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VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

by Tomasz Kostuch

Balancing of flows

Control of water air-conditioning systems


As modern technologies bring new modifications, the care of the conditions at work and
at home increases. An important factor of such conditions is the thermal comfort of
persons staying in buildings and the modern architecture that applies light construction
materials and transparent external walls, hence imposing the use of heating-cooling
systems that are associated by most users with air-conditioning.

More than 60-year-long history of Danfoss is related with research and development as well
as the production of temperature, flow and pressure controllers applied in many branches of
technology all over the world.
In this article we are going to present the basic solutions for the comfort air-conditioning
systems that use water as the medium for the transfer of energy in buildings.
Consequently, we propose the division of systems into two types:

• Constant flow systems,


• Variable flow systems.

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Fan coil terminals

Figure 1.

Automatic ASV-Q valves enable:

• to reduce the number of valves in a system – large flange valves fitted on individual
branches and risers are no longer needed;
• an immediate and automatic reaction of the control ASV-Q part to the modification of
pressure in the system so as to maintain the set, constant flow;
• a simplified and shortened assembly and control of the valves – no time-consuming
measurements of the flow are required;

Valve type Characteristic Functions


DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Automatic reduction and
Setting 0,1-0,8 0,2-1,4 0,4-1,6 0,5-3,0 - - control of flow
ASV-Q range m3/h • Possibility of dehydration
Catalouge 003L2002 003L2004 003L2006 003L2008 - - • Possibility of cut-off
number • Internal thread

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Reduction of flow
• Measurement of flow
MSV-C Kvs (m3/h) 1,8 3,8 6,6 13,9 19,9 41

Catalouge-no. 003Z3001 003Z3002 003Z3003 003Z3004 003Z3005 003Z3006 • Setting interlock


• Internal thread

2
• Reduction of flow
DN 65 80 100 125 150 200 • Measurement of flow
MSV-F Kvs (m3/h) 74,4 111 165 242 372 704 • Setting interlock
Catalouge-no. 003Z0030 003Z0031 003Z0032 003Z0033 003Z0034 003Z0035 • Measurement ferrules
• Flange connection

• Reduction of flow
DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Measurement of flow
MSV-I Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 16 • Setting interlock
Catalouge-no. 003Z2071 003Z2072 003Z2073 003Z2074 003Z2075 003Z2076 • Measurement ferrules
• Internal thread

• Flow cut-off
DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Possibility of dehydration
MSV-M Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 16 after fitting a ferrule
Catalouge-no. 003Z2051 003Z2052 003Z2053 003Z2054 003Z2055 003Z2056 • Internal thread

• Flow cut-off
DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Possibility of dehydration
USV-M Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 16 • Possibility of development
Catalouge-no. 003Z2121 003Z2122 003Z2123 003Z2124 003Z2125 003Z2153 into an automatic version
• Internal thread

• Reduction of flow
DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Measurement of
flow
USV-I Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 16

Catalouge-no. 003Z2131 003Z2132 003Z2133 003Z2134 003Z2135 003Z2136 • Possibility of


dehydration
• Internal thread

Figure 2.

Systems with a constant flow

This system uses three-way valves in order to control the efficiency of fan coils or girder
stays.
During the periods when either heating or cooling are not needed, the water flow is directed
through a by-pass of the valve, therefore the total flow of water circulating in the system is
constant (see Figure 1).

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The solution that is definitely dominating in the current practice is the construction of sys-
tems based on fan coil terminals fitted already at the stage of production with three-way
valves with ON/OFF-type drives. The proper operation of such a system, i.e. the operation
that enables the delivery or receipt of the needed amount of energy in the proper time re-
quires the hydraulic balance. A well-selected drop of pressure corresponding to the calculated
volume of the flow for each system unit is translated into the setting of the balancing manual
valve MSV-C or MSV-F. For the proper operation of the air-conditioning system it is neces-
sary to balance each ‘centre’ where the division of water stream occurs. The valves have to
be used for each fan coil terminal, in individual risers, dividers and branchings.

Calculation settings have to be verified at each assembly of the system, and after filling the
system the real flow reached in each unit should be measured. Deviations from the values
resulting from the design prepared based on the energy balance cause the improper
propagation of water and consequently the shortage of cooling power in various zones of the
building and the lack of possibility to reach the designed temperature inside rooms
(Figure 2). The measurement of the flow in MSV-C and MSV-F valves is carried out using
the PFM-3000 gauge, whose memory contains the record of flow characteristics of all valves
manufactured by Danfoss and other producers offering such solutions. However, the method
of measuring the pressure drop in MSV-C valves is noteworthy. The orifice with the constant
geometry built into the MSV-C valve is used to measure the drop. It guarantees the high
precision of measurement, at the same time simplifying and shortening the time necessary to
conduct them, as it is not needed to enter into the PFM 3000 computer the current setting of
the valve read on the scale of the valve hand wheel. Other types of valves require such ac-
tions due to the necessity to set the position of the valve head in relation to its valve-seat.
The precision of measurements has a considerable impact on the possibility of performing
the correct control of the system that leads water to exchangers in specific rooms, particular-
ly when the calculated settings of valves give the flow below 50% of the value of Kvs coef-
ficient for a specific body.

Fan coil terminalsChilled ceiling

Figure 3.

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Valve type Characteristic ∆p[kPa] Functions
• Automatic control of

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 pressure difference

Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 - • Constant ∆p value

ASV-P Catalouge-no. 003L7621 003L7622 003L7623 003L7624 003L7625 - 10 kpa • Possibility of dehydration

• Possibility of flow cut-off

• Internal thread

• Automatic control of

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 pressure difference

Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 - • Programmable ∆p value

ASV-PV Catalouge-no. 003L7601 003L7602 003L7603 003L7604 003L7605 - 5-25 kpa • Possibility of dehydration

• Possibility of flow cut-off

• Internal thread

• Automatic control of

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 pressure difference

ASV-PV Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 - • Programmable ∆p value

Plus Catalouge-no. 003L7611 003L7612 003L7613 003L7614 003L7615 - 20-40 kpa • Possibility of dehydration

• Possibility of flow cut-off

• Internal thread

• Automatic control of

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 pressure difference

Kvs (m3/h) - - - - 20 20 • Programmable ∆p value

ASV-PF Catalouge-no. - - - - 003L7900 003L7901 20/50 kpa • Possibility of dehydration

• Possibility of flow cut-off

• Flow reduction

• Flow measurement

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Possibility of fitting an

ASV-I Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 - - impulse pipe

Catalouge-no. 003L7641 003L7642 003L7643 003L7644 003L7645 - • Setting interlock

• Internal thread

• Measurement ferrules

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• Flow cut-off

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Possibility of fitting an

ASV-M Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 - - impulse pipe

Catalouge-no. 003L7691 003L7692 003L7693 003L7694 003L7695 - • Internal thread

• Reduction of flow

DN 15 20 25 32 40 50 • Possibility of dehydration

USV-M Kvs (m3/h) 1,6 2,5 4,0 6,3 10 16 - • Possibility of developing

Catalouge-no. 003Z2121 003Z2122 003Z2123 003Z2124 003Z2125 003Z2153 into an automatic version

• Internal thread

• Control valve with an

electric drive

• Automatic control of

DN 10 15 20 25 32 40 pressure difference

AB-QM Kvs (m3/h) 0,275 0,45 0,9 1,7 3,2 - 20 kpa • Constant ∆p value

Catalouge-no. 003Z0201 003Z0202 003Z0203 003Z2124 003Z2125 - • Possibility of a

collaboration with ECL

controllers

• External thread

Figure 4.

MSV-F valves with flange joints are used to control the flow in pipes of larger diameters, i.e.
risers, branches and breechings. However, the most modern and precise valves for the control
of flow are the ASV-Q automatic flow limiters.
They are fitted at each receiver which guarantees the constant flow irrespective of the
fluctuations of pressure in the system resulting from the work of three-way valves and the
modifications of demand for energy in different parts of a building during a day and night.

System with a variable flow

Two-way valves are used in this system and the control of efficiency of coolers and heaters
occurs thanks to the operation of the valve consisting in the variation of the quantity of water
flowing through the valve. Due to such control each room receives as much energy as is
required by the users at a specific moment. Air-conditioning systems in which fan coils or
cooling beams are powered by the 2/4-pipe system with two-way valves is characterised by
the constant flow of water. The effect of operation of two-way valves is also the variable
pressure system in the installation. Automatic ASV-P or ASV-PV valves stabilize this
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pressure. The result of their operation is the fact that the differential pressure for each of the
heat or cold receivers is exactly the same as required according to the design. An additional
limitation of the flow, if needed, may be obtained by the application of ASV-I valves on the
feed (Figure 3).
The selection of automatic valves from the ASV-P, ASV-PV or ASV-PV Plus group guaran-
tees the flexible operation of the air-conditioning system with the changing demand for heat-
ing or cooling. Irrespective of the time of year or individual requirements of users the ASV
controllers combine the care of the comfort of users with the energy-efficient operation of
air-conditioning systems (Figure 4).
This year the offer of Danfoss Company includes new ASV-PV Plus controllers with a higher
range of differential pressures 20-40 kPa, as well as ASV-PF controllers with the diameter of
DN50 and Kvs=203/h. Another novelty are the colourful valve hand wheels in the ASV and
MSV type valves.

(Photos and Figures by Danfoss)

This text was published in Polish technical magazine – INSTALATOR POLSKI.