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The equations that containing at least one or more differential coefficient.

dy

e.g: (1) x2 y sin x

dx

(2) 3 y 2 3 xy 5 x 7e 4 x

d2y dy

(3) xy 2

y e3x 0

dx dx

The order of a differential equation is given by the HIGHEST DERIVATIVES

that appears in the equation.

dy

e.g: (1) x y2 0

dx

2

dy

(2) x (1 y ) 1 x y 0

dx

d3y dy

(3) 3

ex y ln x

dx dx

2

d4y d3y

(4) y 3 e 4 x 0

dx 4 dx

ORDER DERIVATIVE COEFFICIENT that appears in the equation.

dy

e.g: (1) x y2 0

dx

d2y dy

(2) 2

3 2 y x2

dx dx

2

d4y d3y

(3) y 3 e 4 x 0

dx 4 dx

2

d3y d2y

(4) 3 x 2 y 4 cos x

dx dx

1

FORMATION OF ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

from the given expressions.

(a) y Ax x 2

A

(b) y x

2

x

(c) y Ax 2 Bx 5

(2) Homogeneous equation.

2

(3) Linear equation.

(4) Exact equation.

SEPARABLE EQUATION.

dy dy f ( x)

f ( x) g ( y ) or

dx dx g ( y )

This type of equation can be solve by separating x with dx and y with dy.

[note: when separating x and y, make sure the y term must be at the LHS.]

dy 2x

Example 1: Solve .

dx y 1

dy

Example 2: Find the solution for 2 y sin x .

dx

3

dy y 2 ty 2

Example 3: Solve 2 .

dt t y t2

Exercises: Solve

dy

(a) 1 x 1 y

dx

dy

(b) 5y 2x

dx

4

HOMOGENEOUS EQUATION.

f ( x, y ) and f ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) .

equation or not?

dy x 3 y

(a)

dx 2x

dy

(b) 2x 2 x2 y2

dx

(c) x3 x 2 y dy

dx

xy y 2

yvx dy dv

Step 1 : Substitute and vx into the

dx dx

equation/question.

dy

(note: before substituting y and , make sure that the

dx

dy

coefficient of is 1.)

dx

v with dv = x with dx

dy x 3 y

.

dx 2x

5

Example 2: Solve the homogeneous equation dy ( xy ) ( x 2 y 2 ) dx .

6

dy 2 xy 3 y 2

Example 3: Solve the equation 2 .

dx x 2 xy

7

Exercises: Find the solution of the equations

dy 2x

(a) 2x 2 x2 y2 (ans: y x )

dx ln x c

(b) x dy

dx

2

xy

xy y 2 (ans: xy Ae y ).

x

LINEAR EQUATIONS.

dy

a( x) b( x ) y c ( x )

dx

(1) 1 x dy 5 y e 7 x

dx

8

dy y

x y

2

(2)

dx x 2

dy

(3) 7 e 3 x y 1

dx

dy

Step 1 : Make sure the coefficient of is 1.

dx

dy

Py Q

dx

Step 2 : Find P dx .

9

Step 3 : Calculate the integrating factor (µ)

e

P dx

Step 4 : Solve y Q dx

Find what is y ?

dy

Example 1: Find the solution for 5 y e2x .

dx

dy

Example 2: Solve the equation x y x sin x .

dx

10

dy

Example 3: Solve x 5 y x7 .

dx

11

EXACT EQUATIONS.

M N

.

y x

(a) 2 x 3 y dx 6 xy 2 y dy 0

2

y 2 x3

(b) 3x dx 1 dy 0

x y

(c) 1 cos x

2

dy y sin 2 x dx

12

How to Solve Exact Equations.

u

?

y

u

Determine ( y ) by comparing N .

y

( y ) ( y ) dy

u ( x, y ) A

where A is a constant.

10 xy 3 y 2 dx 5 x 2 6 xy 3 y 2 dy 0 .

13

Example 2: Solve sin x dy y cos x x sin x dx 0

14

Example 3: Determine whether the differential equation

3 x 2 y 2 dx (2 x 3 y e 7 y ) dy

is exact equation. If so, solve it.

15

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