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A gross description and discharge measurement of Karnakathi Cannel, Barisal.

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of

Karnakathi cannel,

Barisal.

Content

1. Introduction:

1.1 Description of the study area

2. Methodology

2.1 Stream width measurement

2.2 Stream depth measurement

2.3 Stream velocity measurement

2.4 Stream discharge measurement

3. Results and Discussion

4. Conclusion

1. Introduction:

At September 05, 2016 a field work was held beside University of Barisal at the cannel named

Karnakathi. The aim was to measure the discharge of the cannel. Discharge is the volume of

water that flows through a stream in a given time. The unit of discharge is m3s-1 which usually

used. In hydrology discharge of natural and artificial streams is a key parameter for hydrologic

studies and policy decisions regarding water resources, biological habitat and natural hazards.

Measuring discharge of river is extremely important for predicting floods and flood stages. As

the flow of river changes significantly in a very short amount of time due to plenty of factors, so

it should be monitored regularly. Discharge is important for estimating the water budged of

every year and also river management purpose including water resource planning and pollution

prevention.

The Karnakathi channel is an open channel or an irrigation canal that situated near the

University of Barisal at Karnakathi on the eastern bank of the Kirtonkhola river in the

district of Barisal. We measured discharge at various point of site and we found a

mathematical result of the amount of water passing a point the stream channel in a given

time.

Figure: Location map of the study area.

2. Methodology:

The aim is to measure the discharge of Karnakathi cannel. We are using float method with

respect to area velocity method. Float method is the easiest and inexpensive method. It

determines the approximate stream velocity and discharge can easily compute by area-velocity

method. To compute the discharge, 4 basic steps are crucial-

2.2 Stream depth measurement

2.3 Stream velocity measurement

2.4 Stream discharge measurement

First of all we divided our site (the cannel) into two sections. Then we measured the width

separately of two sites. To compute width, rope was used which was placed straightly along the

joining of two sides of river. Then the rope was computed with measuring tape.

2.3 Stream depth measurement:

We measured depth of two sites separately. We used local instrument ‘Bamboo’ for measuring

water depth. We let the bamboo go under water. After pulling out the bamboo we got water mark

on it and we marked the point which indicates water level, with marker and computed it with

measuring tape. Two bamboos were used for two sites. We take three spots at middle, right and

left and measured the depth and then averaged the value.

2.2 Stream velocity measurement:

The third step was measuring the velocity of the sections. To make the best estimate of a stream's

velocity hydrologists use the average velocity of a stream. There are four types by which velocity

can be measured. They are –

a. Float method

b. Chemical method

c. Current meter

d. Pitot tube method

We had used Float method. We used piece of Shola as float body in each site. In using floats to

observe the stream velocity a large number of easily identifiable floats are released at fairly

uniform spacing on the width of the stream at an upstream section. Two sections on a fairly

straight reach are selected and the time to cross this reach by each float is noted and the surface

velocity calculated. Time was calculated by stop watch.

A floating object on the surface of a stream when timed can yield the surface velocity by the

relation

Vs =

Where S= distance travelled in time t. This method of measuring velocities while primitive still

finds applications in special circumstances, such as:

(ii) small stream with a rapidly changing water surface, and

(iii) preliminary or exploratory surveys.

A simple float moving on stream surface is called Surface Float .It is easy to use and the mean

velocity is obtained by multiplying the observed surface velocity by a reduction coefficient as in

equation:

V=Kvs

Where V is average velocity, Vs surface velocity, and K reduction factor. The value of K is

obtained from observations at lower stages and lie in the range of 0.85 to 0.95.

Stream discharge represents the runoff phase of the hydrologic cycle. Stream discharge can be

measured more accurately than other components of hydrologic cycle such as precipitation,

evaporation, infiltration etc.

Discharge is the volume of water moving down a stream or river per unit of time,

commonly expressed in cubic feet per second or gallons per day. In general, river

discharge is computed by multiplying the area of water in a channel cross section by the average

velocity of the water in that cross section.

In this section methods of measurement of discharge are described. Methods for determining

discharge can be classified as.

ii. Measurement by permanent structures.

iii. Chemical gauging method

Area velocity method was used. This method of discharge measurement consists essentially of

measuring the area of cross-section of the river at a selected section called the gauging site and

measuring the velocity of flow through the cross-sectional area.

The basic principle is

Q =AV

Where,

Q = Discharge

For measurement of mean velocity of flow and the flow cross-sectional area. The channel is

divided in to sub-sections, the mean velocity and the area of flow is measured at each sub-section

and finally the total discharge is the sum of the discharges through these sub-sections.

Q=q1+q2+q3+………………..+ qn - - - 1

Where Q is total discharge and qi is discharge through a sub-section ‘i’ of stream. As we divided

our site into two section so we got q1 and q2.

2.4.1 Calculation:

The basic principle that Q =AV is used in this method. For calculating the discharge we have

to multiple area of cross-section of flow and mean stream velocity.

Where,

Q = Discharge

Here, =

For q1 we got,

= 0.315 ms-1(After calibration)

3

= 7.14m /s(Calibrated)

= 0.2809ms-1(After calibration)

And, q2 = A2 × V2

= 9.93m3s-1(Calibrated)

So, =

. .

= m3s-1

= 8.535 m3s-1

3. Results and Discussion:

Width (m) (s) ( ms-1 ) ( m3s-1)

(m)

Left Middle Right Average

0.322

Section 1

17 1.24 1.7 1.06 1.33 26.1 81 V1=0.315 q1= 7.14

(Calibrated ) (Cal)

0.2956

q2= 9.93

Section 2 15.86 2.34 2.7 1.65 2.23 23.36 79 (Cal)

V2=0.2809

(Calibrated)

. .

= m3s-1

= 8.535 m3s-1

Figure 3.1: Cannel Direction (Google Map).

Conclusion:

In spite of having lack of essential instrument, the discharge of cannel was measured most

accurately. Discharge may vary due to seasonal implementation because of increasing or

decreasing of water in wet and dry season or in case of infrastructure operations for instance. By

using local instrument and for the limitations of dividing the site in suitable sectors and others

got almost accurate result through Area velocity method along with float method.

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