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2.1 General

The packing density or packing degree of a material (aggregates, particles etc) is the ratio of

volume occupied by the solid particles to the unit volume of the mix [11]. The packing density

provides the information that how efficiently the particles are filled in a certain volume. The

packing degree of a mix is generally denoted by „ ‟ and is given as follows.

(2.1)

Here

Vs = Volume of solids

Vt = Total volume = Solid volume + Volume of voids

From the figure 2.1 it can be seen that the packing density of aggregates can be defined in terms

of porosity of the mix as (1-ε). Here „ε‟ is the porosity of the mix.

Fig. 2.1 shows that packing density has a clear relation with porosity of the mixture. If “ε” is

porosity of the mix then

𝛼 =1−ε (2.2)

From the above discussion it is clear that “packing density ( )” is a different thing than “bulk

density” as the bulk density of particles can be measured by filling a container of known volume

and weighing the mass of the material filled in the container while the packing density is related

to volume of container occupied by the solid particles in the mix. The packing degree of materials

changes when some external energy is applied i.e. compaction or vibration. So it is important to

prescribe the method which is utilized for determining the degree of packing of a mix. The factors

affecting packing density of mixes are described in next section.

To find density mass and volume of a material is required. In our case, bulk density can be found

through filling the material of known mass in a container and finding its volume. Above

discussion shows that bulk density and packing density both are different things. Bulk density is

related to the volume occupied by whole mass while packing density related to the volume of the

container occupied by solid particles. Packing density significantly varies through by the

application of externally applied energy, such as consolidation of vibration. It is necessarily

important to know about techniques which can be used to improve degree of packing of a mix. In

upcoming section factors which effects degree of packing of a mixture are given.

𝑀𝑝

𝛼= ×𝑉 (2.3)

𝜌𝑝

Where,

V = volume of the container used

Mp = mass of particles filled in the container

ρp = density of solid particles

Packing density changes when materials of different sizes and characteristics are mingled

together. To find the packing degree of a mix comprising various materials with dissimilar

proportions the equation 2.3 will be reformed to fit in all the constituent materials.

(2.4)

Here, ‟ is the density of water, “ “ and „ ‟ are the densities of the materials „α‟ and „β‟

respectively, „ ‟ is the water/solid ratio, and „ ‟ are the volumetric ratios of „α‟ and „β‟

respectively. The above equation can be utilized for a mix containing „n‟ number of materials

and if a new material is to be added then in the equation just add the term „ ‟ at the end.

Here

𝜌𝑤 : Density of water

𝜌𝛼 𝜌𝛽 : Density of alfa and beta material

𝑢𝑤 : Water solid ratio

𝑅𝛼 𝑅𝛽 : Volumetric ratio of α and β

Note: If a mix containing “n” number of materials we can use equation 2.4 to find value of α. If

we want to add a new material term 𝜌𝑖 𝑅𝑖 has to be added.

2.2 Factors Affecting Packing Density/Degree of Packing

The packing density of particles in a concrete mix is very important as higher packing density will

leads to lower void content and consequently reduces the paste (water and binder) demand and

resultantly the concrete of better durability will be achieved. From the figure 2.1 it can be seen

that packing density can be increased by adding fine and finer particles in the voids but in for

natural materials there are limitations on the availability of sizes as well as particles characteristics

which affects their packing in the mix. Some factors affecting packing density such as particles

density, particle porosity, shape, particle stability, surface texture, particle size and their

distribution in the mix are discussed below.

Material with greater packing density have less void content and resultantly reduces the demand

of the paste and consequently concrete of good quality will be produces. So packing degree of

particle in a concrete mix carries a lot of importance. Now, it is required to indicate factors

which affect packing density. From experiments it is observed that packing density could be

improved by addition of finer particles in the spaces present in the mix. These conditions are

suitable on case of experimentation in laboratory, but we have to prepare these materials in

laboratory, availability of materials to prepare mix becomes impossible because material of the

required portion may not be available on larger scale. Factors affecting degree of packing such as

particle porosity, particles density, shape, surface texture, particle size, particle stability, and

their sharing in the mix are discoursed below.

2.2.2 Particle Porosity

Some of the important factors affecting particle density is porosity of particles. Closed pores

present in particles decreases the density of particle of material and, on the other hand, open pores

present in particles reduces packing density if the mixture. This is due to the circumstance that

water infiltrates in the exposed pores and material indicates higher preoccupation leading to

higher water need.

Particle porosity is of more concerned in our research for secondary raw materials (SRMs).

Reason for this is that, in the presence of exposed pores the tangible Degree of packing of the

material will be lesser causing to greater water demands.

As packing density is the ratio of the volume of solids to their bulk volume so, packing density is

commonly liberated of the specific gravity or density of material particles. Particles of same size

having same surface and shape consistency reveal same degree of packing despite changing

particle density. If two materials are packed which have different densities then it is observed that

they show different behavior towards whole density of mix. Materials with large variation in their

densities shows segregation problems. This fact reveals that, mixed particles should have good

proportion of all sizes of materials. Segregation occurs when heavy particles in mix settle down

in the container impeding uniform filling throughout the container and consequently packing

degree of the mixture changes accordingly.

In case of loose packing of particles the forces acting on the particles are the gravitational and

interparticular forces. The gravitational forces are directly related to the size of particles and it

starts dominating the interparticular forces when particle size is about 100 μm [13]. Below that

size the dominating forces are the interparticular forces between the particles.

Packing density is influenced by size of particles present in the mix. Generally, mixes shows same

order of degree of packing because particles present in them have same size. Degree of packing

influenced by type of settlement of rounded particles for an idealized case. Arrangement or

settlement may be of any type. Commonly observed arrangements are tetrahedron, cubic or

octahedron.

Monodispersion generally is not seen in nature and we have to deal with mixes containing

different sizes of particles. It is the fact that packing density increases with the introduction of

small size material in the voids of the mix. If the small size particle can fit in the void then it will

enhance the packing but if the particle having larger size than the cavity, then the larger particles

will be pushed away to accommodate the small particle thus affecting the packing density. This

fact is elaborated in figure 2.2

2.2.4 Particle Shape

It is well known that shape of particles affects the workability of concrete mixtures, rounded

aggregates provides more workable concrete as compared to angular ones. This is because of the

fact that shape of particles affects the degree of packing and as a result the workability behavior

changes. Aggregates are divided in to four categories on the basis of their shapes namely; rounded,

angular, irregular and flaky [1]. Shape of an aggregate particle is generally measured by its

sphericity, shape factor, angularity or roundness [14].

The sphericity of an aggregate particle takes into account the lengths of its three principal axis

namely; length (L), width (W) and height (H). The sphericity of an aggregate particle is the cube

root of the ratio of two smaller principal axis to the square of largest principal axis length as given

in equation 2.5. The sphericity number increases as the three principal dimensions approaches to

equal values [11].

(2.5)

The longest dimension of the particle is regarded as length, the intermediate dimension as height

and the shortest dimension as width.

Shape of aggregate particles may be described by their shape factor as it is the measure of the

relation among the three principal axis dimensions of a particle and is given as the ratio of the

long and short dimension to the intermediate dimension of that particle.

(2.6)

Angularity describes the sharpness of edges where as roundness or sphericity describes that how

much particle shape is near to a perfect sphere. Based on angularity particles are divided into

following categories.

Angular : Particle having sharp edges

Sub angular : Particles having little bit wear on edges but surfaces are untouched

Sub rounded : Particles having considerable wear on edges as well as on faces

Rounded : Particle edges almost vanished but having signs of edges Well

rounded : Particles are exactly smooth surface

While working on the classification of aggregate particles on the basis of their shapes Ahń. N

prepared charts for the visual assessment of the aggregate shapes [15]. A typical chart is shown

in figure 2.3

Figure 2.3: Visual Assessment of Particle Shape [15]

While working with mono sized perfect spheres, White found that the spheres pack with a density

of 0.74 and followed the tetrahedral formation [16]. The packing degree decreases as the particle

shape moves from well rounded to angular and from high sphericity to lower sphericity.

The effect of particle shape on packing degree is already discussed. Here it is emphasized that if

particles are not stable against forces and change their shape then it will have an impact on packing

degree. The soft and elastic particles will be having more degree of packing as compared to the

hard and stable particles. Generally the materials utilized for the production of self consolidating

cementitious systems are stable against elastic and thermal stresses and preserve their shape in

ordinary conditions.

Optimization)

The concept of particle packing gained its importance with the advent of the concrete technology

in 19th century. First scholarly article on the subject was published by Feret in 1892 [17]. The

concept of particle packing optimization takes into account the factor of selecting the right small

sized particles to fill up the voids of larger sized material resulting in dense packing.

There are several methods for the selection of particle sizes and their proportioning in the mix to

produce dense or desired degree of packing. Furnas proposed a model in 1930 having the

capability of predicting the packing density of the binary mixes. In his later work he utilized the

model for the production of particle size distribution curve for proportioning the mixes for

maximum packing density. Füller and Thompson in 1907 and Andreassen and Andersen in 1930

proposed a method based on the continuous size distribution curve of particle. Till date

Füller curve is used extensively for designing Portland cement concrete and asphalt mixes [1]

ASTM also gives particle distribution curves, declaring lower limit and upper limit of particles

sizes to be used in mix.

First mathematical expression to predict the void ratio of a mix composed of several sized particles

was proposed by Furnas in 1930. In the Furnas model, particle interaction was not taken into

account in the process of calculating the packing density of the particles. Power (1968) worked a

lot in the area of particle packing. After Power‟s work more researchers explored this area and

the models developed afterwards was capable of considering the particles interaction such as

models developed by Aim, Toufer and de Larrard etc. Several softwares are also available

commercially based on above mentioned models to predict the packing density for the mix such

as 4C-Packing developed by Danish Technological Institute (dti), Europack by Idorn, and

EMMA: Elkem material mix analyzer etc [19, 20, 44].

These software packages were initially developed for designing and optimizing the mixes or

slurries for the ceramic industry. The software are used for optimization of the packing densities

for green state of mixes to produce castables with very low quantity of water hence achieving

economy and better strength. Generally packing density optimization methods can be divided into

following three groups:

a. Optimization curves

b. Particle packing models

c. Discrete element models

In concrete mixes the particle size ranges from several millimeters to microns. The particle size

distribution (PSD) curves show the particle sizes present in the mix and their respective quantities.

As it is already discussed that the packing density varies with the size and proportion of particles

in the mix hence it can be said that packing density of a mix changes if the PSD of the mix is

changed.

PSD of a mix can be adjusted for optimization of the packing density of mix. The influence of

aggregate size and shapes on the concrete strength was first observed by Feret after that many

researchers tried to find the ideal grading curves for achieving maximum strength. In that era

Füller gave an empirical relation for designing the concrete mixes which is still used for normal

concrete. Some researchers tried to improve the relation for obtaining better performance,

Andreassen an Andersen proposed that the Füller model gives better results if the distribution

modulus (q) is less than „0.5‟ as was fixed by Füller (equation 1.2). They proposed that the

distribution modulus „q‟ in equation 2.2 should be in the range of „0.33‟ to „0.50‟. The

distribution modulus for optimized grading curve depends upon the characteristics of the

aggregate particles and can vary for the aggregates from different sources and origins.

Angular particles give poor packing due to their sharp edges. The sharp edges restricts the

particles to come closer and cause more voids in the mix so more proportion of fine particles is

required to fill the space between large angular particles. Hence the suitable value of distribution

modulus will be lower than that required for spherical particles [21].

The main limitation in following the Füller and Andreassen models is the requirement of the

particles of infinitely small size to complete the particle size distribution curve. These models pay

attention only towards the maximum size of the particle in the mix but don‟t take into account

the minimum size limits of the aggregate used in the mix. This issue was addressed by Dinger

and Funk and they modified the Andreassen model and included a factor to take into account the

minimum size available for the mix [6].

The packing density varies as the proportions of different size classes in the mix are varied so

PSD curve is an effective tool for controlling the proportions of different size classes in the mix

in a sequential way. In Modified Andreassen Model, PSD curve is a function of distribution

modulus and various curves can be obtained with different distribution modulus. The packing

density of each aggregate mix can be checked and mixes with maximum packing density can be

selected. These selected mixes can be optimized further for required performance. Optimizing

curves are easy to use as they require limited input parameters. If distribution modulus is fixed

then only parameters required are the maximum and minimum size of particles. Commercial

computer program EMMA developed by Elkem is based on the Andreassen and modified

Andreassen model and can be utilized to optimize the particle size distribution of the mix.

Dinger and Funk modified the Andreassen Model and incorporated a factor (dmin) taking into

account the minimum size of particle in the model (equation 1.4). The modification was made by

Funk and Dinger to address the limitation of the Andreassen model. For understanding the

limitations consider a mixture of particles is to be composed by using maximum particle size of

104 μm, minimum particle size of 0.96 μm and distribution modulus is taken as „0.30‟. The

resulting particle size distribution curve and histogram are shown in figure 2.4. By considering

the figure 2.4 the problems encountered in following the Andreassen model are as follows

a. The particle size distribution curve ends up at 24.52% passing material rather than 0%, as

a valid PSD curve should. Hence the CPFT curve produced by Andreassen model in this

case is not a valid PSD curve [figure 2.4].

b. The sum of the size classes in the histogram does not add up to 100%, as it should be for

a particle size distribution curve. The histogram makes only 75.48% rather than 100%.

Hence the histogram is also not a valid one.

Hence by considering the above mentioned problems it is obvious that utilization of Andreassen

Model seems to be impractical for designing of the particulate mixes having some lower limit on

particle size. Following figure shows the particle size distribution of the case considered above.

To fix the above mentioned problems the particle size distribution curve was normalized to 100%

and then particle size distribution (PSD) curve was recalculated. For normalization of the

histogram a multiplying factor was calculated, which comes out to be „1.32‟ for the case stated

above. All the values of the histogram were multiplied by the calculated factor of „1.32‟. The

following expression shows the calculation of the multiplying factor.

(2.7)

The corrected histogram is plotted in figure 2.5 and the corrected particle size distribution curve

(PSD) is also shown.

The histogram shown above accurately describes the experimentally possible distribution curve.

The difference between figures 2.4 and 2.5 is that the later histogram has greater percentages of

particles in each size class than the former one where as the distribution coefficient for both of

the PSD curves is same.

To establish the relation for modified PSD curve consider the figure 2.5, at particle size which is

equivalent to the minimum sized particle the percentage passing is zero as there is no material

finer than dmin , available in the mix. From Andreassen model it can be written as

(2.8)

Applying equation 2.8 at the point of maximum particle size this will come out to be following

(2.9)

Now it can be seen that the histogram is adjusted or corrected for dmin but for dmax and other values

of „d‟ other than dmin are still incorrect. To correct them normalization procedure is applied here

just like previously.

(2.10)

Here dmax is in denominator of all the fraction so it will cancel out and the final equation will come

out to be as follows [6].

(2.11)

Particle packing models are the mathematical equations which predict the packing densities of the

mixes composed of two or more size classes of particles. These models incorporate the interaction

between the particles of the different sizes and shapes. The basic mathematical equations of

almost all particle packing models are the same and based on the geometry of the particles. The

equations prescribing the packing density were first introduced by Furnas [17].It was the one of

the simplest model and valid for only two mono sized groups of particles. As it was the first

developed model in the field of particle packing so it was lacking in considering the interaction

between the aggregate particles. The model proposed by Furnas however takes into account the

particle characteristics such as shape and texture, as long as the particles preserve their shape

during packing. Furnas forwarded his work and in 1931 and presented a model which was capable

of taking into account the multiple size classes of particles [17].

Aim and Goff developed a model for predicting the packing density of particle mixes. Their model

incorporates the interaction of the particles and also distinguishes between the proportions of

small and large size particles in the mix.

2.3.3 Discrete Element Models

Discrete element models (DEMs) are the computer generated models which produce virtual

particle structure for a given particle size and shape. There are two types of DEMs i.e. static and

dynamic. In static model simulation the particles are placed randomly in a two or three

dimensional space and afterwards they are not allowed to move, additionally the contact between

the particles is also not given consideration. A software package “Hymostruc” developed by the

researchers at TU Delft is an example of static type discrete element model [45].

Figure 2.6 (a) Figure 2.6 (b) Figure 2.6: (a) Simulation Result of Static Discrete

Element Model [45] (b) Simulation Result of Dynamic Discrete Element

Model [46]

In the dynamic simulation of discrete element model the particles are generated randomly in the

three dimensional space and some force is applied to the particles so that they can move and come

in contact with the other particles and produce a packed structure depicting the packing density.

The dynamic simulation consumes very large time as compared to static simulation but gives

better results than the previous one. Figure 2.7(b) shows the simulation result obtained from

dynamic discrete element model.

To find the mix composition capable of producing maximum packing density, an iterative process

is required. The composition is changed stepwise and model is simulated for each step making

the process more time consuming and lengthy.

The first attempt in this regard was made by Furnas and afterwards this area was further explored

by various researchers. The details of some historic developments in this field are given below.

2.4.1 The Furnas Model

The model proposed by Furnas is capable of considering only two groups of mono sized particles

without interaction between the particles. The term „without interaction‟ means that the local

arrangement of an assembly of grains of one size is not perturbed by the vicinity of a grain of the

second size [24] i.e. the size ratio of smaller size particle to larger size particle is approaches to

zero .

Two cases exist for Furnas model to calculate the packing density of the mix and these are

distinguished upon the basis of dominant volume fraction present in the mix.

Case 1: The volume fraction (r) of large size particles (r1) is much larger than the volume

fraction of small particles (r2), i.e. r1>>r2

This is the condition when the container is filled with large particles of size d1. At this condition

the large particles fill the container equivalent to their packing density. Now by adding the small

size particles into the container, they fill the voids between the large particles and thus the total

occupied volume and packing increases [17]. In this case packing density of the mix is given by

equation 2.12

(2.12)

Case 2: The volume fraction (r) of small size particles (r2) is much larger than the volume

fraction of large particles (r1), i.e. r2>>r1

In this case the container is filled with small size particle and the limiting value will be the packing

density of size (d1) particles. When large particles will be introduced in the container then they

occupy the 100% volume equivalent to their proportion in the mix and the remaining volume of

the container remain filled with small size particles equivalent to the eigen packing density of size

d2 [17].

The total packing density of the mix will be given by equation 2.13

(2.13)

The generalized particle packing profile of the Furnas model shows that maximum packing will

be obtained when the ratio of relative volume of small size particles to large size particles is about

1 to 3.

Figure 2.7: Generalized Particle Packing Profile of Mix by Furnas Model [17]

The model proposed by the Aim and Goff was a major development in the field of packing models

as they gave the idea of particle interaction in the packing models. Particle interaction means that

the eigen packing density of particles is affected due to the presence of other size classes. The

effects of particle interaction is termed as „wall effect‟ and „loosening effect‟ and explained in

following paragraphs.

Wall Effect:

Close to a container wall the random packing of the mix is forced to get ordered arrangement

similar to the wall shape. Depending upon the packing structure and container shape, it takes from

one to ten particle diameters from the wall to establish fully random packing [25]. In a mixture of

fine particles if particles of very large size are introduced then they will also behave as container‟s

wall.

(a) Voids opening due to container wall

(b) Voids opening due to large size particle

The wall effect is larger in the mix having higher packing densities and this is also affected by

shape, texture, forces and geometry of particles.

Loosening Effect:

In a mixture of large particles some voids will be present at the place of contact of particles with

each other, if small particles introduced in the mix and the small size particle cannot fit in the

voids of preplaced large size particles then the larger particles will be pushed away to

accommodate the small particle and the packing will be affected.

Figure 2.9: Loosening Effect

The Aim‟s model also deals with packing by making two separate cases just like Furnas but the

limiting value for defining the cases is given by Aim but no information about limit between cases

was provided by Furnas. First case deals the packing without interaction whereas particle

interaction is considered in second case.

Case 1 is applicable when r1<r*, here r* is the limiting value and is given by equation 2.14

(2.14)

Whereas „p‟ is

And packing density for case 1 is similar to the one given by Furnas as shown below

(2.15)

For case 2 when r1≥r* i.e. fine particles are in excess, the packing density will be given as

(2.16)

Equation 2.16 has one extra term in denominator than equation 2.14 which was

developed by Furnas. This term counter for the loosening and wall effect in the packing.

In year 1976 Toufar proposed a model to predict the packing density of binary mixtures. It was

based on the concept that when the size ratio of particles (d2/d1) is approaching unity then the

small particles do not fit in the voids of large particles. It is observed geometrically that the

pyramidal arrangement of circular discs, a small particle can fit into the void if it is 0.16 times

smaller than the larger one. For regular cubic arrangement the small particle size can be up to 0.40

times the larger one.

of the two particle classes. Toufar also considered the statistical probability of the number of voids

between the coarse particles that are free from small particles (or remain unoccupied in random

packing). It was also assumed that each fine particle is placed between four coarse particles. For

calculation of total packing density of the mix following set of equations are used [23].

(2.17)

d1 = 1 d1 = 1

d2 = 0.16

Figure

d

2.10: Illustration of Particle Size to Fit in the Void 2

= 0.40

Therefore, the

d2 /ond1= 0.16

packing density depends

d2 / dratio

the diametric 1= 0.40

(2.18)

The statistical factor ks determine the chances of filling a void in coarse particles by a smaller one.

This factor depends on the volumetric ratio of material of each size in the mix and the Eigen

packing density of the component sizes.

(2.19)

(2.20)

The parametric studies of Toufar model carried by Golterman [23] showed that the predicted

packing density does not change when only small fraction of fine particles added to the coarse

particles. To tackle the issue a modification was proposed to the statistical parameter “ks” which

is as follows.

Experimentally two constants were evaluated i.e. Xo and Ko there values are given in equation

2.21

(2.21)

If the value of „X‟ from equation 2.21 comes out to be less than „Xo‟ then Ks will be calculated

as follows and for any other case the Ks will be calculated from equation 2.20.

(2.22)

The Toufar model was tested by Golterman [23] for modeling the packing density of compacted

mixes and produced quite accurate results.

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