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Penulis, tahun, Scientific level Landasan teori Metode penelitian Hasil penelitian atau

judul, sumber (nama sampai dengan teknik makna utama isi text
jurnal, text) analisis data. Jika ada book
hipotesis penelitian
- Penulis = Marilyn Middle School - Flow describes the experience of feeling totally - Materials : The - Game Performance
Ault, Jana Craig- Science Students involved in an activity such as during a game when application used in Figure 3 presents the
Hare, Bruce Frey the player achieves a state of total focus, complete this study was the average amount of
- Tahun = 2016 immersion, and limited awareness of time. It is Reason Racer game. time spent in the
- Judul = The Impact generally assumed that the experience involves - Procedure : The study PitStops. PitStops are
of a Racing Feature intense involvement and concentration, as well as was conducted in the where students utilize
on Middle School enjoyment. The experience of flow draws players into school computer lab argumentation skills
Science Students’ playing a game over and over, seemingly “compelling” during 9th grade within the context of
Performance in an them to play (Garris, Ahlers, & Driskell, 2002; Koster, biology instructional one scenario to
Educational Game: 2005; Lazzaro, 2004). time. This experience answer challenge
The Effect of - Game developers strive to create a sense of flow was the students’ first questions. In the
Content-Free Game- during game play because when a player achieves a encounter with the figure, the six types of
Actions state of total or compete focus, complete immersion, game and with PitStops are labeled
- Sumber = and limited awareness of time there is also created a instruction specifically by the particular
International Journal strong desire to repeat or extend the experience. This addressing scientific
of Game-Based is identified as a compulsion to play, the drive to play components of argumentation skill
Learning Volume 6 • a game over and over (Garris, Ahlers, & Driskell, 2002; argumentation. being addressed.
Issue 3 Koster, 2005; Lazzaro, 2004). - Design : The design of Overall, students
- Flow models have been applied to educational game the study, as reflected spent less time in a
design and development. For example, Fu and Yu in Table 1, was PitStop when they
(2008) suggest there are four flow factors in games: counterbalanced with were engaging in a
skill, challenge, concentration, and pleasure. Sweetser two randomly car-race than when
and Wyeth (2005) propose a game flow model that assigned groups there was no car-race
consists of eight core elements. They include playing the game opportunity. As
elements requiring concentration, providing a using both scenarios, indicated in the
challenge, requiring use of specific skills, and Panda Poop and figure, this difference
providing control, clear goals, and feedback. They also Worm Glue, in one of was significant for
suggest there should be a sense of immersion and two conditions. The three of the six
social interaction. The activites that elicit a sense of conditions of interest PitStops, but
flow must be intrinsically rewarding and autotelic, or were 1) game play consistent across all
meaningful or fulfilling in and of itself (Sweetser & with racing between six PitStops in that
Wyeth, 2005). each PitStop and 2) when the students
- In a study comparing individual play in a variety of game play with no had an opportunity to
conditions, students who played in competitive racing between each race, less time was
situations increased in-game learning over students PitStop. Both groups spent answering
who did not experience competitive play. In addition, played the Panda questions.
competition elicited greater interest in and Poop scenario first
enjoyment of the game, resulted in a stronger and the Worm Glue
mastery goal orientation, and stronger intentions to scenario second.
play the game again and to recommend it to others - Flow Measurement
(Plass et al., 2013) Instrument : A
- While the list of features that should be included in project-developed 13-
game design to create a sense of flow is informative, item attitude scale
actual examples of game-features are needed to was developed and
inform both developers and educators. These are the used to collect
core mechanics of a game, the procedural student feedback
mechanisms that provide the essential interactions following both game
required to create a meaningful gaming activity sessions (shown in the
(Habgood, Ainsworth, & Benford, 2005) Appendix, Table 4).
The survey was
primarily designed to
provide a preliminary
analysis of
components of the
construct of flow
using items similar to
Hsu and Lu (2004) and
those reviewed by
Hoffman and Novak
(2009). Items
addressed a sense of
flow and reflected, in
a brief assessment, its
multidimensional
quality (Huang 2006;
Koufaris 2002).
- Data Collection and
Analysis : Two types
of data were collected
during this study. The
web-based game was
connected to a
database that
captured player-
metrics associated
with each unique
login in a log file. The
log files captured
metrics for each
player including
duration, in
milliseconds, for each
component of the
game, PitStops and
race, as well as the
number, frequency,
and type of incorrect
responses, and overall
duration of the game.
Each participant also
completed the survey
instrument. The
survey was
hyperlinked and
accessed after the
games were played.
Paired samples t tests
were conducted to
compare the duration
of play and number of
errors in each PitStop
across two conditions.
Data from the survey
were analyzed based
on descriptive
statistics and single-
- sample t tests.
- Penulis = Teemu H. - Children and - Digital storytelling, where digital media is used to - The goal of the - The results were
Laine, Eeva Nygren, adolescents express, store and share stories, introduces new platform is to provide derived from the
Amir Dirin, Hae-Jung learning possibilities. When used in education, digital game-based learning quantitative
Suk4 stories allow interactivity and facilitate options for environments to help questionnaire data
- Tahun = 2016 non-linear storytelling (Duveskog 2015). students understand and supported by
- Judul = Science - Digital storytelling also promotes twenty-first century different scientific qualitative excerpts
Spots AR: a platform skills, engages teachers and students, and concepts through from open questions
for science learning encompasses multiple literacy skills (Robin 2008). interaction and and interviews. We
games with - Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which experimentation with analyzed the
augmented reality virtual content such as 3D models, animations, two- real and Science Spots distribution of the
- Sumber = Education dimensional (2D) images, or annotations are placed AR: a platform for quantitative data
Tech Research Dev on top of a real-world view. This is typically science learning along the Likert scale
(2016) 64:507–531 implemented by using a camera, visual markers, games with… 511 123 and included the
machine vision algorithms, and content rendering. By virtual objects. The mean and standard
analyzing the camera feed, the AR software innovativeness of deviation values for
determines where the augmented scene is to be SSAR stems from the testing validity. Each
located in relation to the camera, and draws a virtual way in which the key figure shows the
content layer on top of the camera image. The AR components— percentages of
content is updated in real-time as the user changes storytelling, gaming, responses so that the
the camera’s position. AR has been shown to boost context-awareness, distribution among
motivation in educational applications (Balog and and AR—are the Likert options,
Pribeanu 2010; Dunleavy and Dede 2014). combined and can be ranged from 1 for
- Context-awareness complements the motivational reused in different ‘‘Strongly disagree’’ to
benefits of game-based learning by enabling situated, games created on the 4 for ‘‘Strongly
authentic and personalized learning experiences (Jeng platform. To increase agree’’, can be seen.
et al. 2010) with additional characteristics of student engagement, The original data had
permanency, accessibility, immediacy, interactivity, the learning content also ‘‘No opinion’’
calmness, and seamlessness (Liu et al. 2009). The in SSAR is embedded answers, but these,
following examples use context-awareness to deliver in storytelling games. together with omitted
situated science learning experiences that leverage Each game has a answers, were
the motivational power of games. specific science topic removed to
and virtual characters emphasize the
that interact with the polarity of the results.
learner. A result is considered
- Game authorship is significant if the
assigned to teachers number of positive or
and students via a negative answers
Game Design Tool exceeds 70 % of the
(GDT). Authored sum of positive and
games are stored on negative answers. The
the SSAR server from mean (l), the standard
where they can be deviation (r), and the
shared, searched and number of responses
downloaded by the (N) are also given. The
learners. student quotes are
- To illustrate the suffixed with meta-
platform’s operation, data as follows:
let us consider a ([gender]-[id]). Age is
fractions learning omitted because all
game. Before starting students were 12
the game, the years old.
students (or teachers)
create their own
game environment by
deploying the AR
targets around their
school surroundings
according to the
game’s instructions.
- Data Collect :
- Primary evaluation
data were collected
using a mixed-method
questionnaire
comprising Likert
scale statements and
open questions.
- All data were
collected in Korean
and translated into
English for analysis by
an international
research team.
Research ethic
requirements were
met by acquiring data
collection and media
usage permissions.
Furthermore, players’
personal data such as
names were not
collected.
- Penulis = Ming-Puu - middle school - Among the most important and fundamental science - Research method - Both the two-way
Chen • Yu-Ting students concepts, the understanding of chemical formulas - In the present study, a interactions on
Wong • Li-Chun and reactions is crucial to learning chemistry (Finley quasi-experimental comprehension and
Wang 1991; Yarroch 1985). Learners have design was application are non-
- Tahun = 2014 to fully understand chemical formulas and equations implemented to significant. As for the
- Judul = Effects of to proceed to the study of chemical investigate the main effects, the type
type of exploratory reactions (Johnson 2005). However, many middle - effects of the type of of exploratory learning
strategy and prior school students do not yet possess the exploratory strategy has a significant effect
- knowledge on skill to comprehend the various abstract chemical and level of prior on knowledge
middle school formulas. Such limitations in reasoning knowledge on middle comprehension
students’ learning skills and conceptual knowledge in chemistry may school (F(1,101) = 4.710, p =
of chemical formulas lead to learning difficulties and lowered - students’ learning of .032), but is non-
from a 3D role- motivation (Ahtee and Varjola 1998; Barker and Millar chemical formulas significant on
playing game 1999; Solsona et al. 2003; Taber from a 3D RPG game- application (F(1,101) =
- Sumber = Education 1996; Watson and Dillon 1996). based learning activity 3.780, p = .055). That is
Tech Research Dev - Digital game-based-learning has been recommended and to say, the worked-
(2014) 62:163–185 by researchers and educators among the most - example group (mean =
innovative and meaningful learning approaches, as it - their motivation 5.68) outperformed the
can help learners engage in learning actively (Lassiter towards science non-worked-example
et al. 2001; Lombard and Ditton 1997; Robertson and learning. The research group (mean = 5.19) in
Howells 2008). questions of this study knowledge
- Digital game-based-learning is also believed to have are for- comprehension.
the potential of reducing extraneous load and - mulated as follows: However, the two
encouraging germane processing, and can thus be 1. Does the RPG groups performed
used to facilitate meaningful learning (Holzinger et al. exploratory with equally on knowledge
2008). worked-example application.
- Constructivism is receiving more attention in the field group perform better - The main effects of
of science education. From the perspective of than do the prior knowledge are
constructivism, teachers act as students’ guides on RPG exploratory significant on both
the side, and students learn to construct and develop without worked- knowledge
knowledge as well as correct misconceptions as they example group in the comprehension
gain experience (Dai 1995). learning of chemical (F(1,101) = 33.939,
formulas p\.001) and
via a 3D RPG game- knowledge
playing activity? application (F(1,101) =
2. Does the RPG 8.289, p = .005). As
exploratory with indicated by the
worked-example group means, the high
group reveal higher prior-knowledge
motivation and more group outperformed
positive attitudes than the low prior
do the RPG knowledge group in
exploratory without both knowledge
worked-example comprehension and
group in the learning application.
of chemical formulas
via a 3D RPG game-
playing activity?
3. Does the high prior-
knowledge group
perform better than
do the low prior-
knowledge group in
the learning of
chemical formulas via
a 3D RPG game-
playing activity?
4. Does the high prior-
knowledge group
reveal higher
motivation and more
positive attitudes than
do the low prior-
knowledge group in
the learning of
chemical formulas via
a 3D RPG game-
playing activity?
5. Is there any
significant interaction
between the
exploratory strategies
and levels of
prior knowledge on
performance and
motivation in learning
chemical formulas via
a 3D RPG game-
playing activity?
- The Alchemist’s Fort
consists of seven tasks
focusing on chemical
concepts and
formulas and seven
corresponding review
sections in the form of
worksheets.
- The achievement test
was conducted
immediately after the
game-playing activity
to assess participants’
chemistry knowledge.
- Data Analysis : Box’s
test of equality
reveals that the
observed covariance
matrices of the
dependent measures
are equal across
groups (Box’s M =
81.523, F = 1.216, p =
.116). The MA-NOVA
summary of type of
exploratory learning
and level of prior
knowledge on
knowledge
comprehension and
knowledge application
of chemical formula
concepts are shown in
Table 3.
- Penulis = Ying-Tien Elementary - In particular, the use of educational computer games - Data Collection : In - The interviews in this
Wu Science Students can provide more active involvement, promoting this study, there were study showed that 20
- Tahun = 2013 personal motivation and satisfaction, accommodating three stages for data participants had
- Judul = Using multiple learning styles, and providing interactive and collection: pre- experience of playing
Educational decision-making contexts (Kebritchi & Hirumi, 2008; interviews, computer games,
Computer Games for Kebritchi, 2010). experiencing an while only one did not
Science Teaching: - In one of these subjects, science education, educational computer have relevant
Experiences and educational computer games have also been game for science experience. As
Perspectives of increasingly discussed (e.g., Annetta et al., 2009a; learning, and follow- revealed in Table 1,
Elementary Science 2009b; Barab et al., 2005; Mason, Bub, & Lalonde, up interviews. nearly half of the
Teachers in Taiwan 2011). - In the first stage, in interviewed teachers
- Sumber = - In the last decade, an increasing number of studies order to obtain the (52.38%) showed
International Journal have explored issues related to using educational understandings of the positive attitudes
of Online Pedagogy computer games in science education. Nevertheless, teachers’ experience toward playing
and Course Design, most of the relevant research has mainly focused on of and attitudes computer games,
3(4), 16-28 the student, demonstrating that the use of toward general while four (19.04%)
educational computer games in science learning is computer games, and had negative
capable of improving scientific knowledge their positions toward attitudes. For
construction (e.g., Miller et al., 2011), inquiry ability using computer example, Teacher #2
(e.g., Barab et al., 2005), engagement (e.g., Annetta games in science stated that “Playing
et al., 2009b), and motivation for learning (e.g., Li, teaching, they were computer games can
2010; Papastergiou, 2009). interviewed with the help to train your
following questions: brain,” while Teacher
1. Have you ever # 13 mentioned that
played a computer “Some computer
game? (To understand games are violent,
the teachers’ personal and may be harmful.”
experience of playing However, it should be
computer games.) 2. noted that six
What do you think of teachers (28.57%)
playing computer expressed neutral
games? (To assess the attitudes toward
teachers’ attitudes playing computer
toward playing games. Teacher # 1
computer games.) 3. expressed that
Do you agree that “Playing computer
computer games games is stress-
could be used to assist releasing, but may be
science teaching? addictive.” To sum up,
Why or why not? (To about half of the
assess the science teachers did not show
teachers’ positions positive attitudes
regarding the use of toward playing
computer games in computer games.
science instruction.) In
the second stage, in
order to ensure that
the participating
teachers had basic
experience regarding
playing educational
computer games, they
were asked to play a
game regarding light
and shadow.
- After playing, follow-
up tape-recorded
interviews were
conducted. The
participants were told
that the computer
game which they
played was an
“educational
computer game,” and
were asked to answer
the following
openended questions:
1. In your opinion,
what are the
differences between
educational computer
games and computer
games? 2. Are you
willing to employ
educational computer
games, such as the
game you just played,
in your science
instruction? 3. How
would you apply
educational computer
games in your science
classes? 4. What are
the advantages and
disadvantages of
integrating
educational computer
games in science
teaching? 5. In your
opinion, when
employing
educational computer
games, what are the
relevant professional
abilities that a teacher
may need?