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Effects of Pretreatment and Drying Temperature on Quality of

Dried Bamboo Shoots (Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro)

Dini Queentasari1, Adil Basuki Ahza1, Natthawuddhi Donlao2, and Puwanart Fuggate2
1
Department of Food Science and Technology,
Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
Bogor Agricultural University, Dramaga, Bogor 16002, Indonesia
2
School of Agro-Industry, Mae Fah Luang University
Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand

ABSTRACT

Whole bamboo shoots (Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro) freshly harvested in Doi


Tung were blanched at 90-100 ⁰C in various concentrations of sodium metabisulfite solution (0,
0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) for ten minutes, as pretreatment, and then dried at various temperatures (50
⁰C, 60 ⁰C, and 70 ⁰C) using a laboratory scale hot air drier. Effects of both pretreatment and
drying temperature on quality of dried bamboo shoots were evaluated. There were seven
parameters observed: drying time, aw, color, rehydration ratio, shrinkage, firmness, and total
residual sulfites. Results showed that drying time decreased with increase in the drying
temperature (p<0.01) while both pretreatment and drying temperature had no significant effect
(p>0.05) on aw and shrinkage of dried bamboo shoots. Moreover, L* value, b* value, and
rehydration ratio increased with increase in concentration of sodium metabisulfite and decrease in
drying temperature, whereas a* value increased. The higher b* value and rehydration ratio
(p<0.01) were found in samples blanched in 1.5% Na2S2O5 solution and dried at 50 ⁰C and
samples blanched in 1.0% Na2S2O5 solution and dried at 60 ⁰C. It was also observed that total
residual sulfites in dried-sulfited sample was quite high, ranged from 1250 to 3378 ppm SO2 while
the sample blanched in 1.5% Na2S2O5 solution had higher residual sulfites than the other
concentrations. Based on the parameters, sample blanched in 1.0% Na2S2O5 solution and then
dried at 60 ⁰C was chosen to be the best sample. Results of rating hedonic test confirmed that the
rehydrated of the best sample was more preferrable than the rehydrated-commercial dried bamboo
shoots. It is suggested that blanching in 1.0% Na2S2O5 solution and then drying at 60 ⁰C is a better
drying condition to produce dried bamboo shoots with a desired quality and applicable in Doi
Tung.

Keywords: bamboo shoots, hot air drier, sodium metabisulfite, color, rehydration ratio
Dini Queentasari. F24080024. Effects of Pretreatment and Drying Temperature on Quality of
Dried Bamboo Shoots. Advisors: Adil Basuki Ahza (Bogor Agricultural University),
Natthawuddhi Donlao and Puwanart Fuggate (Mae Fah Luang University). 2012

SUMMARY

Thailand is the second major world producer and exporter of bamboo shoots and Doi Tung,
a mountainous region in Northen Thailand, has tropical bamboos (Dendrocalamus membranaceus
Munro) that produce shoots from May to October with most productions in July to August every
year. In Huay Poo Village, Doi Tung, there is a factory that processes freshly harvested bamboo
shoots minimally. The factory is owned by Mr. Theraapoong, as a supplier of fresh bamboo shoots
for this research. Bamboo shoots are just peeled, boiled, and sliced there. After that, they were
packed and transported to secondary factories in Chiang Mai and Lampang for further processing.
There is no added value of produced bamboo shoots in the primary factory. Thus, it is a need to
improve the existing production of bamboo shoots in the factory.
Bamboo shoot is very seasonal and perishable food. It can be stored for one day at ambient
temperature. Hence, it takes a processing method to prolong shelf life of fresh bamboo shoots
which is applicable in Doi Tung. Drying is a good alternative processing method that is commonly
applied by Thai people. Moreover, China has produced dried bamboo shoots since years ago. In
China, bamboo shoots were processed using heat generated from wood burning. This drying
method has many disadvantages, such as time consuming, weather dependent, and dust and insects
contamination possibility. This study is aimed to overcome such disadvantages. Bamboo shoots
were dried using hot air drying method which is more hygienic, controlable, and applicable in Doi
Tung. Bamboo shoots were dried until its moisture content reached 10% dry basis which is less
than Thai Industrial Standards Institute (14% wet basis for dried products). Prior to drying,
bamboo shoots were blanched in sodium metabisulfite solution in various concentrations (0.5%,
1.0%, 1.5%) at 90-100 ⁰C for 10 minutes to prevent browning reaction during drying. Both
pretreatment and the drying process may cause many physical, chemical, biochemical, and sensory
changes in the bamboo shoots. Hence, it is necessary to develop a better drying condition to
produce good quality of dried bamboo shoots. There are many factors influence the quality of
dried products, yet this research was just focused on two factors, i.e. concentration of sodium
metabisulfite used in blanching solution and drying temperature.
This research was carried out in two stages, i.e. preliminary and main research. Preliminary
research included preparation of raw bamboo shoots and adjustment of drying process. Drying
process and analyses of dried and rehydrated bamboo shoots were carried out in the main research.
There were some quality parameters observed in this study, i.e. drying time, water activity, color,
rehydration ratio, dimensional changes (shrinkage), firmness, and total residual sulfites. Sodium
metabisulfite of 0, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, three different drying temperatures of 50 ⁰C, 60 ⁰C, and
70 ⁰C were studied. Effects of both factors, the pretreatment and the drying temperature, on the
parameters of quality of dried bamboo shoots were observed. Both factors had opposites effect on
some quality parameters.
Dried bamboo shoots produced had low moisture content, ranged from 9.33% to 9.51% and
low water activity, ranged from 0.398 to 0.411. As expected, the drying time decreased with
increase in the drying temperature. Blanching, as a pretreatment, also affected drying time of
bamboo shoots. The blanched sample needed drying time with a range from 74 hours at 50 ⁰C to
20 hours at 70 ⁰C, while the unblanched sample needed longer drying time with a range from 96
hours at 50 ⁰C to 23 hours at 70 ⁰C. It can be suggested that the blanching had the positive effect
on the drying time. Moreover, it was observed that sodium metabisulfite used in blanching
solution had a role to retard browning reaction during drying. Generally, the dried bamboo shoots
produced in this research had a light-yellow color. Results showed that L* and b* values of dried
and rehydrated bamboo shoots increased with the increase in concentration of sodium
metabisulfite solution used in blanching solution and with decrease in drying temperature. The
yellowness is representated by a positive value of b*. The more positive value, the more yellow
color produced. The highest b* value was found in the sample that blanched in 1.5% sodium
metabisulfite solution and dried at 50 ⁰C, yet it was not significantly different (p>0.05) with the
sample blanched in 1.0% sodium metabisulfite solution and dried at 60 ⁰C.
Besides color of dried and rehydrated bamboo shoots, rehydration ratio is also an important
parameter that should be considered. Dried bamboo shoots must be rehydrated before consuming.
Dried products should to have a good ability to reconstitute its original shape and properties by
absorbing the water during soaking in the water. Rehydration ratio of the dried bamboo shoots
ranged from 2.63 to 4.3. Both concentration of sodium metabisulfite in blanching solution and
drying temperature had significant effect on this parameter. Results showed that rehydration ratio
increased with increase in concentration of sodium metabisulfite and with decrease in drying
temperature. The highest rehydration ratio was found in the sample blanched in 1.5% sodium
metabisulfite solution and then dried at 50 ⁰C, yet it was not significantly different (p>0.05) with
the sample blanched in 1.0% sodium metabisulfite solution and then dried at 70 ⁰C.
Moreover, sample blanched in 1.5% sodium metabisulfite solution and then dried 70 ⁰C
had the highest total weighted score. It was considered that the sample was chosen to be the best
sample, yet it should be noted that the dried bamboo shoots may not contain more than 2500 ppm
SO2. Blanching the sample in 1.5% sodium metabisulfite solution produced the dried bamboo
shoots contained more than 2500 ppm SO2, thus the sample blanched in 1.5% sodium
metabisulfite solution and then dried 70 ⁰C (with the 2nd highest total weighted score) chosen to be
the best sample.
Hedonic rating test was carried out to get confirmation about quality of rehydrated bamboo
shoots subjectively. The best dried bamboo shoot was compared with commercial dried bamboo
shoots purchased in Mae Sai Market. Thirty five untrained panelists were asked to give preference
score of the attributes on a scale from 1 (dislike extremely) to 5 (like extremely). Results showed
that there was significantly difference (p<0.01) between both samples on all parameters, i.e. color,
aroma, taste, and texture. The rehydrated-dried bamboo shoots produced at the lab was more
preferable (p<0.01) than the commercial one. Considering the above results, it was suggested that
blanching the sample in 1.0% sodium metabisulfite solution and then drying at 60 ⁰C (the 3rd
highest total weighted score) was a better condition for production of dried bamboo shoots that is
applicable in Doi Tung.