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Dominik Sierociuk Ivo Petras

Institute of Control Institute of Control and Informatization

and Industrial Electronics of Production Processes BERG Faculty

Warsaw University of Technology Technical University of Kosice

Koszykowa 75, Warsaw, Poland B. Nemcovej 3, Kosice, Slovakia

Email: dsieroci@ee.pw.edu.pl Email: ivo.petras@tuke.sk

Abstract- This paper deals with a discrete fractional-order The three equivalent definitions used for the general frac

neural network and its application for modeling of a heat tional differintegral are the Griinwald-Letnikov definition, the

transfer process. Proposed neural network is implemented in

Riemann-Liouville and the Caputo definitions [10], [l3]. For

Matlab/Simulink and applied to the heater which is a part of the

equipment Armfield PCT40. Results obtained from experiments

our purpose we will adopt the Griinwald-Letnikov definition:

presented in the article show that the fractional-order neural Definition 1: The Griinwald-Letnikov definition for k =

t a, where a is a real constant, is given as:

network properly modeled the unknown dynamics. i"

I. INTRODUCT ION ['hal

aDfx(t)

h�O

lim h

'"

I

L( �

j (�)x(t

I)

J

� jh)

tists and engineers. However the fractional calculus is more

. I

j=O

than 300 years old, only in last few decades appeared the hm -h [:,."'x(t),

h�O '"

publications with practical applications of this mathematical

phenomenon. Some of them can be found in books [4], where [.J means the integer part.

[10], [11], [l3]. Moreover, there are works with application •

of the fractional calculus in control theory [9] and even in To present fractional-order discrete time neural network we

fractional-order nonlinear systems [12]. In these both areas have to introduce discrete fractional order nonlinear system.

of applications, the neural networks play an important role In this paper the following definition of the fractional order

[6], [7]. It is possible to apply the fractional calculus in difference is used [10], [13]:

modeling of dynamical systems via the neural networks. The Definition 2: Fractional order difference is given as follows:

preliminary results of the discrete fractional order networks k

as well as comparison to the integer order network dynamic

were presented in [16]. In this paper the extension for this idea

[:,."'Xk = L( �

j (�)Xk-j,

I)

J

j=O

and application to the real plant is presented. The extension

is that in the model the also differences of the input signal is where aE lR, is a fractional order and kEN is a number of

included. sample for which the difference is obtained.

This article is organized as follows: In Sec. II a discrete •

fractional-order nonlinear systems are introduced. Sec. III In our case the artificial neural network is used to modeling

describes a discrete time fractional-order neural networks. the fractional order nonlinear systems. Using fractional order

In Sec. IV the experimental setup and obtained results are difference the following nonlinear discrete fractional order

presented. Sec. V concludes this article with some remarks system in state-space is defined:

and ideas for further work. Definition 3: [l5]The nonlinear discrete fractional order

system in a state-space representation is given by the follow

II. DISCRETE FRACT IONAL-ORDER NONLINEAR SYSTEM ing set of equations:

and differentiation to non-integer order fundamental operator

aD't, aE lR, where a and t are the bounds of the operation.

The continuous integro-differential operator is defined as

a> 0, Yk

a=O, where aE lR is a system order, 10 and hO are the nonlinear

a < O. functions.

•

�r1 I

The system which we take into consideration is given as

z-n I

the following relation:

g ( A(n-l)e> Ae>

Yk+n-l,···,L.l. Yk+l,Yk I

H

L.l.

z-n+l�Q(z)

I

(1)

Y z�(n-l)Q(z) I

I

network presented in the next section.

neural H �-nQ(z) P'r+-

11 I

III. DISCRETE TiME FRACT IONAL-ORDER NEURAL

z-n I

network

NETWORKS

very efficient tool for modeling the fractional order non-linear

systems, especially when the analytical model is not accessible

H z-n+l�Q(z) I

I

replace the non-linear function gO in the model given by

equation (1) by the static neural network. This neural network

H z�(n-l)Q(z) I

I

the outputs and inputs signals. These differences have to be

obtained by the prefiltering process.

By time shift of the equation (1) we obtain the following

relation:

g ( A(n-l)e>

L.l.

Ae>

Yk-l,oo.,L.l. Yk-n+l,Yk-n

Fig. 2.

network

Scheme for on-line simulation of discrete fractional order neural

A(n-l)e>

)

Ae>

L.l. Uk-l, 0 0 . , L.l. Uk-n+l, Uk-n (2)

Fig. 2 presents the signal processing scheme for simulation

of the nonlinear discrete fractional order system based on the

neural network obtained in the training process.

I

�� z-n I IV. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

-1 z-n+l�Q(z) I

I

As it was aforementioned, we used a PC to control the

PCT40 unit. The PC was connected directly to the PCT40

-1 z�(n-l)Q(z)

I

I training

error

via 60 pins connector. In our case we have connected the

PCT40 unit to the PC via multifunction 110 laboratory card

neural

MF624. By using a Real Time Toolbox in Matlab/Simulink

�� z-n I

I

network

it is possible to communicate with the PCT40 unit and its all

inputs and outputs.

We will use a part of the PCT40 unit, namely heater of

-1 z-n+l�Q(z) I

I water (or other liquid), which has two modes: (i) heating and

(ii) cooling. The heating mode is based on electrical spiral

-1 z�(n-l)Q(z) I

I

dipped in the water. The cooling is based on pipe spiral dipped

in the water, which allows to flow cold water in the pipe and

makes water-cool. Technical parameters of the heater are [1]:

-1 �nQ(z) I

I • input for heating spiral SSR (inverse logic signal): 0

means heating, 1 means stop heating (binary values);

• input for cooling pipe spiral with cold water SOLENOID:

open or close valve in interval 0 - 100 %;

Fig. 1. Signal prefiitering for teaching the neural network

• output temperature T1: voltage signal within range 0-5 V

The prefiltering process for teaching the neural network is with maximal temperature approximately 80 DC;

presented in Fig. 1. Such neural network can be implemented Note that each module of the PCT40 unit has its own fuse

in Matlab/Simuling using Neural Network Toolbox and Frac system, e.g. it is not possible to switch on heating while there

tional State-Space Toolkit [14], [15]. is not water at certain level, etc.

147

by applying the Laplace transform to the equation (3) we

obtain

a2

T(s,x) a2 sT(s,x) - a2 T(O,x) (5)

ax2

=

ond order ordinary differential equation (with respect to the

variable x) is obtained. The solution of such an equation has

the following form:

using the equation (4) and assumption that the heat flux at the

In Fig. 3 is depicted the experimental hardware setup of

end of the beam is equal to zero (isolated end of the beam)

PCT40 unit with heater module and its connection to the PC

with the Matlab/Simulink through MF624 laboratory card.

H(xj,t) = 0 and H(xj,s) 0, the Cl ( S ) x independent

=

ON/OFF

�

By using the relation (6) and (4) the transfer function

describing the relation between the heat flux on the beam

beginning H(t,O) as an input and temperature at the same

point T(t,0) was obtained as follows:

T(s,O) 1

G(s) (7)

H(s,O) avstanh(axjVS)

= =

G(s)

__

(8)

H(s,O) avs

= =

depicted in Fig. 4. The VS can be interpreted as an half order derivative what

gives the following relation

B. General Mathematical Model of the Heat Transfer

The ideal heating process, without energy loss, of a the H(t,O) = a OD�·5T(t,0). (9)

beam can be described by the following partial differential

equation [5], [8] The results presented above was obtained for ideal, very

special case, but gives strong motivation of using the fractional

(3) order model for modeling the heat process. However the

PCT40 setup has much more complicated geometry what can

with the following boundary conditions: not be easily described analytically. For modeling this relation

the fractional order neural network can be used. Moreover

T(O,x) = 0, T(t,O) = u(t), the dependency between the control signal and the heat flux

generated by heater is also non-linear, because the heat flux

where T(t,x) is a temperature of the beam at time instant

depends on the heat power P U 2 / R and we can control the

t and space coordinate (distance) x, and a is a parameter

=

which depends on beam parameters like heat conductivity and

the cooling flux has a different character, is caused by the

density. The another important equation is a definition oh the

cold water flux in the cooling pipe. The cooling flux is not

heat flux:

a symmetrical to the heat flux and this relation is unknown, this

H(x,t) T(t,x) (4) also can be modeled by the neural network.

ax

=

148

C. Results of Fractional-Order Neural Modeling 30

_teaching output signal Y,

In this section the results of modeling the heat transfer 25

_network response for U,

process by using discrete fractional order neural network is

presented. The system has one input which for positive value

turns on the heater (it is binary value) and for negative value

turns on the cold water flux (also binary value). In that way the

input controls both heating and cooling process. The output of

o

the systems is taken a relative temperature (difference between

measured and initial temperature). All data were collected in 20 40 60 80 100

time [s)

sampling time 1 sec. The neural network has one hidden layer

with 6 neurons with nonlinear tansig activation function and

Fig. 6. Results of fractional order neural modeling for the teaching signals

one linear neuron in output layer (experimentally found). The Ul,Yl

network is trained with 400 epochs by using the Matlab routine

train.

For the neural modeling we assume the following structure 15

of the nonlinear system:

- teaching output signal Y2

(10) _network response for U2

can be seen in literature, the ideal heat transfer process is a

half-order integrator. The additionally order 0.25 is added in

o

order to allows better modeling unknowns dynamics of the

o

real plant model. 20 40

time [s)

60 80 100

order to allows modeling the relation given by the equation Fig. 7. Results of fractional order neural modeling for the teaching signals

U2,Y2

(10).

In the experiment we use 3 types of input signal for teaching

lB,_------,_--�,_--�

process and one type for testing, all of the signals are presented

16

in the Fig. 5. �14

'"

OJ 12

'iii

� 10

f-.---------------, ...................... . - teaching output signal Y3

§ B

- network response for U3

'"

E

'"

6

....... teaching input signal U, � 4

. teaching input signal U 2 i. ...

i

._._.teaching input signal U

3 %��----L-------L-------L ------�L ------�00

'"

6 O B O 1

_ testing input signal Ut

>

15

-1 _._._._._._ . _._ '-------1 Fig. 8. Results of fractional order neural modeling for the teaching signals

U3'y3

o 20 40 60 80 100

time [s)

�20

OJ 15

same signals that was used for network training process U1,U2 '§

'"

and U3. As it could be notice the accuracy of the modeling is

�10

2

'"

very good. E

'"

5

The final check for the neural network training process 15

is a check for the testing signal different from the learning

signals. This can presents clearly the ability of the network 20 40 60 BO 100

time [s)

to generalize the unknown non-linear function. The result of

this check is presented in Fig. 9 and as it could be seen the Fig. 9. Results of fractional order neural modeling for the testing signals

discrete fractional order neural network properly modeled the Utl,Y tl

unknown dynamics.

In Fig. 5 - Fig. 9 are shown the results obtained via exper

V. CONCLUSIONS

imental measurements on the heater and the results obtained

via fractional-order neural network modeling. A. Concluding Remarks

In this paper was proposed a discrete fractional-order neural

network. We have shown that such structure of the neural

149

network is appropriate for modeling of the fractional-order [14) D. Sierociuk, Fractional Order Discrete State-Space System Simulink

Toolkit User Guide, http://www.ee.pw.edu.plrdsierocilfsstlfsst.htm.

dynamic systems. In our case we used the data from heater

[15) D. Sierociuk and A. Dzielinski, Fractional Kalman filter algorithm for

and we have used the structure with the final order equal to 0.5. states, parameters and order of fractional system estimation, Int. 1. Appl.

The fractional-order neural network has been implemented in Math. Comput. Sci., vol. 16 (1),2006, pp. 129-140.

Matlab/Simulink. [16) D. Sierociuk, G. Sarwas and A. Dzielinski, Discrete fractional order

artificial neural network, Proceedings of the FDA'10, IFAC, October

18-29,2010, Article no. FDAIO-134.

B. Ideas for Further Work

Since the neural networks are a good candidate for a

generic, parametric, non-linear model and have capabilities for

modeling with a desired accuracy even for modeling of non

linear fractional-order system [3], it is necessary pay attention

to them. However, there are many open and potential problems,

which should be taken into account.

Some addition extensions and possible applications are:

• neural network estimator

• neural network controller

In further work we will show the way how to implement the

fractional-order neural network estimator and fractional-order

neural network controller for the heater used in this paper.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

istry of Science and Higher Education grant number

4125/B/T02/2009/36 and the European Union in the frame

work of European Social Fund through the Warsaw Univer

sity of Technology Development Programme (by Center for

Advanced Studies WUT).

This work was also supported in part by the Slovak

Grant Agency for Science under grants V EGA: 110390110,

110497111, 110746111; grants: APV V-0040-07, SK-FR-0037-

09, SK-PL-0052-09, and CEV I: OPVaV-200812.1I01-S0RO.

REFERENCES

Technical documentation, http://discoverarmfield.com/dataipct40/, 2010.

[2) 1. Babic, G. Takac, I. Petras and D. Bednarova, Identification of Model

Parameters and Control of Heater on Laboratory Object PCT40, Proc.

of the ICCC'20ll, Velke Karlovice, Czech Republic, May 25-28,2011.

[3) F. Benoit-Marand, L. Signac, T. Poinot and 1. C. Trigeassou, Identi

fication of non linear fractional systems using continues time neural

networks, Proceedings of the FDA'06, IFAC,2006.

[4) R. Caponetto, G. Dongola, L. Fortuna and I. Petras, Fractional Order

Systems: Modeling and Control Applications, Singapore, World Scien

tific,2010.

[5) A. Dzielinski, D. Sierociuk and G. Sarwas, Some applications of

fractional order calculus, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences,

Technical Sciences, Vol. 58, No. 4,2010

[6) 1. Kalkkuhl, K. 1. Hunt, R. Zbikowski and A. Dzielinski, Applications

of neural adaptive control technology, World Scientific, 1997.

[7) B. Krose and P. van der Smagt, An Introduction to Neural Networks,

The University of Amsterdam, 1996.

[8) 1. Mikusi6ski, Operational Calculus, PWN-Polish Scientific Publishers,

Warszawa 1983.

[9) C.A. Monje, Y.Q. Chen, B.M. Vinagre, D. Xue and V. Feliu, Fractional

order Systems and Controls, Springer,2010.

[10) K. Oldham and 1. Spanier, Fractional Calculus, Academic Press, New

York, 1974.

[II) A. Oustaloup, La Derivation Non Entiere: T heorie, Synthese et Appli

cations, Paris, Hermes, 1995.

[12) I. Petras, Fractional-Order Nonlinear Systems: Modeling, Analysis and

Simulation, Series: Nonlinear Physical Science, Springer, HEP,2011.

[13) I. Podlubny, Fractional Differential Equations, Academic Press, San

Diego, 1999.

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