tax dollars to gain by
increased tourism and investments are made in the name of local businesses and residents to
bring people in. Government budgets are directly connected with annual budgets and revenue,
and in many areas the tourism sector of the government is one of the first to feel cuts in times
of economic hardship. Conversely in times of crisis or rebuilding, the tourism board is on the
front lines working to re-establish the destination as a viable option for the traveling public.
These circumstances directly affect archeological tourism marketing .
Political Climate

Global politics are an important factor in international tourism. As regions undergo change,
uncertainty or in some cases violence and war, travel can slow or cease altogether. For example,
Egypt long was a fantasy destination for tourists around the world. The revolutions of 2011
changed all that, and tourism to the area dropped as a result. Major political events occur around
the globe, and the travel industry must adjust accordingly. Marketing efforts can be built around
political events if they are not as all-encompassing as the Egyptian example, or they can divert
attention to new, replacement destinations to address the current situation while attending to the
wishes of the traveling public. So political climate effects on archeological tourism marketing in
mainamoti, comilla,Bangladesh.

Pressure groups

The promotion and regulation of a variety of sectors at both national and transnational levels
has been seen as profoundly influenced by the behavior of interest groups. Yet little is known
about what impact interest groups exert upon public policy in the field of tourism. The concept
of ‘power dependence’ is shown to be the key to understanding the contribution of producer
interests in tourism policy. The formation of interest groups dedicated to representing large
firm interests in tourism are likely to be more successful than other types of fore, in that they
recruit members directly from firms rather than representing more diverse federations of
national interests

Policies

Government policies can have a dramatic effect on the archeological tourism marketing. The
great destination success stories invariably include a government committed to policies which
foster tourism development.

Tourism Legislation and Regulation

Objective: Formulate a legal and regulatory framework for the sustainable development and
management of tourism, protection and conservation of natural and cultural resources; and,
facilitation of the involvement of private sector and local communities in tourism development
activities. It reflects the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders; ensures the rights of
international/local tourists; and, ensures the rights and obligations of participating businesses,
inbound-outbound tour operators and all other concerned players in the tourism.

Methodology of legislation

 Identify the role of legislation in tourism development.


 Build consensus for tourism legislation through:
• consistency with National Development Policy;
• consistency with National Tourism Policy;
• review existing legal regulations governing tourism development;
• review existing classification guidelines which affect the quality of existing
tourism facilities and services and identify gaps and constraints;
 identify core legal issues;
 identify stakeholder groups;
 identify the range of legal tools available;
• address issues of enforcement;
• build in quality assurance and foster professionalism; and
• Facilitate business development.
 Identify the roles and responsibilities of various government agencies, at central and
local level, in tourism development.
 Organize a series of workshops at the regional level with all stakeholders to identify
current gaps and constraints in legislation related to tourism planning, development,
management and Promotion.
 Organize a national conference to disseminate the draft Tourism Law to all stakeholders
to obtain their feedback and endorsement.
 Formulate an implementation plan for the enforcement of the Tourism Law.

Based on the above, formulate a draft Tourism Law for the sustainable development,
management and regulation of the tourism industry determining the rights and obligations of
the Government in terms of protecting natural and cultural resources and tourism development
and management; the rights and obligations of the industry suppliers; and the rights and
obligations of the consumers.

Political stability and instability:

Political stability and political relations influences the image of destinations in tourism-
generating regions. Political strife that causes problematic concerns in the attraction of visitors
is war fare, coups, political sticks or protests. Political instability is described as a condition of
country where a government has been toppled or is controlled by factions following a coup or
where basic functional per-requisites for social order control and maintenance are unstable and
periodically disrupted.

2) Economic factors.
Economic factors have the greatest influence on the development of archeological tourism
marketing of mainamoti,comilla ,Bangladesh. the development of archeological tourism strongly
depends on revenuegrowth note that rising wages enable people to spend more money on leisure
and recreational activities. This factor greatly affects archeological tourism. However, it is
important to draw attention to the growing inflation, which can reduce real income of the
population. Focus on such economic factors as tourists ‘flows from the countries, GDP per
capita, inflation, establishment of tourism companies in the country, tangible investments. The
development of archeological tourism is also influenced by interest rate changes, government
expenditure, foreign investments, and unemployment.

To continue, changing climate affects the growing of support costs for natural resources
(important for archeological tourism). In the future, economic factors will depend more heavily
on environmental factors and sustainable tourism will grow because of the worse state of
environment.

Tourism Economics assesses an archeological tourism policy drawing from a host of experiences
and international best practices. Our approach is decidedly empirical, evaluating the real
returns to the economy of particular policy options.

Our analysis provides governments with the insight to make wise economic policy decisions.

Among the questions we help answers are:

 How will increasing entry restrictions affect tourism?


 What are the economic benefits and costs of legalized gaming?
 How will an increased occupancy tax impact visitor demand, the economy, and the tax
base?
 How can we attract tourism investment?
 What will happen if we raise or lower our tourism marketing spending?
 How can we implement public-private partnerships?
Currency Fluctuations

World currencies move up and down, directly affecting the cost of travel for millions of people.
When the dollar is down against a given currency, travelers get less for their money, and when it
is up travelers get more. The same goes for marketing. When international destinations launch
marketing campaigns in foreign markets, currency values are always a consideration. They help
determine the target demographics of a given ad, the distribution methods to be used, the fit and
finish, and even the marketing message.

Government Investment

The funding that local, state and national governments set aside for tourism and travel marketing
plays a huge role in the amount and the direction of that marketing around the world. While a
large portion of travel marketing is funded by private companies such as hotel chains and
airlines, it's also driven by government entities who wish to bring in traffic. The annual budgets
as determined by politicians dictate what will be spent, while the tourism boards establish how.
Economic successes can lead to increased or decreased investment depending on the point of
view of the locality. Some governments wish to bank of tourism for continued success, while
others hope that investment in tourism will get them out of the doldrums.

The determination of the employment in the levels of income and the economy is the main
consideration here.

Interest rates: Interest rates determine the cost and the flow of money of borrowing
towards businesses.

Exchange rates: The impact from the profits made by employment levels, exporters and
the price of imports.

Income and wealth: Income in an economy is measured by GDP, GNP and per capita. In
these factors a progressive economic environment shown by high values.

Inflation and deflation: Inflationary and deflationary pressures alter the purchasing
power of this which has a direct impact on employment rates, consumer spending, tax policies,
business investment, and government programs.

Productivity: This is the output generated from a given amount of inputs. High levels of
productivity support by the economic environment.

Economical change:

Economical change influences tourism in much way. Recent credit crunch is an economical
change in the world where country. People lose their job; lots of company closes their
operation for money. People have no extra money for tourism. So this economical change
reduce tourist. On the other hand tourism industries reduce their price for overcome the
economic change.

3) Social factors

social factors includes demographic changes in the country and region, family and community
relationships prevailing in the society, the characteristics of lifestyle, the aspects of health and
education, etc. whereas cultural factors embrace the country or region residents’ mobility for
changes, the attitude to the main issues of archeological l tourism activities and development
(openness, rationality, cosmopolitanism, etc.). The aging of population and an increasing concern
for health, the ambition to know the natural and cultural environment (traditions, lifestyle, etc.)
and not only to visit several tourist sites, to directly and deeply experience the contact with
environment encourages the growth of healthy tourism and rural tourism is perfect for that. The
economic situation of retirement age group is not satisfactory; there are no deep traditions of
travelling. Due to poor demographic situation in rural areas there is a lack of qualified staff. Such
a poor demographic situation is influenced by insufficient access to health and education
services, negative changes in employment, poor state of infrastructure. The development of
archeological tourism is also affected by personal tourists’ motivation, lifestyle, a wish to know
the customs, traditions and history, to visit the cultural heritage, the ethnographic places, the
places of attractive heritage and unique nature.

Travel Trends (Changing mindset of people)

Travel trends to archeological sites develop in the same way as other popular culture styles.
Travel trends are moved by economics, events, new development and the other unforeseen
factors that influence most style-driven trends. Trends affect the places to which people travel
and the way those places position themselves in the market via marketing. Trends can create
completely new categories and types of travel to meet the needs and wants of the traveling
public. Marketing should attempt to seize on new trends and link them to destinations and
product so there is a carryover effect. Marketing should also compensate in areas that no longer
fit the trend by changing the message, the approach and sometimes even the target market.

Changing needs and expectation

Tourist change their need and expectation every time. They always want something new and
high slandered so tourism industry going to follow customer demand.

Group behavior

There are many factors which shape tourist behavior, which therefore influence travel decisions
in terms of selecting a destination. Undoubtedly, travel-related risk associated with terrorism is
one of them. Tourists compare destination alternatives according to perceived benefits and
costs. One of the costs, apart from typical holiday expenses i.e. transportation or
accommodation, is the risk associated with terrorism. It can be assumed that the threat of
terrorism at a particular destination will cause it to be perceived as more costly than a safer
destination. In consequence, the less costly option - one that is safe from threat - is more likely
to be chosen. The decision making process is much more complex.

The complexity of the decision making process is derived from a number of factors, which
relate to the consumer and external influences that act upon them. For example; distinguished
2 groups of influences in the process of selecting a destination:
o Personal and family influences (including age and family life-cycle) and

o Social and situational influences

They noted that age is strongly related to variations in tourism participation. While young
adults are mainly associated with seeking fun and new experiences, older travellers are more
concerned about personal security and safety. Thus, it can be assumed that older travellers are
more likely to go to destinations, which in their perspective are 'safer' than others, and only
these will be considered seriously, while those perceived as risky will be rejected. In terms of
family lifecycle it has been suggested that different personal interests and decisions of tourists
can be determined by the fact of being in different stages in a lifecycle. For example, the
presence of children in a household can determine the family to choose 'safer' destination.

The perception of travel-related risk experienced by an individual, in other words the extent to
which tourists perceive the risk from terrorist incidents, is determined by a variety of factors.
These include: the individual's perception to risk, the scale of threat and frequency, and often
the media coverage of earlier events .Every tourist holds a different personality, attitude and
perceives situations in different ways, therefore there is no one way to determine to what
extent tourists perceive risk .

The magnitude of event, the frequency, the timing of the attack or even the type of attack also
affects the tourists' perception of risk and in result, their travel decision.

Central to the external factors influencing tourist behavior is also the role of the media and its
impact on public opinion and perception .Especially non-travel media (news programs) is seen
as very influential as it interprets issues, giving them more or less significance through the
amount or type of coverage provided .It also plays a major part in informing consumers' images
of destinations and transport modes, their relative safety and security. This is crucial, as the
image can be considered as a 'pull' factor resulting for example, in a destination being selected.
However, this is only the case when the image is positive; a negative image - influenced by
terrorist attack, will destroy and tarnish the desire to travel to that particular destination or use
of a particular type of transport.

Additionally, word of mouth also influences, to a large degree, tourist behavior. For instance, if
any friends or relatives have had a bad experience or have strong negative views on a
destination, this will discourage and influence travel decisions.

Demographic – changing demographic patterns such as the ageing of


industrialized populations, the emergence of new family structures, and increased migration
will all continue to have a positive impact on future travel volumes.
4) Natural-ecological

Because of growing ecological problems, the natural environment is becoming an increasingly


important element of the archeological tourism environment, embracing the climatic conditions,
the use of water bodies’ water, waste management, biodiversity richness and the risk of natural
disasters as important factors for archeological tourism development. The selection of resting
place and tourism is influenced by the landscape, geographical location, topography, flora and
fauna, weather and climate. The development of archeological tourism in is extremely influenced
by climatic conditions. The climate changes, the loss of biodiversity are becoming more
powerful and global and increasingly influence the development of archeological tourism.
Bangladesh has a great potential for archeological tourism.

5) Technological factors

Technological environment includes research, knowledge and technology. Technological factors


increase the country’s competitiveness through the provision of timely and effective information,
the use of new tourism product provision possibilities, the modernization of servicing system, the
assurance of appropriate level of quality and other measures based on innovations and adapted
technology. It is necessary to provide management and marketing knowledge to rural residents as
well as to develop the information for tourist when reorganizing and improving the information
system of Bangladeshi archeological tourism and the marking system of archeological tourism
sites. When using modern technology and information systems, it is necessary to achieve that
archeological tourism information would be available for Bangladeshi residents and tourists from
foreign countries as well.

Technologies are factors that impacts on how any tourism business is operated. Therefore, for
each development of new technologies, a tourism business may have to totally change their
operating process. The change of technology will affect the way a company carries out
business.

Through the ages the travel and tourism industry has developed significantly with the
development of new technology. On a global scale new technology has changed the way of
tourism. In the dark ages travel on land was in litters or chariots and small boats were used to
travel on sea. Tourism and pleasure travel was in existence but or active during this time, but by
the middle of the Middle Ages, large numbers took on a new life with the main purpose of
traveling for religious purposes. Travel in the 18th century was by high society people mainly to
visit spas a major attraction which also provided social events, games, dancing, gambling and
sea-bathing. With the development of railway in the late 1830's, direct contribution of major
seaside resorts was established and gave everyone an opportunity to travel as demand for
vacation travel grew.
As the need for technology grew throughout the years, various inventions took place and
increased the travel and tourism industry. Leading into the 20th century where introduction of
motorcar and the first twin engine aircraft which allowed for the travel of large number of
people in 1958. Tourist discovered increasing access to a growing array of destinations with the
great increase of technological advancements in the mid and late 20th century.

As the improvement on technology increased modern internet allowed tourist quick and easy
access to information such as travel destinations, lodging and dining options at the destination,
up to the minute wait time and making reservations before departing for their chosen
destination. The use of telephones also allowed travelers’ quick contact without ever
experiencing a busy signal or getting out of bed. It also allowed for the collection of payment
from prospective travelers before departing for the destination. According to " the journal of
information technology and tourism", modern communication technology likewise 21st century
developments in mobile telephone technology allows for advertising of attractions at various
tourist destinations to target visitors.

The impact of technology in the travel and tourism industry is enormous as more and more
travelers can compare and look for all kinds of information available on the internet about
potential destinations.

Other factors sharping archeological tourism marketing

Six influences that serve to shape the pattern, scale and forms of tourism development. These
are:

 The opposite trends of globalization and localization, both of which can be positive for
tourism. Large transnational organizations with economies of scale can offer good
value-for-money for large scale tourism. Those consumers, on the other hand, who
resist globalization, can provide opportunities and a focus for the development of
tourist experiences related to a destination’s cultural and natural resources on a smaller
scale, often in the form of community-based tourism initiatives.
 Technology facilitates a blurring between these two extremes, with the large travel and
tourism organizations able to offer customized experiences – a case of thinking global
but acting local.
 Societies are exhibiting a growing socio-environmental awareness in their destination
choice. Conscious of the impact that their and other tourists’ activities have on the
environments and people of the places they visit, and they are keen to minimize their
carbon footprint and ensure that the population of the destination is treated well by
tourism operators. This has led to a range of non-governmental organizations and
ethical tourism advocacy groups such as Tourism Concern, the International Centre for
Responsible Tourism.
 Living and working environments continue to become more stressful as a consequence
of urban crowding and congestion, and the progressive loss of the traditional “job for
life” allied to the corresponding rise of contract and part time work. The squeeze on free
time manifests itself in respect of travel and tourism through shorter duration holidays.
 Society’s progressive change to the experience economy necessitates businesses
providing memorable events for their customers, and that memory itself becomes the
product - the "experience". In travel and tourism, as consumers become more aware
and informed about destinations and their cultures through electronic technology, so
they expect tailor-made experiences designed for them in the locations they choose to
visit.
 The impact of marketing on the types of products developed and destinations chosen is
very high, reflecting the fact that most consumers make their decisions in their country
of residence with limited information about the menu of destinations and
products/experiences available. They are influenced by a range of information sources
(e.g. family, friends and work colleagues) with experience of the destinations they are
considering. Social media sites giving feedback on visits, the general and specialist
media, the travel intermediaries and the paid marketing, promotion and public relations
activities of destinations also influence destination choices. Marketing communications
are being increasingly accurately targeted, focusing messages towards micro market
segments and niches, and communicated more effectively.
 It is a truism to say that tourists will not travel to places where they fear for their
personal safety. However, the incidence of deliberate harm to tourists is very small and
the conservative travel advisory messages from tourist generating countries’
governments can serve to create an excessive concern, or perception, about safety in
many countries.
SWOT Analysis of Heritage Tourism Industry in Bangladesh

Strengths

1. Unique history and culture.

2. Significant architectural, historical and religious tourism products.

3. Cheap labor.

4. Three International and five domestic airports.

5. Accommodation facilities in different parts of the country.


Weaknesses

1. Full potential of archeological tourism marketing is not realized.

2. Inadequate political support.

3. Lack of sufficient funding.

4. Lack of tourism marketing skills and experts.

5. Lack of investment in tourism marketing.

6. Lack of information and academic work about archeological tourism industry and the
satisfaction of heritage tourists.

7. Lack of safety, security and hygienic in archeological sites.

8. Absence of archeological tourism marketing plan and public relations.

9. Small number of tour operators, insufficient national airlines and insignificant role of travel
agent.

10. Lack of infrastructural development.

2.3 Opportunities

1. International recognition of the archeological sites.

2. Emerging interest of foreign tourists in archeological tourism.

3. Easy dissemination of information and access to important global communication media.

4. Unlocking economic potential of archeological tourism.

5. Diversification of tourism product portfolio.

Threats

1. Fierce competition in archeological tourism industry especially with neighboring countries.

2. Lack of synergy among stakeholders.

3. Lack of conservation effort of archeological sites.

4. Political instability in the country.

5. Image crisis of the country.


6. Improper implementation of tourism policy.

7. Lack of awareness among stakeholders about the potential of archeological tourism.

Present Status of archeological Tourism Marketing in Bangladesh

The tourism marketing for archeological sites in Bangladesh is mainly conducted by Bangladesh
Parjatan Corporation and private tour operators. BPC takes participation in International
tourism exhibitions in the world and tries to sell packages to tour operators and individual
visitors. BPC also tries to inform the tourists all over the world about the archeological sites by
their websites. But the website of BPC is not rich. Information provided about archeological
destinations is not adequate and the pictures are not so attractive. Tourists will not get enough
information about the accommodation and transport facilities from this website. BPC publishes
advertisements in newspapers, magazines, television and radio but these advertisements
cannot attract satisfactory number of tourists. BPC publishes advertisements in some
specialized and special interest magazines to target some specific segments. The overall
performance of BPC in tourism marketing is not satisfactory. Marketing initiatives of BPC are
not well planned and creative. The manpower and technical expertise of BPC to formulate
effective marketing policy and guideline is inadequate. There is no integration in the total
marketing activities which is very essential to get a positive result. Private tour operators do not
spend sufficient amount of their fund for the promotional activities of heritage destinations.
They do not conduct any well- planned promotional program for the archeological sites. Their
marketing activities is mainly based on traditional methods of marketing such as publishing
advertisements in local newspapers, distributing brochures in Bengali and English language and
providing some sales promotion. But there is no coordination and creativity in these marketing
activities. Only a few of the tour operators use websites and the website contents are
inadequate. Tourists from local and foreign countries will not get enough information from
these websites. Most of the tour operators do not have separate marketing department or
employee in charge of marketing. They suffer from a lack of fund to invest in marketing
activities.

Barriers of archeological Tourism Marketing development in mainamoti,comilla ,Bangladesh

1. Lack of skilled manpower is a major reason for the present status of improper archeological
tourism marketing in Bangladesh. There is no academic or professional program to build skilled
manpower in tourism marketing. Some universities and institutions provide graduation and
diploma program for the students in tourism but these programs are inadequate to create
destination marketing experts.
2. Tourism authority and tour operators of Bangladesh are suffering from serious lack of
funding which act as a serious obstacle in the way of successful archeological tourism
marketing.

3. The co-ordination of marketing activities among various parties such as tour operators,
hotels and Bangladesh tourism board is on unsatisfactory level. Modern archeological
marketing strategies and long-term marketing plan for archeological destinations are absent.
Lack of networking among various stakeholders is a serious problem for successful tourism
marketing.

4. There are no national promotional initiatives for archaeological sites in Bangladesh.


Destination marketing expert is insufficient in our country.

5. There are also various marketing mix problems in archaeological tourism marketing of
Bangladesh which are no national promotion of archaeological destinations, no national
archaeological product identification program, lack of well-known archaeological destination
brands. Tourism authority does not pay attention to the needs of archaeological tourists. There
is no initiative to conduct market research to know about the needs of archaeological tourists.

6. The number of tourist information office is insufficient in archaeological destinations for that
reason tourist’s face difficulties in the time of serious information need.

7. Transportation, security, food and shopping facilities are not satisfactory in archaeological
tourism marketing. Communication system with various historical sites is weak and access is
difficult. This weak communication system has a negative effect in service quality of the tour
operators. Food and shopping facility for the tourists are not adequate to crate satisfaction.

8. The conservation and protection system of archeological sites is weak in our country which
plays a negative role in marketing of these places.

Destination planning and management challenges

The complexity of planning and managing, archeological tourism in an archeological destination


is increased by the facts that:

 The tourism product is a combination of many different elements, which are rarely
provided by a single supplier,
 For the composite tourism product to be fully successful – both for the host destination
and the visiting tourist – the different components need to be complementary since the
overall performance of the destination’s tourism sector can be determined by the
weakest link in the tourist product chain. Ensuring this necessary balance in terms of
standards between the different elements of the tourism product range can be an
important role for government e.g. through regulatory standards, incentives.
 The operation of tourism products is constrained to a significant degree by rigidity of
supply. This applies particularly to hotels, restaurants, shops, and other fixed site visitor
attractions which are subject to seasonal variations in demand.

Other challenges to be addressed in planning and managing archeological destinations are


as follows:

 The development of major tourism attractions and facilities are subject to considerable
lead times from concept development to land acquisition, consultation, planning
application and approval, feasibility study, financing, building and equipment, and staff
recruitment and training.
 Tourism products are perishable, being fixed in time and space. An unfilled hotel room
on any given day cannot be stored for sale on another day.
 Tourism destination products are intangible in that a visit to a destination comprises the
sequence of “expectations” ahead of arrival, “experiences” while in the destination and
“memories” after the visit. There are few goods to show for the visit with photographs
and videos serving as proxies of the trip.
 Discretionary purpose tourists exhibit a high price elasticity of demand, switching
between destinations according to factors such as price levels in the destination and
exchange rate variations.
 A tourist’s experiences in the destination begin at the point of arrival and continue until
departure. All places visited and people encountered form parts of the visitor
experience. The implications for the destination are twofold: first, to ensure that all
personnel are fully trained and able to communicate in a positive way with visitors; and
second, for individual operations to ensure that their client mix is compatible since
“other tourists” form part of a tourist’s experience in the country.
 The great majorities of tourists chooses and make travel arrangements to visit a
destination in their country of origin, using transport operators, tour operators, travel
agents or online booking agents, most of whom have no tie or commitment to the
destination. The role of intermediaries is, thus, considerable in influencing destination
choice.

Variables influencing archeological tourism product development

Where archeological authorities seek to plan their tourism product development by “matching”
their resources and assets to the trends and tastes in the range of source markets and
segments, a systematic, building block h can be most beneficial. As such all archeological
authorities will have established, as a minimum, the foundations for tourism product
development, and have a broad understanding of what could be developed for touristic
purposes and what their strategic product development and marketing priorities are.
Nonetheless, there is merit in going through the following check list to ascertain if the
directions being pursued are fully appropriate and to identify where gaps need to be addressed.

Fundamental issues in archeological tourism product development and marketing planning

To be fully successful tourism development involves the state, the private sector and the
location’s community since, at its simplest, tourism represents a temporary increase of the
population of the destination chosen. The implications are that:,

 The system of planning differs fundamentally from the planning of other economic
sectors.
 Tourism planning needs to be all-embracing, fully coordinated, undertaken over an
extended time frame, and constantly monitored and adjusted on a rolling, iterative basis
to take account of changing market conditions -
 The three primary stages necessary for archeological authorities in establishing the
framework for tourism product development are: Institutional structures for the
planning, development, administration and marketing of tourism.
 A system of coordination and integration between all levels of government, and with
other government agencies whose activities impinge in some way on tourism transport,
public works, education and training.
 Planning system and procedures that provide guidance but, through consultation,
encourages innovation and stimulates investment.

In the first of the following three sub-sections, examination is made of the types of
organizational models that are employed to plan for, coordinate the development of, and
manage the tourism sector.

The second sub-section focuses on the need for integration between the multiple public and
private sector entities with a role in tourism.

The third sub-section outlines the reasons why planning for tourism requires a different
approach to other economic sectors. It stresses the need for a planning approach that is
comprehensive, fully coordinated, has a long term perspective but a short term action program,
and is subject to regular monitoring and adjustment, as required.

Institutional structure of archeological tourism

The complexity of archeological tourism, and the extensive range of impacts it can have on the
environment and people of a destination, is a major challenge for destinations in the early and
growth stages of tourism development, or where tourism is a major component of the
economy. In such cases, an official “hands off” approach leaving development of the sector to
the private sector can be a significant risk. The great majority of destinations without a large
and well-balanced economy where tourism plays a minor role, therefore, play a significant and
central role in setting policy, strategy and support mechanisms for the development and
operation of the tourism sector. Only three out of every five countries in the initial stages of
tourism development have a dedicated tourism product development function within
government.

The challenge for governments is to establish an institutional structure that:

 Incorporates all entities that have a role to play in facilitating tourism product
development (various government departments responsible for transport,
infrastructure, education and training, and private sector representatives), or are
impacted by such developments (local communities).
 Facilitates new ventures that will benefit the destination but without creating a
bureaucracy that stifles the emergence of innovative ideas and leads to lengthy
procedural delays. The complexity and cross-cutting nature of tourism creates the
necessity for coordination, so destination authorities have to consider whether tourism
institutional arrangements should be:
 Handled through a specialist, dedicated ministry or agency,
 Integrated as a department within another government ministry (transport, commerce,
public works, culture and arts, environment) depending on the country’s circumstances
and priorities, or Incorporated as a part within all the other sectorial government
ministries or departments.

There are difficulties whichever approach is taken. If tourism is not accorded specialist ministry
status it tends to be treated as an insignificant sector by government policy makers and
planners; but if it is a dedicated ministry or agency, the problem arises of coordinating the
needs and impacts of the sector which fall within the responsibilities of other government
ministries and departments.

There is no standard organizational model related to the process of tourism product


development, with responsibility spread across different layers and levels of government,
making the task of efficient and effective coordination vital but complex.

Coordination and integration for archeological tourism marketing

Coordination for archeological tourism is needed at both the horizontal (inter-sectorial


between different government departments and agencies with responsibility for an aspect
related to tourism) and vertical levels (between different levels of government – central,
regional, local).

The means of achieving an effective system of delegated authority, communication and


coordination between central, regional and local governments varies between countries,
according to government structures and prevailing institutional arrangements. The guiding
principle must be to avoid creating unwieldy bureaucratic structures while consulting widely
with all stakeholders (including the private sector and communities) in developing plans and
strategies for the country and the regions within it. The consultation process needs to ensure all
parties are aware of the full range of impacts of various forms of tourism development, and to
be representative of the divergent views about tourism development and marketing.

At inter-ministerial level, the two main means employed are a form of inter-departmental
coordinating committee or, a combined public-private sector strategy or working group under
the auspices of the ministry responsible for tourism to liaise and work with other government
agencies on relevant issues.

Importance of conservation archeological sites and history

Historical places, buildings, objects and manifestation of cultural, scientific, symbolic, spiritual
and religious value are important expressions of the archeological sites, identity and religious
beliefs of societies. Their role and importance, particularly in the light of the need for cultural
identity and continuity in a rapidly changing world, need to be promoted. Buildings, spaces,
places and landscapes charged with historical, cultural, spiritual and religious value represent
an important element of stable and humane social life and community pride. Without
appropriate restoration / conservation, the architectural evolution in relation to socio cultural
concept of a country’s heritage remains misinterpreted, and can lead to virtual disappearance.

The conservation and excavation in Bangladesh’s context

Conservation, rehabilitation and culturally sensitive adaptive reuse of urban, rural and
architectural heritage shall be in accordance with the sustainable use of natural and human
made resources. Access to culture and the cultural dimension of development is of utmost
importance, benefiting all the people who have such access. In order to promote historical and
cultural continuity and to encourage broad civic participation in all kinds of cultural activities,
the government appreciate levels including all local authorities identify the documents,
whenever possible, the historical and cultural significant areas in comilla .Promote awareness
of heritage in order to highlight its value and need for its conservation and the financial viability
of rehabilitation.