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Mary Kardos

Annotated Bibliography

(2015). Women and leadership. ​Report of the Pew Research Center.​ Retrieved from
http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/01/14/women-and-leadership/

This resource includes a graphic labeled “What’s Holding Women Back From Top Jobs,”
which is helpful when looking at constraints and solutions to how to make it easier for
women to run for office. Not only does the article go into the particular statistics with
public opinion on women running for and in office, it also goes into how women who are
in politics get the job done. It includes a graphic showing women excel at compromise in
comparison to men, which has proven to be an advantageous assets to politicians. There
are a number of categories of evidence about women in politics, which is good evidence
for the positive impact of women in Congress. The article closes with acknowledging the
widening pipeline for women leaders compared to prior years, which is helpful when
predicting the future outcome of women in Congress. There are a few important trends
the report recognizes: women are far more likely than men to see gender discrimination
and women and men have proved to be equally good business leaders, yet gender
stereotypes persist. These trends help prove overarching themes in research about the
institutional constraints.

Anapol, A. (2018, February 21). Number of women running in midterms more than doubles from
2016 to 2018. ​The Hill​. Retrieved from
http://thehill.com/homenews/campaign/374836-number-of-women-running-for-office-mo
re-than-doubles-in-2018-compared-to

This source provides statistical evidence of recent or current elections of Congress for
females and how that compares to male elections. This is helpful when comparing the
1992 and 1994 reports of Congress to current time to quickly look at the evolution of
women in politics. It also references Emily’s List, an organization whose sole goal is to
endorse and elect women into Congress. Emily’s List would be a good resource, and
these statistics give a lot of direction. Because this is based on numerical values, there is
little bias in the presentation of the evidence. There is no part of the article that touches
on the importance or significance of this fact, which is the aspect of the argument that
would lead to bias.

Desilver, D. Women have a long history in congress, but until recently there haven’t been
many. (2015). ​Report of the Pew Research Center​. Retrieved from
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/01/14/women-have-long-history-in-Congress
-but-until-recently-there-havent-been-many/

This resource has a number of aspect that are helpful when dividing research. There are a
lot of charts and graphics that show really good numbers and trends about women in
Congress over time. This is good to compare to how Congress is now and what it is
predicted to look like in the coming years. It also contains a good amount of history about
the women who were first elected into Congress and into leadership positions, which
serves as good introductory information for a paper. The authors also touch on something
interesting -- widow succession. In the early days, most women entered Congress when
their husbands died, not by election. This phenomenon could be an interesting layer to the
research.

Dittmar, K., Sanbonmatsu, K., Carroll, S. J., Walsh, D., & Wineinger, C,​ ​Representation matters:
Women in the united states congress. ​Report of the Center for American Women and
Politics.​ Retrieved from
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/content-listing-view/280/145/all/all?resource_type=8

This report compiles quotes from state legislators, Senators, governors, and
Representatives that are women. The quotes are filed in particular categories such as
Professional and Occupational Experiences, Personal Experiences, Gender Differences in
Pathways to Congress, and Representing States Including Constituents Who Did Not
Vote for Them. These quotes serve as an important asset to research as they provide a
humanized and more personal side to women in Congress. Additionally, the source has
pockets of results and observations from studies, providing statistical evidence and trends
that have been observed in Congress over the past few decades. There are graphs and
charts that record women’s successes and losses in Congress, which is beneficial when
observing women’s overall effect in the US Congress.

Dodson, D. L. (2006). ​The impact of women in congress. ​New York City: Oxford.

This book is a collection of interviews, statistics, anecdotes, and evidence concerning the
representation of women in the 103rd and 104th Congresses. The collection of statistics
will be helpful when finding concrete evidence of women’s impact in legislation,
particularly what kind of legislation women in these Congresses proposed. The author
studies the substantial effect women had and where that may lead in the future, which can
be used to compare how the years after this book’s publication played out. Additionally,
Dodson wrote a lot about the personal importance for women across America to see other
females in Congress. This would be utilize and strengthen the Senator-constituent
connection and perhaps humanize the argument.

Kurtzleben, D. (2016, June 11). Almost 1 in 5 congress members are women. Here’s how other
jobs compare. ​National Public Radio​. Retrieved from
https://www.npr.org/2016/06/11/481424890/even-with-a-female-presumptive-nominee-w
omen-are-underrepresented-in-politics

The author highlights the irony within women in politics -- women participation in
government is at an all time high, although the share of women in these roles is
disproportionately low. There is a detailed chart from the Bureau of Labor Statistics
concerning the representation of women in all jobs. This piece of information is helpful
when deciphering if women actually are extremely underrepresented in the government
compared to other occupations. This article also touches on stereotypes and why women
are not in elected office from a more humanizing and personal way, which could be used
to discuss institutional constraints and election hardships. There is also a line graph that
shows women in legislature over time, which again could be used to compare then and
now statistics. It also goes into the why of all of this, referencing reports that could be
looked into in more detail to grapple with that question.

McGill, A. (2016, August 23). Would electing more women fix congress? ​The Atlantic​.
Retrieved from
https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/08/would-electing-more-women-fix-co
ngress/495989/

This article heavily relies on a variety of studies, all of which will be helpful in
delineating trends across many research studies. This source will be used mainly for the
specific observations that were included in conclusions of these studies, such as the
predicted success of legislation proposed by females versus males in Senate and the
number one reason males versus females go into politics. The author of this piece is a
man, which brings an interesting twist to the information. There is little risk of the author
having a personal bias and presenting skewed information. The author also includes some
direct quotes from women Senators which brings light to the tendencies of women versus
men. All of these observations, whether they be personal or metric, will help conclude the
true effectiveness of women in Congress.

McMurty, A. (2017, February 10). Girl power: Why politics needs more female talent. ​The
Economist​. Retrieved from
http://shapingthefuture.economist.com/girl-power-politics-needs-female-talent/

Alyssa McMurty takes notice of the lack of women in parliamentarian roles globally -- a
good way to express this is a universal problem, not just an America problem.
Additionally, the author cites a number of studies that prove women positively impact the
legislative process. There is also an argument concerning peace processes and the lack of
women in legislating peace accords, which is another aspect of governing to include.
There are statistics about women securing more federal funding, sponsoring more bills,
creating peace accords that last at least 15 years longer than average, and being a third
less likely to run for public office than men. All of those trends (and the studies they
came from) point in the direction of women having a positive effect on government.

Newton-Small, J. (2016). The Senate. In ​Broad influence: How women are changing
the way america works​. (pp. 25-41). New York: Time Books.

Jay Newton-Small wrote this chapter through a combination of trends, interviews, and
observations. This collection of strategies provides a lot of resources and avenues to go
down with research. The whole chapter specifically follows Senator Patty Murray of
Washington, alongside the other women of the Senate. It explores the relationship
between Senator Murray and Representative Ryan, and how women are more likely to
legislate through friendship and trust, which leads to more effective results. It also
illustrates the specific Senators and successful legislation, proving how effective women
are in the Senate. All of this information bolsters the claim that women have a substantial
effect on the legislative effectiveness and operation of legislatures. The personal stories
and quotes from interviews the author conducted are extremely crucial to this research --
it humanizes the statistics and trends and brings it into the real world. The Senators and
Representatives that are interviewed are truly experiencing this phenomenon and the
hardships, and the only way to truthfully show testament to that is to include quotes and
stories provided by this author.

Sanbonmatsu, K. (2015). Why women? The impact of women in elective office. ​Report of the
Center for American Women in Politics.​ Retrieved from
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/content-listing-view/280/145/all/all?resource_type=8​

This document studies the role gender plays in legislative behavior, which can be utilized
when broadening the argument to how we could use gender to enhance the United States’
legislative process. Sanbonmatsu also goes into the specific types of bills women are
more likely to propose, which could be helpful when researching specific legislation that
highlights women’s impact. Additionally, the author goes into institutional and electoral
constraints women face in politics and government, which would aid in going deeper into
why women aren’t represented in politics to begin with. Another important concept the
author goes into is critical mass, or how women can overcome their minority status.This
would be used when writing and researching how the United States can circumvent
underrepresentation in our supposed representative government.