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You are on page 1of 26

Further Mathematics 1

Revision Notes

June 2016

2 FP1 JUNE 2016 SDB

Further Pure 1

Definitions and arithmetical operations ................................................................................. 3

Complex conjugate ................................................................................................................ 3

Properties ......................................................................................................................................... 3

Complex number plane, or Argand diagram ......................................................................... 4

Complex numbers and vectors ............................................................................................... 4

Multiplication by i ................................................................................................................. 5

Modulus of a complex number .............................................................................................. 5

Argument of a complex number ............................................................................................ 5

Equality of complex numbers ................................................................................................ 6

Square roots ........................................................................................................................... 6

Roots of equations ................................................................................................................. 6

2 Numerical solutions of equations ........................................................................... 8

Accuracy of solution .............................................................................................................. 8

Interval bisection.................................................................................................................... 8

Linear interpolation................................................................................................................ 9

Newton-Raphson ................................................................................................................. 10

3 Coordinate systems .............................................................................................. 11

Parabolas .............................................................................................................................. 11

Parametric form ............................................................................................................................. 11

Focus and directrix ......................................................................................................................... 11

Gradient.......................................................................................................................................... 11

Tangents and normals .................................................................................................................... 12

Rectangular hyperbolas........................................................................................................ 12

Parametric form ............................................................................................................................. 13

Tangents and normals .................................................................................................................... 13

4 Matrices ............................................................................................................... 14

Order of a matrix ............................................................................................................................14

Identity matrix ................................................................................................................................14

Determinant and inverse ...................................................................................................... 14

Singular and non-singular matrices ..................................................................................... 15

Linear Transformations ....................................................................................................... 15

Basis vectors...................................................................................................................................15

Finding the geometric effect of a matrix transformation ...............................................................16

Finding the matrix of a given transformation.................................................................................16

Rotation matrix...............................................................................................................................17

Determinant and area factor ...........................................................................................................17

5 Series .................................................................................................................... 18

6 Proof by induction ............................................................................................... 19

Summation ........................................................................................................................... 19

Recurrence relations ............................................................................................................ 20

Divisibility problems ........................................................................................................... 20

Powers of matrices............................................................................................................... 21

7 Appendix .............................................................................................................. 22

Complex roots of a real polynomial equation ..................................................................... 22

Formal definition of a linear transformation ....................................................................... 22

Derivative of xn, for any integer .......................................................................................... 23

8 Index .................................................................................................................... 24

1 Complex Numbers

Definitions and arithmetical operations

i = √−1, so √−16 = 4𝑖, √−11 = √11 i, etc.

These are called imaginary numbers

a is the real part and b is the imaginary part.

(a + bi) – (c + di) = (a – c) + (b – d)i

(a + bi) × (c + di) = ac + bdi 2 + adi + bci

= (ac – bd) + (ad +bc)i since i 2 = –1

So (3 + 4i) – (7 – 3i) = –4 + 7i

and (4 + 3i) (2 – 5i) = 23 – 14i

3+4𝑖

5+2𝑖

= 3+4𝑖

5+2𝑖

× 5−2𝑖

5−2𝑖

multiply top and bottom by the complex conjugate

23+14𝑖 23 14

= = + 𝑖

25+4 29 29

Complex conjugate

z = a + bi

The complex conjugate of z is z* = 𝑧 = a – bi

Properties

If z = a + bi and w = c + di, then

= {(a + c) – (b + d)i}

= (a – bi) + (c – di)

⇔ (z + w)* = z* + w*

(ii) {(a + bi) (c + di)}* = {(ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i}*

= (a – bi) (c – di)

= (a + bi)*(c + di)*

⇔ (zw)* = z* w*

We can represent complex numbers as points on the complex number plane:

4 Imaginary

B: (-4, 3)

2 A: (3, 2)

Real

−5 5 10

−2

Complex numbers under addition (or subtraction) behave just like vectors under addition (or

subtraction). We can show complex numbers on the Argand diagram as either points or

vectors.

𝑎 𝑐 𝑎+𝑐

(a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d) i ⇔ � �+ � � = � �

𝑏 𝑑 𝑏+𝑑

𝑎 𝑐 𝑎−𝑐

(a + bi) – (c + di) = (a – c) + (b – d) i ⇔ � �− � � = � �

𝑏 𝑑 𝑏−𝑑

or Im

Im

z1 – z2

z1 + z2 z2

z2

z1 z1

Re Re

Multiplication by i

i(3 + 4i) = –4 + 3i – on an Argand diagram this would have the effect of a positive quarter

turn about the origin.

Im

x (–b, a)

In general;

i(a + bi) = –b + ai

iz x (a, b)

z

Re

This is just like polar co-ordinates.

Im

The modulus of z is z and x z = a + bi

z

is the length of the complex number

θ

z = √𝑎2 + 𝑏2. Re

z z* = (a + bi)(a – bi) = a2 + b2

⇒ z z* = z2.

The argument of z is arg z = the angle made by the complex number with the positive

x-axis.

By convention, –π < arg z ≤ π .

Solution: First sketch a diagram (it is easy to get the argument wrong if you don’t).

x (–6, 5) Im

z = √62 + 52 = √61

z

5 5

and tan α = 6 ⇒ α = 0⋅694738276

α θ

Equality of complex numbers

a + bi = c + di ⇒ a – c = (d – b)i

⇒ (a – c)2 = – (d – b)2 = 0

⇒ a = c and b = d

Thus a + bi = c + di

⇒ real parts are equal (a = c), and imaginary parts are equal (b = d).

Square roots

Example: Find the square roots of 5 + 12i, in the form a + bi, a, b ∈ ℝ.

6

equating imaginary parts ⇒ 2ab = 12 ⇒ a = 𝑏

6 2

Substitute in I ⇒ �𝑏 � − 𝑏 2 = 5

⇒ 36 – b4 = 5b2 ⇒ b4 + 5b2 – 36 = 0

⇒ (b2 – 4)(b2 + 9) = 0 ⇒ 𝑏2 = 4

⇒ b = ± 2, and a = ± 3

⇒ √5 + 12𝑖 = 3 + 2i or –3 – 2i .

Roots of equations

(a) Any polynomial equation with complex coefficients has a complex solution.

The is The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, and is too difficult to prove at this stage.

Corollary: Any complex polynomial can be factorised into linear factors over the

complex numbers.

(b) If z = a + bi is a root of αn zn + αn–1 zn–1 + αn–2 zn–2 + … + α 2 z 2 + α 1 z + α 0 = 0,

and if all the α i are real,

then the conjugate, z* = a – bi is also a root.

(z – (a + bi))(z – (a – bi)) = z2 – 2az + a2 – b2 will be a quadratic factor in which the

coefficients are all real.

(d) Using (a), (b), (c) we can see that any polynomial with real coefficients can be factorised

into a mixture of linear and quadratic factors, all of which have real coefficients.

Find the other two roots.

= (3 – 2i)3 – 8(3 – 2i)2 + 25(3 – 2i) – 26

= 27 – 54i + 36i 2 – 8i 3 – 8(9 – 12i + 4i 2) + 75 – 50i – 26

= 27 – 54i – 36 + 8i – 72 + 96i + 32 + 75 – 50i – 26

= 27 – 36 – 72 + 32 + 75 – 26 + (–54 + 8 + 96 – 50)i

= 0 + 0i

⇒ 3 – 2i is a root

⇒ the conjugate, 3 + 2i, is also a root since all coefficients are real

Factorising, by inspection,

2 Numerical solutions of equations

Accuracy of solution

When asked to show that a solution is accurate to n D.P., you must look at the value of f (x)

‘half’ below and ‘half’ above, and conclude that

there is a change of sign in the interval, and the function is continuous, therefore there

is a solution in the interval correct to n D.P.

f (x) = x3 – 2x – 5 = 0, accurate to 4 D.P.

Solution:

Interval bisection

(i) Find an interval [a, b] which contains the root of an equation f (x) = 0.

𝑎+𝑏

(ii) x = 2

is the mid-point of the interval [a, b]

Find 𝑓 � 2

� to decide whether the root lies in �𝑎, 2

� or � 2

, 𝑏� .

(iii) Continue finding the mid-point of each subsequent interval to narrow the interval which

contains the root.

f (x) = x3 – 2x – 7 = 0 in the interval [2, 3].

(ii) Find an interval of width 0⋅25 which contains the root.

Mid-point of [2, 2⋅5] is x = 2⋅25,

and f (2⋅25) = 11⋅390625 – 4⋅5 – 7 = –0⋅109375

Linear interpolation

To solve an equation f (x) using linear interpolation.

second, assume that the curve is a straight line and use similar triangles to find where the line

crosses the x-axis,

f (x) = x3 – 2x – 9 = 0 in the interval [2, 3].

(ii) Use linear interpolation once to find an approximate value of α.

Give your answer to 3 D.P.

(ii) From (i), curve passes through (2, –5) and (3, 12), and we assume that the curve

is a straight line between these two points.

3−𝛼 12 (3, 12)

𝛼−2

= 5

⇒ 15 – 5α = 12α – 24 12

39 5

⇒ α= = 2 17 2 α–2

17

α 3–α 3

⇒ α = 2⋅294 to 3 D.P. 5

(2, –5)

Newton-Raphson

y

y = f (x)

Suppose that the equation f (x) = 0 has a root at

x = α, ⇒ f (α) = 0 P

a value x = a near to x = α (decimal search).

meets the x-axis, x = b, will give a better

N M

approximation. α b a x

𝑃𝑀

and the gradient of the tangent is also 𝑁𝑀

.

PM = y = f (a) and NM = a – b

𝑃𝑀 𝑓(𝑎) 𝑓(𝑎)

⇒ f ′(a) = 𝑁𝑀

= 𝑎−𝑏

⇒ b = a– 𝑓 ′ (𝑎)

.

Further approximations can be found by repeating the process, which would follow the dotted

line converging to the point (α, 0).

𝑓(𝑥𝑛 )

This formula can be written as the iteration xn +1 = xn –

𝑓′ (𝑥𝑛 )

f (x) = x3 – 2x – 5 = 0 in the interval [2, 3].

find x1, x2 and x3, giving your answers to 3 D.P. where appropriate.

𝑓(𝑥0 ) 8−4−5

⇒ x1 = x0 – = 2– = 2⋅1

𝑓′ (𝑥0 ) 12−2

⇒ x2 = 2⋅094568121 = 2⋅095

⇒ x3 = 2⋅094551482 = 2⋅095

3 Coordinate systems

Parabolas y

symmetry.

Parametric form x

X

focus

x = at2, y = 2at satisfy the equation for all values of t. directrix

S (a, 0)

x=−a

t is a parameter, and these equations are the parametric

equations of the parabola y2 = 4ax.

The point S (a, 0) is the focus, and

Any point P of the curve is equidistant from the focus and the directrix, PM = PS.

⇒ PM = PS.

Gradient

For the parabola y2 = 4ax, with general point P, (at2, 2at), we can find the gradient in two

ways:

1. y2 = 4ax

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 2𝑎 𝑑𝑦 2𝑎 1

⇒ 2y 𝑑𝑥 = 4a ⇒ 𝑑𝑥

= 𝑦

, which we can write as 𝑑𝑥

= 2𝑎𝑡

= 𝑡

2

2. At P, x = at , y = 2at

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥

⇒ 𝑑𝑡

= 2a, 𝑑𝑡

= 2at

𝑑𝑦�

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡 2𝑎 1

⇒ 𝑑𝑥

= 𝑑𝑥� = 2𝑎𝑡

= 𝑡

𝑑𝑡

Tangents and normals

Example: Find the equations of the tangents to y2 = 8x at the points where x = 18, and

show that the tangents meet on the x-axis.

Solution: x = 18 ⇒ y2 = 8 × 18 ⇒ y = ±12

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 1

2y 𝑑𝑥 = 8 ⇒ 𝑑𝑥

= ±3 since y = ±12

1

⇒ tangents are y – 12 = 3 (x – 18) ⇒ x – 3y + 18 = 0 at (18, 12)

1

and y + 12 = − 3 (x – 18) ⇒ x + 3y + 18 = 0. at (18, –12)

2x + 36 = 0 ⇒ x = –18 ⇒ y=0

Example: Find the equation of the normal to the parabola given by x = 3t2, y = 6t.

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

Solution: x = 3t2, y = 6t ⇒ 𝑑𝑡

= 6t, 𝑑𝑡

= 6,

𝑑𝑦�

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡 6 1

⇒ 𝑑𝑥

= 𝑑𝑥� = 6𝑡

= 𝑡

𝑑𝑡

−1

⇒ gradient of the normal is 1 = –t

𝑡

Notice that this ‘general equation’ gives the equation of the normal for any particular

value of t:– when t = –3 the normal is y + 18 = 3(x – 27) ⇔ y = 3x – 99.

Rectangular hyperbolas y

2

A rectangular hyperbola is a hyperbola in which the xy = c

x

xy = c2 is the equation of a rectangular hyperbola in

which the x-axis and y-axis are perpendicular

asymptotes.

Parametric form

𝑐

x = ct, y = 𝑡 are parametric equations of the hyperbola xy = c2.

Example: Find the equation of the tangent to the hyperbola xy = 36 at the point where

x = 3.

Solution: x=3 ⇒ 3y = 36 ⇒ y = 12

36 𝑑𝑦 36

y= 𝑥

⇒ 𝑑𝑥

= – 𝑥 2 = –4 when x = 3

⇒ tangent is y – 12 = –4(x – 3) ⇒ 4x + y – 24 = 0.

3

Example: Find the equation of the normal to the hyperbola given by x = 3t, y = 𝑡 .

3 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 −3

Solution: x = 3t, y = 𝑡 ⇒ 𝑑𝑡

= 3, 𝑑𝑡

= 𝑡2

𝑑𝑦� −3

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡 𝑡2 −1

⇒ 𝑑𝑥

= 𝑑𝑥� = = 𝑡2

𝑑𝑡 3

−1

⇒ gradient of the normal is −1 = t2

𝑡2

3

⇒ equation of the normal is y – 𝑡 = t2(x – 3t)

⇒ t3x – ty = 3t4 – 3.

4 Matrices

You must be able to add, subtract and multiply matrices.

Order of a matrix

An r × c matrix has r rows and c columns;

Identity matrix

1 0

The identity matrix is I = � �.

0 1

Note that MI = IM = M for any matrix M.

𝑎 𝑏

Let M = � � then the determinant of M is

𝑐 𝑑

Det M = | M | = ad – bc.

𝑎 𝑏

To find the inverse of M = � �

𝑐 𝑑

Note that M –1M = M M –1 = I

If ad – bc = 0, there is no inverse.

Change sign of b and c, (the other diagonal)

Divide all elements by the determinant, ad – bc.

1

𝑑 −𝑏

⇒ 𝑴−1 = 𝑎𝑑−𝑏𝑐 � �.

−𝑐 𝑎

Check:

1

𝑑 −𝑏 𝑎 𝑏 1

𝑑𝑎 − 𝑏𝑐 0 1 0

M –1M = 𝑎𝑑−𝑏𝑐 � �� � = 𝑎𝑑−𝑏𝑐 � �= � �=𝑰

−𝑐 𝑎 𝑐 𝑑 0 −𝑐𝑏 + 𝑎𝑑 0 1

Similarly we could show that M M –1 = I.

4 2 −1 2

Example: M = � � and MN = � �. Find N.

5 3 2 1

Solution: Notice that M –1 (MN) = (M –1M)N = IN = N multiplying on the left by M –1

First find M –1

1

3 −2

Det M = 4 × 3 – 2 × 5 = 2 ⇒ 𝑴−1 = 2 � �

−5 4

Using M –1 (MN) = IN = N

1

3 −2 −1 2 1

−7 4 −3 ∙ 5 2

⇒ N= 2 � �� �= 2 � � = � �.

−5 4 2 1 13 −6 6 ∙ 5 −3

If det A = 0, then A is a singular matrix, and A–1 does not exist.

Linear Transformations

A matrix can represent a transformation, but the point must be written as a column vector

before multiplying by the matrix.

4 5 4 5 2 23

Example: The image of (2, 3) under T = � � is given by � �� � = � �

1 2 1 2 3 8

Basis vectors

1 0

The vectors i = � � and j = � � are called basis vectors, and are particularly important in

0 1

describing the geometrical effect of a matrix, and in finding the matrix for a particular

geometric transformation.

𝑎 𝑏 1 𝑎 𝑎 𝑏 0 𝑏

� �� � = � � and � �� � = � �

𝑐 𝑑 0 𝑐 𝑐 𝑑 1 𝑑

1 𝑎 0 𝑏

i = � � → � �, the first column, and j = � � → � �, the second column

0 𝑐 1 𝑑

This is a more important result than it seems!

Finding the geometric effect of a matrix transformation

We can easily write down the images of i and j, sketch them and find the geometrical

transformation.

2 0

Example: Find the transformation represented by the matrix 𝑻 = � �

0 3

1

Solution: Find images of i, j and � �, and show on a 4 y

1

sketch. Make sure that you letter the points C' B'

2 0 1 0 1 2 0 2 2

� �� �=� �

0 3 0 1 1 0 3 3 C B

A A' 3

two-way stretch, of factor 2 parallel to the x-axis

and of factor 3 parallel to the y-axis.

Example: Find the matrix for a shear with factor 2 and invariant line the x-axis.

distance of (2 × its y-coordinate).

1 1

i = � � → � � (does not move as it y

0 0

is on the invariant line). C B C' B'

This will be the first column of the 1

1 ∗

matrix � �

0 ∗ x

0 2 A,1A' 2 3

j = � � → � �. This will be the second

1 1

∗ 2

column of the matrix � �

∗ 1

1 2

⇒ Matrix of the shear is � �.

0 1

B (0, 1)

Example: Find the matrix for a reflection in y = –x.

1 0

A → A′ ⇒ i = � � → � �.

0 −1 A' (0, −1)

0 ∗

This will be the first column of the matrix � �

−1 ∗

0 −1

B → B′ ⇒ j = � � → � �.

1 0

∗ −1

This will be the second column of the matrix � �

∗ 0

0 −1

⇒ Matrix of the reflection is � �.

−1 0

Rotation matrix

From the diagram we can see that

y

1 cos 𝜃 × B (0, 1)

i =� � → � � , B′ × sinθ

0 sin 𝜃

(–sinθ, cosθ) × A′ (cosθ , sinθ)

0 − sin 𝜃 cosθ

j =� � → � � θ

1 cos 𝜃 sinθ

θ x

These will be the first and second ×

cosθ A (1, 0)

columns of the matrix

cos 𝜃 − sin 𝜃

⇒ matrix is 𝑅𝜃 = � �.

sin 𝜃 cos 𝜃

𝑎 𝑏

For the matrix 𝐴 = � � y

𝑐 𝑑 b a

𝑎 𝑏 1 𝑎

� �� � = � �

𝑐 𝑑 0 𝑐 c

d

𝑎 𝑏 0 𝑏

and � �� � = � � (a, c)

𝑐 𝑑 1 𝑑 (b, d)

1 x

a b

The area of the unit square = 1.

1 1

The area of the parallelogram = (a + b)(c + d) – 2 × (bc + 2 ac + 2 bd)

= ac + ad + bc + bd – 2bc – ac – bd

= ad – bc = det A.

5 Series

You need to know the following sums

𝑛

1

�𝑟 = 1 + 2 + 3 + ⋯+ 𝑛 = 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)

2

𝑟=1

𝑛

1

� 𝑟 2 = 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + ⋯ + 𝑛 2 = 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1)

6

𝑟=1

𝑛

1 2

� 𝑟 3 = 13 + 2 3 + 3 3 + ⋯ + 𝑛 3 = 𝑛 (𝑛 + 1)2

4

𝑟=1

𝑛 2

1 2

= � 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)� = �� 𝑟� a fluke, but it helps to remember it

2

𝑟=1

𝑛

𝑟=1

𝑛 𝑛 𝑛

2 3

Solution: � 𝑟(𝑟 − 3) = � 𝑟 − 3 � 𝑟

𝑟=1 𝑟=1 𝑟=1

1 2 1

= 𝑛 (𝑛 + 1)2 − 3 × 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)

4 2

1

= 𝑛(𝑛 + 1){𝑛(𝑛 + 1) − 6}

4

1

= 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(𝑛 + 3)(𝑛 − 2)

4

1 2

= 4 × 6 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1) = 3 𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1) .

𝑛+2

Example: Find � 𝑟 2

𝑟=5

𝑛+2 𝑛+2 4

2

Solution: �𝑟 = � 𝑟 − � 𝑟2

2

notice that the top limit is 4 not 5

𝑟=5 𝑟=1 𝑟=1

1 1

= (𝑛 + 2)(𝑛 + 2 + 1)(2(𝑛 + 2) + 1) − 6 × 4 × 5 × 9

6

1

= (𝑛 + 2)(𝑛 + 3)(2𝑛 + 5) − 30.

6

6 Proof by induction

1. Show that the result/formula is true for n = 1 (and sometimes n = 2 , 3 ..).

Conclude

“therefore the result/formula ………. is true for n = 1”.

“Assume that the result/formula ………. is true for n = k”.

Show that the result/formula must then be true for n = k + 1

Conclude

“therefore the result/formula ………. is true for n = k + 1”.

3. Final conclusion

“therefore the result/formula ………… is true for all positive integers, n, by

mathematical induction”.

Summation

Example: Use mathematical induction to prove that

1

Sn = 12 + 22 + 32 + … + n2 = 6

𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1)

1 1

Solution: When n = 1, S1 = 12 = 1 and S1 = 6 × 1(1 + 1)(2 × 1 + 1) = 6

× 1×2×3 =1

1

⇒ Sn = 6

𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1) is true for n = 1.

1

⇒ Sk = 12 + 22 + 32 + … + k2 = 6

𝑘(𝑘 + 1)(2𝑘 + 1)

1

⇒ Sk + 1 = 12 + 22 + 32 + … + k2 + (k + 1)2 = 6

𝑘(𝑘 + 1)(2𝑘 + 1) + (k + 1)2

1

= (𝑘 + 1){𝑘(2𝑘 + 1) + 6(𝑘 + 1)}

6

1 1

= (𝑘 + 1){2𝑘 2 + 7𝑘 + 6} = (𝑘 + 1)(𝑘 + 2)(2𝑘 + 3)

6 6

1

= (𝑘 + 1){(𝑘 + 1) + 1}{2(𝑘 + 1) + 1}

6

1

⇒ Sn = 6

𝑛(𝑛 + 1)(2𝑛 + 1) is true for all positive integers, n, by mathematical

induction.

Recurrence relations

Example: A sequence, 4, 9, 19, 39, … is defined by the recurrence relation

uk + 1 = 2uk + 1 = 2(5 × 2k − 1 − 1) + 1

⇒ uk + 1 = 5 × 2k − 2 + 1 = 5 × 2 (k + 1) − 1 − 1

Divisibility problems

Considering f (k + 1) − f (k), will lead to a proof which sometimes has hidden difficulties,

the exponential term.

divisible by 16 when n = 1.

= 5k + 1 − 4k − 4 − 1 − 5k + 1 + 20k + 5 = 16k

⇒ f (k + 1) = 5 × f (k) + 16k

Since f (k) is divisible by 16 (induction assumption), and 16k is divisible by 16, then

f (k + 1) must be divisible by 16,

induction.

Example: Prove that f (n) = 22n + 3 + 32n − 1 is divisible by 5 for all positive integers n.

true for n = 1.

⇒ f (k + 1) = 4 × f (k) − 5 × 32k − 1

then f (k + 1) must be divisible by 5.

mathematical induction.

Powers of matrices

2 −1 2𝑛 1 − 2𝑛

Example: If 𝑀 = � �, prove that 𝑀𝑛 = � � for all positive integers n.

0 1 0 1

1

Solution: When n = 1, 𝑀1 = �2 1 − 21 � = �2 −1� = 𝑀

0 1 0 1

𝑘

Assume the formula is true for n = k ⇒ 𝑀𝑘 = �2 1 − 2𝑘 � .

0 1

2 −1 2𝑘 1 − 2𝑘 � = �2 × 2𝑘 2 − 2 × 2𝑘 − 1�

𝑀𝑘+1 = 𝑀𝑀𝑘 = � ��

0 1 0 1 0 1

𝑘+1

⇒ 𝑀𝑘+1 = �2 1 − 2𝑘+1 � ⇒ The formula is true for n = k + 1

0 1

2𝑛 1 − 2𝑛

⇒ 𝑀𝑛 = � � is true for all positive integers, n, by mathematical

0 1

induction.

7 Appendix

Complex roots of a real polynomial equation

Preliminary results:

II (zn)* = (z*) n

(zw)* = z*w*

and if all the α i are real,

then the conjugate, z* = a – bi is also a root.

⇒ αn*( zn)* + αn–1*(zn–1)* + …+ α 2*( z 2)* + α 1*( z)* + α 0* = 0 since (zw)* = z*w*

A linear transformation T has the following properties:

𝑘𝑥 𝑥

(i) 𝑻 � � = 𝑘𝑻 �𝑦�

𝑘𝑦

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥1 𝑥2

(ii) 𝑻 ��𝑦 � + �𝑦 �� = 𝑻 �𝑦 � + 𝑻 �𝑦 �

1 2 1 2

It can be shown that any matrix transformation is a linear transformation, and that any linear

transformation can be represented by a matrix.

Derivative of xn, for any integer

𝑑

We can use proof by induction to show that 𝑑𝑥 (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 , for any integer n.

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 is true for n = 0.

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 is true for n = 1

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑘 ) = 𝑘𝑥 𝑘−1

𝑑𝑥

𝑑 𝑑 𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑘+1 ) = (𝑥 × 𝑥 𝑘 ) = 𝑥 × (𝑥 𝑘 ) + 1 × 𝑥 𝑘 product rule

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑘+1 ) = 𝑥 × 𝑘𝑥 𝑘−1 + 𝑥 𝑘 = 𝑘𝑥 𝑘 + 𝑥 𝑘 = (𝑘 + 1)𝑥 𝑘

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 is true for n = k + 1

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 is true for all positive integers, n, by mathematical induction.

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 is true for n = −1

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑘 ) = 𝑘𝑥 𝑘−1

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

𝑑 𝑑 𝑥𝑘 𝑥× �𝑥 𝑘 � − 𝑥 𝑘 ×1

⇒ (𝑥 𝑘−1 ) = � �= 𝑑𝑥

quotient rule

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑥 𝑥2

⇒ (𝑥 𝑘+1 ) = = = (𝑘 − 1)𝑥 𝑘−2 = (𝑘 − 1)𝑥 (𝑘−1)−1

𝑑𝑥 𝑥2 𝑥2

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 is true for n = k − 1

𝑑𝑥

We are going backwards (from n = k to n = k − 1), and, since we started from n = −1,

𝑑

⇒ (𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 is true for all negative integers, n, by mathematical induction.

𝑑𝑥

𝑑

(𝑥 𝑛 ) = 𝑛𝑥 𝑛−1 , for any integer n.

𝑑𝑥

8 Index

Complex numbers Numerical solutions of equations

Argand diagram, 4 accuracy of solution, 8

argument, 5 interval bisection, 8

arithmetical operations, 3 linear interpolation, 9

complex conjugate, 3 Newton Raphson method, 10

complex number plane, 4 Parabolas

definitions, 3 directrix, 11

equality, 6 focus, 11

modulus, 5 gradient - parametric form, 11

multiplication by i, 5 normal - parametric form, 12

polynomial equations, 6 parametric form, 11

similarity with vectors, 4 tangent - parametric form, 12

square roots, 6 Proof by induction

Complex roots of a real polynomial equation, 22 divisibility problems, 20

Derivative of xn, for any integer, 23 general principles, 19

Determinant powers of matrices, 21

area factor, 17 recurrence relations, 20

Linear transformation summation, 19

formal definition, 22 Rectangular hyperbolas

Matrices gradient - parametric form, 13

determinant, 14 parametric form, 13

identity matrix, 14 tangent - parametric form, 13

inverse matrix, 14 Series

non-singular, 15 standard summation formulae, 18

order, 14 Transformations

singular, 15 area factor, 17

Matrix transformations basis vectors, 15

area factor, 17 finding matrix for, 16

basis vectors, 15 geometric effect, 16

finding matrix for, 16 linear transformations, 15

geometric effect, 16 matrices, 16

rotation matrix, 17 rotation matrix, 17

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