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ISSN 2278-4500

Research Updates – Homeopathy

2018 | Volume 7, Issue 1 | Page: 1 – 31

Published in public interest by Dr. Saurav Arora

Read online at www.researchinhomeopathy.org/ejournal


A bit of Research in Homeopathy
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of time, intended to replace the original work. The information provided by
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arise therein at any time. Read more…..

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In this Issue
IPRH - Seven Years and Counting…… .................................................................................................... 1
Consolidated Report ...................................................................................................................................... 2
Homeopathic Research Database ............................................................................................................................... 2
Research Updates – Homeopathy (Ejournal) .......................................................................................................... 2
Priority Areas for Research in Homeopathy ............................................................................................................. 2
Research Material Development ................................................................................................................................. 2
PHORECISS .................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Research Literacy ............................................................................................................................................................ 3
Surveys ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3
Why Case Reporting is Important in Homeopathy – An Interview with Prof. Dr. C. Nayak........................ 4
Popular Writing in Homeopathy .............................................................................................................. 10
Isupporthomeopathy - A Global Campaign on World Homeopathy Day ....................................... 15
Studies to be Read ....................................................................................................................................... 16
Fundamental Research ................................................................................................................................................16
Physicochemical Investigations of Homeopathic Preparations: A Systematic Review and
Bibliometric Analysis-Part 1. ........................................................................................................ 16
Development of Software for Automatic Analysis of Intervention in the Field of Homeopathy... 17
Phosphorus protects cardiac tissue by modifying the immune response in rats infected by
Trypanosoma cruzi. ...................................................................................................................... 17
Formulation and biological actions of nano-bioglass ceramic particles doped with Calcarea
phosphorica for bone tissue engineering. ..................................................................................... 18
Degree of Response to Homeopathic Potencies Correlates with Dipole Moment Size in Molecular
Detectors: Implications for Understanding the Fundamental Nature of Serially Diluted and
Succussed Solutions ..................................................................................................................... 19
Evidence that Extreme Dilutions of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel Alter Gene Expression of In Vitro
Breast Cancer Cells ...................................................................................................................... 20
Clinical Research...........................................................................................................................................................21
Efficacy of Arsenicum album 30cH in preventing febrile episodes following DPT-HepB-Polio
vaccination - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.................................... 21
Efficacy and tolerability of a complex homeopathic drug in children suffering from dry cough-A
double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. ............................................................................. 21
Semi-Individualized Homeopathy Add-On Versus Usual Care Only for Premenstrual Disorders: A
Randomized, Controlled Feasibility Study. ................................................................................... 22
Case Reports of Acne and Homeopathy....................................................................................... 23

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A bit of Research in Homeopathy
Usefulness of classical homeopathy for the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in
individuals with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. ............................................ 24
Review .............................................................................................................................................................................24
Bias and misleading concepts in an Arnica research study. Comments to improve experimental
Homeopathy ................................................................................................................................ 24
Arnica montana experimental studies: confounders and biases? ................................................... 25
Experimental neuropharmacology of Gelsemium sempervirens: Recent advances and debated
issues. ........................................................................................................................................... 25
The N-of-1 Clinical Trial: A Timely Research Opportunity in Homeopathy. ................................ 25
Public Health ................................................................................................................................................ 27
Homeopathy Use in the United States and Implications for Public Health: A Review. ................. 27
Literary Research ...................................................................................................................................... 27
Homeopathic Dilutions, Hahnemann Principles, and the Solvent Issue: Must We Address Ethanol
as a “Homeopathic” or a “Chemical” Issue? ................................................................................ 27
Research Quotes by IPRH ....................................................................................................................... 28
Interview of Dr. Saurav Arora by Dr. Isabelle Grote ............................................................................ 29
Upcoming Events ....................................................................................................................................... 30
Subscribe to Homeopathic Research Updates...................................................................................... 30
Subscribe IPRH YouTube Channel ........................................................................................................ 30
Be a Research Voice .................................................................................................................................... 30
IPRH Sitemap .............................................................................................................................................. 31

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A bit of Research in Homeopathy
Research Updates – Homeopathy | ISSN 2278-4500

IPRH - Seven Years and Counting……

Passion is what drives us ahead

 What is research in homeopathy all about?


 We talk of research, but where to find that research?
 Is there anyway to link researchers and clinicians?
 Homeopathic research is expanding, is there any way it can be woven methodically?
 Is there any website to offer exclusive about research in homeopathy?
 Is there any way to help research grow in homeopathy?

These were some of the routine questions which used to bombard my head since I developed a
research interest in homeopathy. These intrigued my mind and affected my thoughts deeply.
Therefore, I decided to invest my energy and time to do “something” in research, “something”
productive, intuitive and open to the profession. The Initiative to Promote Research in
Homeopathy (IPRH) was founded to address these questions and today it is celebrating its seven-
year of existence, struggle, passion and foresight.

All these years, there have been challenges, issues and learnings, but one thing which
overpowered all of them is the passion. Passion is not what you see, follow or do, it is something
which drives you always. I thank all readers and followers of homeopathy for their support,
guidance, motivation, feedback and criticism that has kept my passion alive to run IPRH. I hope
this passion grows with time and IPRH growing to newer heights in coming years.

Dr. Saurav Arora

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Consolidated Report
Seven Years Seven Major Projects
1. Homeopathic Research Database
2. Research Updates – Homeopathy (Ejournal)
3. Priority Areas for Research in Homeopathy
4. Research Material Development
5. PHORECISS
6. Research Literacy
7. Surveys
8. And much more…..

Homeopathic Research Database


Total studies indexed till date 1080

Misc (Editorials and


Surveys, 54 Dentistry), 114 Homeopathic Research Database at IPRH.
Total studies indexed till Mar 2018: 1080
Primary Health Care,
18
Fundamental
Literary, 14 Research, 340

Agro
Homeopathy,
116

Veterinary and
Aquaculture, 131

Clinical Research,
261
Drug
Standardization, 18
Drug Proving, 14

Research Updates – Homeopathy (Ejournal)


Current issues: 7 Volume 1

Priority Areas for Research in Homeopathy


Total versions published – V 1.1, V 1.2 and V 1.3 (Nov 2016)

Research Material Development


 Levels of Research Education
 Writing Popular Articles in Homeopathy: Things You Need to Keep in Mind
 Key Domains To Excel in Homeopathic Clinical Practice and Research
 Application of high dilution in basic and allied homeopathic research: Glimpses of India’s
major contributions.
 Compendium of Articles Published in International Journal of High Dilution Research
published during 2008-2015
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 A Compendium of Abstracts of Studies on Extracts, Homeopathy, and High dilution! by


PROF AK KHUDA BUKHSH.
 Draft Template for Writing Homeopathic Clinical Trial Protocols – Version-I
 Data Record & Assessment Form For Treated Thyroid Disorders (DRAFTT) – Beta
Version
 Compendium of Homeopathic Open Access Articles Volume – II
 Compendium of Homeopathic Open Access Articles Volume – I
 Homeopathic Research And Cancer: A compilation of the key peer-reviewed citations
and bibliography: Volume 1

PHORECISS
Promotion of Homeopathic Research through Community Initiated and Supported Studies.

Research Literacy
 Popular writing in Homeopathy
 Research Sensitization in Homeopathy: Webinar
 Research Areas and Scholarly Publications
 Physico-chemical nature of Ultrahigh Dilutions
 Ultrahigh dilutions as Nanomedicines.
 Acute Alcohol Withdrawal and Homeopathy.
 How to write a clinical trial in homeopathy?
 Research Sensitization in Homeopathy
 Hypothyroidism: Enhancing Clinical Practice & Research
 Clinical Research in Clinics

Surveys
 Survey: How much we dispense as a Single Dose: Quantification of Dose in
Homeopathic Practice
 Usage of Nosodes in Homeopathic Practice
 Dietary intake in relation to effect of homeopathic medicines (Closed and Published)
 Do you support Homeopathy
 Homeopathic Research orientation.

And much more at www.researchinhomeopathy.org

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AN EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW
Why Case Reporting is Important in Homeopathy – An
Interview with Prof. Dr. C. Nayak

Prof. Dr. Chaturbhuja Nayak


By

Dr. Saurav Arora


Saurav Arora: Welcome to initiative to promote research in Homeopathy Sir. We would like to
know your first encounter with homeopathy and how you got interested in homeopathic teaching
and subsequently research?

Prof. C. Nayak: I was profoundly motivated to choose Homeopathy as my career, by my


brother-in-law Dr. Natabar Naik, a leading homeopathic practitioner of Orissa. After completion
of my D.H.M.S. course in Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Bhubaneswar, I joined a
homeopathic dispensary as Medical Officer (Homeopathy) under the Govt. of Orissa. Honestly
speaking, I found a little scope in this job to achieve my goal. Since I had an aptitude for teaching,
I joined as lecturer in Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Bhubaneswar. After a short period
of service, I got selected to study Dip. N.I.H. course at National Institute of Homoeopathy,
Kolkata. Here, I got an excellent exposure to homeopathic education, research and practice,
under the guidance of highly experienced and reputed teachers. Huge data obtained from a large
number of outdoor & indoor patients of the institute as well as regular weekly case presentations
& seminars presented by the students generated a lot of interest how to improve teaching and

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research in homoeopathy. After Dip. N.I.H. course, I resumed my job in the parent college where
I was subsequently promoted up to the post of Principal-cum-Superintendent. During my
student/teaching career, I got immense guidance from my teachers on how to improve teaching
for the practical benefit of the students in their future career. Since I had a tremendous weakness
towards literary activities including publications, I published articles on various aspects of
Homeopathy in medical/non-medical journals, magazines, souvenirs and newspapers for the
benefit of professionals as well as the common man. For the promotion of research in
Homeopathy, I took up research projects funded by Govt. of Orissa and Govt. of India.

In 2004, I joined as a Director (later re-designated as Director General) of Central Council for
Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) under Govt. of India, where my entire attention was focused
on various areas of research, like Drug Standardization, Drug Proving, Clinical Research, Clinical
Verification and Fundamental Research, as per the mandate of the Council.

SA: You have been in an active academics and homeopathic research for almost four decades?
What did you find more interesting and challenging- homeopathic research or teaching?

CN: For me, both teaching and research in homeopathy were interesting as well as challenging.
In order to improve the quality of teaching and research, I took initiative to organize
seminars/CME programs in Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College, Bhubaneswar, CCRH,
Bakson Homoeopathic Medical College and Homoeopathy University, Jaipur. While in CCRH,
although more time and attention was given for promotion of research, yet a large number of
publications in the form of books and monographs were made which aimed at improving the
quality of teaching.

SA: For the majority of us, academic teaching and research seem to be directionally opposite; is
there any tangent between them?

CN: Sorry, I do not subscribe to the statement that teaching and research are directionally
opposite. Both the areas are inter-related, interdependent and complementary to each other.
High-quality teaching helps in preparing standard protocols to conduct research while the
outcomes of good research studies disseminated through classroom lectures, make the teaching
more interesting, practical and useful. Each of the two areas has its own strengths and merits and
both should be promoted in private as well as public sector, to achieve excellence.

SA: Did you find any difficulty in converging academic teaching to homeopathic research or vice
versa?
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CN: No, I did not find any difficulty in converging academic teaching to homeopathic research
or vice versa, while working in Homeopathic colleges as well as CCRH. Rather, I tried to integrate
both the areas with the help of my colleagues and experts from other scientific organizations and
accomplished this through publications, seminars, workshops and CME programs. Being a
member of the Central Council of Homoeopathy (CCH) as well as member of its Education
Committee/PG Education Committee & Director General of CCRH, helped me to work for
integration of teaching and research, with the support of my colleagues of CCH, CCRH and three
homeopathic institutions at Bhubaneswar, Greater Noida and Jaipur.

SA: You have always been a preacher and supporter of homeopathic research. Can you briefly
explain the need for evidence-based research in homeopathy?

CN: As you are aware, there is a growing criticism against homoeopathy by some professionals,
scientists of other medical and allied disciplines, pharmaceuticals, organizations and media
(particularly certain journals). The scepticism against homoeopathy is mainly targeted at similia
principle; method of preparation and quality of medicines (dynamization, particularly highly
diluted medicines) and clinical effectiveness of homeopathy. To address such criticism and
scepticism, there is a great need of evidence-based research in homeopathy. Besides, evidence-
based research is required to further scientifically validate homeopathy, strengthen the concepts
stated in old homeopathic literature and to inculcate confidence in the minds of practitioners of
homeopathy, particularly the neophytes.

Secondly, there are some challenges/ weaknesses within our system of homeopathy, such as
various schools of thoughts (classical homeopathy, clinical homoeopathy, complex homoeopathy,
isopathy, tautopathy, etc.); low-quality medicines manufactured by some industries; poor
expertise, and sub-standard teaching/research etc.

Thirdly, there are some myths about homeopathy for which a part of population is reluctant to
get benefits of homeopathy.

Lastly, many peer-reviewed journals having high impact factor do not publish the outcomes of
research studies without sufficient evidence.

For all the aforesaid reasons, evidence-based research is the need of the hour.

SA: We have been motivated to practice evidence-based homeopathy, but many of us are not
very clear about what this evidence could comprise of? Is it the statement of patients, or reports
or scales? Can you briefly put your views on the same?
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CN: I am happy, your question covers the answer to a great extent. The evidence include
patients’ versions, laboratory reports relevant to their disease conditions as well as different
scales/questionnaires used for outcome assessment of the individual patients/ research studies.
Some of the scales/questionnaires are general in nature, i.e. can be applicable to various diseases,
to assess the scores (pre-/ post-treatment), e.g. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for assessing
intensity of pain etc., whereas some scales are disease-specific, i.e. Hamilton Depression Rating
Scale (HDRS) for Depression; International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) for Benign
Hypertrophy of Prostate; Sino-nasal Outcome Test (SNOT) for Chronic sinusitis; Conners’
Parent Rating Scale – Revised (CPRS-R) for ADHD, etc.

Besides, to assess the quality of life in different disease conditions, the general questionnaire
developed by WHO, i.e. WHOQOL – BREF can be adopted. Whereas to assess the quality of life
in specific disease condition like Rheumatoid arthritis, Quality of Life-Rheumatoid Arthritis
(QOL-RA) scale can be adopted.

SA: We have abundant case records with us, but the reciprocally limited number of publications?
What according to you can be the reasons?

CN: The main reason for a limited number of publications despite abundant case records is ill-
maintained case records with no or fewer evidence (pre-& post-evidences). Busy clinicians usually
record case histories of the patients in such a way that they are not suitable for publications.
Secondly, although some clinicians have reliable evidence, many of them do not show interest for
publication. Thirdly, even if some of the clinicians have both pieces of evidence and interest for
publication, they do not write case reports following standard international guidelines, as a result
such manuscripts are rejected by the journals.

SA: According to you, why we must publish case reports and case series?

CN: The publications of case reports and case series are essential for the following reasons:
 To present cases of unusual causation, a challenging differential diagnosis, a novel insight
into the pathogenesis of the problem, and puzzling clinical features.
 To describe improved or unique technical procedures for therapeutic as well as general
management of the patients.
 To present profile of a patient recorded following a standard case–recording format, as
per homoeopathic principles.
 To illustrate case-processing, according to the principles of Homoeopathy, which includes
analysis and evaluation of symptoms, miasmatic diagnosis, the totality of symptoms etc.
 To demonstrate the unique method (repertorial/non-repertorial) adopted for determining
the similimum for the patient.
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 To justify which potency, dosage & repetition schedule worked for the patient.
 To justify the first and subsequent prescriptions and present their responses.
 To make an original contribution to the literature.
 To stimulate further research and encourage authors for scholarly writing.
 To benefit the entire medical community and thereby the common man at large.
SA: Any recommended readings to learn more about case reporting and their importance in
homeopathy?

CN: While preparing such manuscripts, the authors should follow CARE guidelines (drafted
by CARE group consisting of 27 experts and published by 6 authors to develop, disseminate, and
implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports) & HOM-CASE guidelines
(modified CARE guidelines for developing a criteria catalog serving as a guideline for authors to
improve the quality of reporting clinical case reports in homoeopathy), for which yourself and Dr.
RK Manchanda from India have also contributed. Besides, my article titled “Case Reporting In
Homoeopathy: Why And How?”, published in the Souvenir of XXIV National Homoeopathic
Congress of Indian Institute of Homoeopathic Physician at Nagpur in 2016, may also be referred.
The different ways of documenting case series published in various standard medical journals
including homeopathy, should be followed.

SA: Your mantra to publish a good case report?

CN: There is no special mantra for publishing a good case report, but I would suggest that the
homeopathic institutions, as well as clinicians, should develop standard case recording formats for
documenting the profiles of the patients including their pre-/post-evidences, since there is no
uniformity in such formats at inter-/intra- university level, inter-/ intra college level. Some
institutions have adopted the case recording formats to document all types of cases, whereas
some others have developed disease-specific case recording formats. The Central Council of
Homoeopathy, the regulatory authority for ensuring quality education and practice in
homoeopathy should take initiative to recommend standard case recording format for
documenting profiles of the patients, in a scientific way.

Well-documented case reports/ case series adds to the acumen of physicians and benefit the
profession as well as patients at large. Such documents not only improve the knowledge of the
clinicians, teachers and students but also inculcate confidence in them for dealing with similar
cases in future.

SA: IPRH is thankful for your support and encouragement Sir.

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Short Biodata with Contact Details

Prof. Dr. C. Nayak is currently the President of the Homoeopathy University, Jaipur (Rajasthan);
Chairman of the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia Committee, Govt. of India; Chairman of Special
Committee on Fundamental Research & member of Special Committee on Clinical Research
under Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH); member of Drug Technical
Advisory Board (Homoeopathy), Govt. of India; Chairman of Scientific Advisory Committee of
Delhi Homoeopathy Anusandhan Parishad and Guide for P.G. & Ph.D. courses in Homeopathy.
Formerly, he was the Director General of CCRH, an autonomous organization of Ministry of
AYUSH, member of International Scientific Committee on Homoeopathic Investigations
(ISCHI), member of Education Committee & PG Education Committee of Central Council of
Homoeopathy, Director-Professor of Bakson Homoeopathic Medical College, Greater Noida and
Principal-cum-Superintendent of one pioneer Govt. Homoeopathic Medical College of Odisha
state. Last year, he was conferred with ‘Best Teacher Award’ by the CCRH, sponsored by the
Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India. Holding all these prestigious positions, Dr.Nayak has been
an instrumental personality in the development of homoeopathic education and research in India.
Dr. Nayak has always been supportive of scientific and academic activities in Homoeopathy in the
field of education and research.

If you are interested in receiving guidance from Dr. C. Nayak regarding publishing case
reports, you may contact him at drcbnayak@gmail.com
This interview may be accessed/downloaded online at
http://researchinhomeopathy.org/interview-cnayak/

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Popular Writing in Homeopathy

Below are some of the excerpts of the lecture by Dr. Saurav Arora on Popular Writing in
Homeopathy delivered at Bakson Homoeopathic Medical College and Homeopathy, Greater
NOIDA on 15th March 2018.

The writing always has a purpose and this depends upon our outlook towards writing i.e. it may
be for academic, social and personal reasons.

As soon as we become doctors, we start learning new dimensions and grow our experience and
gain expertise. Amidst these, sometime, there is an urge to share our learning (experiences) for
which either we write, share/re-share, post/re-post the popular articles.

We achieve this

 Either by conducting research and report


 Or report results of others (review articles)
 Or write popular articles
 Or read popular articles

Broadly, there is a difference between academic and popular writing but that doesn’t mean
academic writings are non-popular! Also, we seldom try to separate them and use them according
to their importance.

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What is Popular Writing Then?

It may be

 A Blog
 A social media post*
 An enewsletter article
 A general article
 A newsletter column
 A magazine article
 Etc.
 Writing Platforms
 E – media e.g. Blogs.

Formally Blog may be defined as a regularly updated website or web page, typically one run by an
individual or small group that is written in an informal or conversational style – Discussion –
Information – News

 Blogs may be self-hosted or hosted on other platforms.


 Blogs are easier to set, and even easier to run.
 Famous blogging engines include WordPress, Tumblr, Drupal, Zoomla etc.

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 Writing (Online as well as Print) Platforms


 Newsletters
 E-newsletters
 Magazines
 Journals (non peer-reviewed)

Popular Writing Apps

 Zoho Writer
 ProWriting
 Google Keep
 Evernote
 LibreOffice
 Writer
 etc.

We also need to understand that there is a difference between posting and publishing.

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For example, just writing a piece of information and posting on social media is not considered a
publication.

On the other hand

 Picking and Idea


 Doing some homework (actual data collection or fact collection)
 And getting it printed/published or posted at an appropriate channel is considered a
publication!

It is a journey from idea to success through planning and strategy.

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Challenges

 Lack of guidance
 Lack of momentum
 Lack of time/Patience
 Lack of knowledge

Way Out

 Be truthful! Truthful to what we can write and what we can’t!


 Ghost writing must not be practiced.
 Update yourself with latest tools, techniques and technology.
 Read…. Read…. and Read. “Reading Gives us Peace of Mind and A Piece of Idea Too!”
 Pick an idea which is of interest to “Public” or which is the “Need of Hour”
 Dedicate a part of your practice to writing! and Don’t expect magic
 Choose an appropriate publication platform. E or Print or both
 Be open for collaborations and teamwork!
 Get yourself exposed to basic statistics
 But be aware from “too much” self-proclamation.
 Publish a work and then post/re-post/share/re-share on social media and not vice-versa!
 Give proper citations and source of your information.
 Don’t Invent Information, Discover and Spread it for a Cause!

This is the way we learn, gain expertise, and write popular article.

Guidelines

When it is so popular and easy, do we really need guidelines?

Yes! We have guidelines and we must abide to them.

Link to article: https://researchinhomeopathy.org/popularwriting/

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Isupporthomeopathy - A Global Campaign on World Homeopathy Day


Be A Voice
Like every year we will be celebrating the World Homeopathy Day on 10th April 2018 with a
great zeal and dedication, but how many of us know that there is a constant onslaught against
Homeopathy from every nook and corner of the World. The time has come when we must come
forward to show our Unity in Diversity and say aloud isupporthomeopathy.

#isupporthomeopathy symbolizes the enthusiasm and love towards homeopathy. It doesn’t


matter which background, ethnicity or school we belong to, but it matters how we express our
feeling towards homeopathy.

What is #isupporthomeopathy?
It is a global awareness campaign to show our unity and support for homeopathy. It is a voice to
create an awareness amongst general public regarding homeopathy.

How can #isupporthomeopathy?


I request you to join hands and show your love to Homeopathy on this World Homeopathy Day
i.e 10th April 2018 and

 Update your social media wall (website/Facebook/Twitter/Instagram/etc.) with the


hashtag #isupporthomeopathy
 Tag your posts, activities, and friends using #isupporthomeopathy
 Display the “isupporthomeopathy Banner” at your clinic/workplace and click a pic to
upload on social media with the hashtag #isupporthomeopathy (Download the
isupporthomeopathy high-resolution image here.)

One hashtag matters when it becomes our collective voice!


Let the World Knows our Love, Passion, and Respect towards Homeopathy

When to post #isupporthomeopathy?


10th April 2018 – World Homeopathy Day

Who can post #isupporthomeopathy?


Everyone! Encourage your friends, family, colleagues, and patients to support this campaign.

How to Keep Updated?


Join the campaign and share it with your friends, family, colleagues, and patients and ask them to
post #isupporthomeopathy on 10th April 2018. To keep yourself updated please follow the
official IPRH FB/Twitter and Instagram pages @homeoresearch

EXTERNAL LINKS for Your Calendar


FACEBOOK EVENT: https://www.facebook.com/events/909509605889945/

EVENTBRITE: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/isupporthomeopathy-global-homeopathy-
awareness-campaign-tickets-44570954926

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Studies to be Read
Abstracts of peer-reviewed studies published during Jan – Mar 2018. The original links are
provided with each article. For citations, original links, authors and journals should be referred.

Fundamental Research
Physicochemical Investigations of Homeopathic Preparations: A Systematic
Review and Bibliometric Analysis-Part 1.
J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Jan 29. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0249.

Abstract
Objectives: The last systematic review of physicochemical research performed on homeopathic
preparations was published in 2003. The aim of the study is to update and expand the current
state of knowledge in the area of physicochemical properties of homeopathic preparations. In
part 1 of the study, we aim to present an overview of the literature with respect to publication
quality and methods used. In part 2, we aim to identify the most interesting experimental
techniques. With this, we aim to be in a position to generate meaningful hypotheses regarding a
possible mode of action of homeopathic preparations.

Methods: A two-step procedure was adopted: (1) an extensive literature search, followed by a
bibliometric and quality analysis on the level of publications and (2) a thorough qualitative
analysis of the individual physicochemical investigations found. In this publication, we report on
step (1). We searched major scientific databases to find publications reporting physicochemical
investigations of homeopathy from its origin to the end of 2015. Publications were assessed using
a scoring scheme, the Manuscript Information Score (MIS). Information regarding country of
origin of the research and experimental techniques used was extracted.

Results: We identified 183 publications (compared to 44 in the last review), 122 of which had an
MIS ≥5. The rate of publication in the field was ∼2 per year from the 1970s until 2000.
Afterward, it increased to over 5.5 publications per year. The quality of publications was seen to
increase sharply from 2000 onward, whereas before 2000, only 12 (13%) publications were rated
as "high quality" (MIS ≥7.5); 44 (48%) publications were rated as "high quality" from 2000
onward. Countries with most publications were Germany (n = 42, 23%), France (n = 29, 16%),
India (n = 27, 15%), and Italy (n = 26, 14%). Techniques most frequently used were electrical
impedance (26%), analytical methods (20%), spectroscopy (20%), and nuclear magnetic
resonance (19%).

Conclusions: Physicochemical research into homeopathic preparations is increasing both in


terms of quantity and quality of the publications.

Keywords: homeopathy, physics, serially diluted and agitated solutions, systematic review, ultrahigh
aqueous dilutions, very high dilutions

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29377709

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Development of Software for Automatic Analysis of Intervention in the Field


of Homeopathy.
J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Jan 22. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0157.

Abstract
Objective: To study the effect of homeopathic medicines (in higher potencies) in normal
subjects, Peripheral Pulse Analyzer (PPA) has been used to record physiologic variability
parameters before and after administration of the medicine/placebo in 210 normal subjects.

Methods: Data have been acquired in seven rounds; placebo was administered in rounds 1 and 2
and medicine in potencies 6, 30, 200, 1 M, and 10 M was administered in rounds 3 to 7,
respectively. Five different medicines in the said potencies were given to a group of around 40
subjects each. Although processing of data required human intervention, a software application
has been developed to analyze the processed data and detect the response to eliminate the undue
delay as well as human bias in subjective analysis. This utility named Automatic Analysis of
Intervention in the Field of Homeopathy is run on the processed PPA data and the outcome has
been compared with the manual analysis. The application software uses adaptive threshold based
on statistics for detecting responses in contrast to fixed threshold used in manual analysis.

Results: The automatic analysis has detected 12.96% higher responses than subjective analysis.
Higher response rates have been manually verified to be true positive. This indicates robustness
of the application software. The automatic analysis software was run on another set of pulse
harmonic parameters derived from the same data set to study cardiovascular susceptibility and
385 responses were detected in contrast to 272 of variability parameters. It was observed that
65% of the subjects, eliciting response, were common.

Conclusion: This not only validates the software utility for giving consistent yield but also
reveals the certainty of the response. This development may lead to electronic proving of
homeopathic medicines (e-proving).

Keywords: Peripheral Pulse Analyzer, automatic interventional analysis, homeopathic medicines,


physiologic variability, pulse harmonic analysis

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29356554

Phosphorus protects cardiac tissue by modifying the immune response in


rats infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.
Cytokine. 2018 Feb;102:102-106. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2017.07.017.

Abstract
Aim: This study evaluates and correlates the number of myocarditis focuses and production of
cytokines in Rattus norvegicus (Wistar lineage), experimentally infected with T. Cruzi and treated
with Phosphorus.

Methods: In two blind, controlled and randomized trials, 53 45-day-old, male animals were
allocated into groups Control (n=24): Control group infected and treated with 7% hydroalcoholic
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solution, the preparation vehicle of the test medication; and Phosphorus (n=24 on days 0, 5, 10
and 24 after infection): group infected and treated with Phosphorus 13cH, diluted 10-26 and
dynamized (test medication). The animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5×106 blood
trypomastigotes of T. cruzi-Y strain. The medication was administered overnight (16 consecutive
hours), diluted in water (1mL/100mL) in amber water bottles. The animals were treated 2days
before and 2, 4, and 6days after infection. Enumeration of inflammatory foci in cardiac tissue
(Hematoxylin-Eosin) and dosage of cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in the serum were performed
on days 0, 5, 10 and 24 after infection, using three animals/group. Mann-Whitney, Friedman
ANOVA, Spearman correlation (p<0.05), and Statistica Single User Software version 13.2 were
used for data analysis.

Results: The animals treated with Phosphorus 13cH had high concentration of INF-ɣ on the 5th
day of infection with significant decrease on the 10th and 24th days (p<0.05), and high
concentration of TNF-α on the 5th and 10th days of infection with decrease on the 24th day
(p<0.05). The treatment with Phosphorus caused a significant increase of INF-ɣ and TNF-α on
the 5th day of infection compared with the Control (p<0.05), with reestablishment on the 24th
day, as well as in the Control group. The group treated with Phosphorus had 52.5% less number
of myocarditis focuses in heart than Control group (p<0.05) on the 10th day of infection. The
significant increase in cytokines on the5th day of infection in the Phosphorus group is related to
a significant decrease in the number of inflammatory foci in cardiac tissue on the 10th day of
infection in this group.

Discussion and Conclusion: Treatment with Phosphorus 13cH promotes beneficial effects in
T. cruzi infection in Wistar rats by modulating the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α with decreased
inflammation in cardiac tissue. These results reinforce the importance of considering the use of
homeopathy for establishing new therapeutic approaches in the management of patients with
Chagas disease.

Keywords: Cytokines, IFN-γ, Phosphorus, TNF-α, Trypanosoma cruzi

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28738234

Formulation and biological actions of nano-bioglass ceramic particles doped


with Calcarea phosphorica for bone tissue engineering.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2018 Feb 1;83:202-209. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.08.077

Abstract
The improvisation of the treatment procedures for treating the various kind of bone defects such
as, bone or dental trauma and for diseases such as osteoporosis, osteomyelitis etc., need the
suitable and promising biomaterials with resemblance of bone components. Bioactive glass
ceramic (BGC) has recently acquired great attention as the most promising biomaterials; hence it
has been widely applied as a filler material for bone tissue regeneration. Because it elicits specific
biological responses after implantation in addition more potential in formation of strong interface
with both hard and soft tissues by dissolution of calcium and phosphate ions. Hence, the current
focus in treating the bone defects by orchestrating the biomaterial in combination of alternative
medicine such as homeopathic remedies with biomaterials to prevent the adverse effects at
minimal concentrations. So the current study was focused on constructing the nano-bioglass
ceramic particles (nBGC) doped with novel homeopathic remedy Calcarea phosphorica for
dental and bone therapeutic implants. The nBGC particles were synthesized by sol-gel method
and reinforced with commercially available Calcarea phosphorica. The synthesized particles were
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characterized by SEM, DLS, EDS, FT-IR, and XRD studies. The SEM and DLS were shown the
size of the particles at nano scale, also the EDS, and FT-IR investigations indicated that the
Calcarea phosphorica was integrated with nBGC particles and also the crystalline nature of
particles was confirmed by XRD studies. Both nBGC and Calcarea phosphorica doped nBGC
(CP-nBGC) were found to be non toxic to mouse mesenchymal stem cells at lower
concentrations and also illustrated the better bone forming ability in vitro.

Keywords: Bioglass ceramics, Bone formation and bone tissue engineering, Calcarea
phosphorica, Sol-gel

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29208280

Degree of Response to Homeopathic Potencies Correlates with Dipole


Moment Size in Molecular Detectors: Implications for Understanding the
Fundamental Nature of Serially Diluted and Succussed Solutions
Homeopathy 2018; 107(01): 019-031

Abstract
Background: The use of solvatochromic dyes to investigate homeopathic potencies holds out
the promise of understanding the nature of serially succussed and diluted solutions at a
fundamental physicochemical level. Recent studies have shown that a range of different dyes
interact with potencies and, moreover, the nature of the interaction is beginning to allow certain
specific characteristics of potencies to be delineated.

Aims and Methods: The study reported in this article takes previous investigations further and
aims to understand more about the nature of the interaction between potencies and
solvatochromic dyes. To this end, the UV-visible spectra of a wide range of potential detectors of
potencies have been examined using methodologies previously described.

Results: Results presented demonstrate that solvatochromic dyes are a sub-group of a larger
class of compounds capable of demonstrating interactions with potencies. In particular, amino
acids containing an aromatic bridge also show marked optical changes in the presence of
potencies. Several specific features of molecular detectors can now be shown to be necessary for
significant interactions with homeopathic potencies. These include systems with a large dipole
moment, electron delocalisation, polarizability and molecular rigidity.

Conclusions: Analysis of the optical changes occurring on interaction with potencies suggests
that in all cases potencies increase the polarity of molecular detectors to a degree that correlates
with the size of the compound's permanent or ground dipole moment. These results can be
explained by inferring that potencies themselves have polarity. Possible candidates for the identity
of potencies, based on these and previously reported results, are discussed.

Keywords: solvatochromic dyes, aromatic bridged amino acids, molecular detectors, dipole
moments, homeopathic potencies

Link to study: https://www.thieme-


connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0037-1617448
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Evidence that Extreme Dilutions of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel Alter Gene


Expression of In Vitro Breast Cancer Cells
Homeopathy 2018; 107(01): 032-039

Abstract
Background: Gene expression analysis of cells treated with extreme dilutions or micro amounts
of drugs has been used to provide useful suggestions about biological responses. However, most
of the previous studies were performed on medicines being prepared from a variety of herbal and
metal sources. This study investigated the effects of ultramolecular dilution of the taxane anti-
cancer drugs, which are not commonly used in homeopathic medicines, on mRNA expression
profiles of five key genes (p53, p21, COX-2, TUBB2A and TUBB3) in the breast cancer cell line
MCF-7.

Method: MCF-7 cells were exposed to paclitaxel (Taxol) or docetaxel (Taxotere) preparations
(6X, 5C and 15C dilutions prepared from pharmacological concentration of 25 nmol/L) for 72
hours. The cell culture groups were evaluated with the trypan blue dye exclusion method for the
proliferation/cytotoxicity rates, immuno-staining β-tubulin for microtubule organization, and
reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for gene expression levels.Fold-change in gene
expression was determined by the ΔΔCt method.

Results: The administration of diluted preparations had little or no cytotoxic effect on MCF-7
cells, but altered the expression of genes analyzed with a complex effect. According to the ΔΔCt
method with a five-fold expression difference (p < 0.05) as a cut-off level, ultra-high dilutions of
paclitaxel and docetaxel showed differential effects on the studied genes with a concentration-
independent activity. Furthermore, the dilutions disrupted the microtubule structure of MCF-7
cells, suggesting that they retain their biological activity.

Conclusion: Despite some limitations, our findings demonstrate that gene expression alterations
also occur with ultra-high dilutions of taxane drugs.

Keywords: homeopathy, gene expression, taxane, paclitaxel, docetaxel, MCF-7

Link to study: https://www.thieme-


connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0037-1618585

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Clinical Research
Efficacy of Arsenicum album 30cH in preventing febrile episodes following
DPT-HepB-Polio vaccination - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-
controlled clinical trial.
Complement Ther Med. 2018 Feb; 36:59-62. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2017.11.020.

Abstract
Background: Among the post-immunization adverse events, especially of Diphtheria-Pertusis-
Tetanus (DPT), fever is a common systemic reaction. There is anecdotal support for the use of
the homeopathic medicine Arsenicum album in preventing post-vaccination fever. The
investigators intended to evaluate its efficacy in preventing febrile episodes following vaccination.

Methods: In the community medicine out-patient of Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathic


Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal, India, between August 2014 and January 2017, a
double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 children (verum: 60,
placebo: 60) who presented for the 2nd and 3rd dose of DPT-HepB-Polio vaccination and
reported febrile episodes following the 1st dose. Intervention used was Arsenicum album 30cH 6
doses or placebo (indistinguishable from verum), thrice daily for two subsequent days. Parents
were advised to report any event of febrile attacks within 48h of vaccination, either directly or
over telephone.

Results: The groups were comparable at baseline. Children reporting fever after the 2nd dose
was 29.8% and 30.4% respectively for the homeopathy group and control group respectively
[Relative Risk (RR)=1.008] with no significant difference (P=0.951) between groups. Again after
the 3rd dose, children reporting fever were 31.5% and 28.3% respectively for the homeopathy
group and control group respectively (RR=0.956) with no significant difference (P=0.719)
between groups.

Conclusion: Empirically selected Arsenicum album 30cH could not produce differentiable effect
from placebo in preventing febrile episodes following DPT-HepB-Polio vaccination. [Trial
registration: CTRI/2017/02/007939].

Keywords: Arsenicum album, Efficacy, Fever, Homeopathy, Vaccination

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29458932

Efficacy and tolerability of a complex homeopathic drug in children


suffering from dry cough-A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.
Drug Res (Stuttg). 2018 Mar 20. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-124179.

Abstract
Background: A randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial in children suffering from acute dry
cough was performed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a complex homeopathic drug
(Drosera, Coccus cacti, Cuprum Sulfuricum, Ipecacuanha=Monapax syrup, short: verum).

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Methods: 89 children received verum and 91 received placebo daily for 7 days (age groups 0.5-3,
4-7 and 8-12 years). The primary efficacy variable was the improvement of the Cough
Assessment Score. Tolerability and compliance were also assessed. A confirmatory statistical
analysis was performed for the primary efficacy variable and a descriptive analysis for the
secondary parameters.

Results: The Cough Assessment Score showed an improvement of 5.2±2.6 points for children
treated with verum and 3.2±2.6 points in the placebo group (p<0.0001). The difference of the
least square means of the improvements was 1.9±0.4. The effect size of Cohen´s d was d=0.77.
In all secondary parameters the patients in the verum group showed higher rates of improvement
and remission than those in the placebo group. In 15 patients (verum: n=6; placebo: n=9) 18
adverse drug reactions of mild or moderate intensity were observed.

Conclusions: Administering verum resulted in a statistically significantly greater improvement of


the Cough Assessment Score than the placebo. The tolerability was good and not inferior to that
of the placebo.

Keywords: Homeopathy, cough

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29558782

Semi-Individualized Homeopathy Add-On Versus Usual Care Only for


Premenstrual Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Feasibility Study.
J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Mar 22. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0388.

Abstract
Objectives: Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD) bother
a substantial number of women. Homeopathy seems a promising treatment, but it needs
investigation using reliable study designs. The feasibility of organizing an international
randomized pragmatic trial on a homeopathic add-on treatment (usual care [UC] + HT)
compared with UC alone was evaluated.

Design: A multicenter, randomized, controlled pragmatic trial with parallel groups.

Settings/Location: The study was organized in general and private homeopathic practices in the
Netherlands and Sweden and in an outpatient university clinic in Germany.

Subjects: Women diagnosed as having PMS/PMDD, based on prospective daily rating by the
daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) during a period of 2 months, were included and
randomized.

Interventions: Women were to receive UC + HT or UC for 4 months. Homeopathic medicine


selection was according to a previously tested prognostic questionnaire and electronic algorithm.
Usual care was as provided by the women's general practitioner according to their preferences.

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Outcome Measures: Before and after treatment, the women completed diaries (DRSP), the
measure yourself concerns and well-being, and other questionnaires. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and
per protocol (PP) analyses were performed.

Results: In Germany, the study could not proceed because of legal limitations. In Sweden,
recruitment proved extremely difficult. In the Netherlands and Sweden, 60 women were
randomized (UC + HT: 28; UC: 32), data of 47/46 women were analyzed (ITT/PP). After 4
months, relative mean change of DRSP scores in the UC + HT group was significantly better
than in the UC group (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: With respect to recruitment and different legal status, it does not seem feasible to
perform a larger, international, pragmatic randomized trial on (semi-)individualized homeopathy
for PMS/PMDD. Since the added value of HT compared with UC was demonstrated by
significant differences in symptom score changes, further studies are warranted.

Keywords: PMS/PMDD, homeopathy, pragmatic trials, premenstrual, randomized clinical trials

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29565636

Case Reports of Acne and Homeopathy.


Complement Med Res. 2018;25(1):52-55. doi: 10.1159/000486309. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Abstract
Background: Acne vulgaris is a self-limiting disorder of the pilosebaceous unit. The aesthetic
aspect of the disorder may provoke depression and diminish the quality of life. A number of
agents are used for acne treatment, e.g., retinoids, antibiotics, benzoic acid, azelaic acid, and
hormones. These agents have side-effects, sometimes severe ones.

Case reports: Presented are 2 cases of severe acne treated with individualized homeopathic
medicines. Both patients were treated using the classical method of homeopathy, i.e., a single
medicine based on the patient's individual characteristics was prescribed. The cases were
documented photographically at onset and during the course of treatment. Both patients went
into remission following treatment, and long-term follow-up suggested that the therapy remained
efficacious long after cessation of treatment. No significant side effects were noted.
Conclusions: Homeopathic medicines may be useful as stand-alone treatment of patients with
severe acne vulgaris. A case series suggested a remission rate of more than 80% using
individualized homeopathic treatment. The treatment remained efficacious long after cessation
and is not accompanied by significant side-effects. It is to be hoped that this presentation will
stimulate research interest into homeopathic medicines as stand-alone or adjunct treatments of
acne.

Keywords: Acne, Complementary medicine, Homeopathic medicine, Homeopathy, Natrum


muriaticum, Palladium metallicum
Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29490312

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Usefulness of classical homeopathy for the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary


tract infections in individuals with chronic neurogenic lower urinary tract
dysfunction.
J Spinal Cord Med. 2018 Feb 27:1-11. doi: 10.1080/10790268.2018.1440692

Abstract
Context/Objective to investigate the usefulness of classical homeopathy for the prevention of
recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design
prospective study. Setting rehabilitation center in Switzerland. Participants patients with chronic
SCI and ≥3 UTI/year. Interventions Participants were treated either with a standardized
prophylaxis alone or in combination with homeopathy. Outcome measures The number of UTI,
general and specific quality of life (QoL), and satisfaction with homeopathic treatment were
assessed prospectively for one year. Results Ten patients were in the control group; 25 patients
received adjunctive homeopathic treatment. The median number of self-reported UTI in the
homeopathy group decreased significantly, whereas it remained unchanged in the control group.
The domain incontinence impact of the KHQ improved significantly (P = 0.035), whereas the
general QoL did not change. The satisfaction with homeopathic care was high. Conclusions
Adjunctive homeopathic treatment lead to a significant decrease of UTI in SCI patients.
Therefore, classical homeopathy could be considered in SCI patients with recurrent UTI. Trial
registration ClinicalTrials.gov. (NCT01477502).

Keywords: Homeopathy; Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction; Spinal cord injury; Urinary
tract infection

Link to study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29485355

Review
Bias and misleading concepts in an Arnica research study. Comments to
improve experimental Homeopathy
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. Available online 26 February 2018.

Abstract
Basic experimental models in Homeopathy are of major interest because they could get insightful
data about the ability of high dilutions to work in a biological system. Due to the extreme
difficulty in the highlighting any possible effect and trusting its reliability, methods should be
particularly stringent and highly standardized. Confounders, handling process, pre-analytical
errors, misleading statistics and misinterpretations may lead to experimental biases. This article
tries to elucidate those factors causing bias, taking into account some recent reported evidence in
the field.

Keywords: Arnica montana, homeopathy,


Link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S097594761630482X?via%3Dihub

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Arnica montana experimental studies: confounders and biases?


J Integr Med. 2018 Mar;16(2):72-76. doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.01.001.

Abstract
Arnica montana is a popular traditional remedy widely used in complementary and alternative
medicine, in part for its wound-healing properties. The authors recently showed that this plant
extract and several of its homeopathic dilutions are able to modify the expression of a series of
genes involved in inflammation and connective tissue regeneration. Their studies opened a
debate, including criticisms to the "errors" in the methods used and the "confounders and
biases". Here the authors show that the criticisms raised on methodology and statistics are not
consistent and cannot be considered pertinent. The present comment also updates and reviews
information concerning the action of A. montana dilutions in human macrophage cells while
summarizing the major experimental advances reported on this interesting medicinal plant.

Keywords: Arnica montana, Ethanol, Gene expression, Statistics

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29526239

Experimental neuropharmacology of Gelsemium sempervirens: Recent


advances and debated issues.
J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2018 Feb 7. pii: S0975-9476(16)30504-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaim.2017.01.010.

Abstract
Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties
and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models
was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic
power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. In vitro investigation of extremely low
doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These
studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed
by further experimental studies from various laboratories. Toxic doses of Gelsemium cause
neurological signs characterized by marked weakness and convulsions, while ultra-low doses or
high Homeopathic dilutions counteract seizures induced by lithium and pilocarpine, decrease
anxiety after stress and increases the anti-stress allopregnanolone hormone, through glycine
receptors. Low (non-Homeopathic) doses of this plant or its alkaloids decrease neuropathic pain
and c-Fos expression in mice brain and oxidative stress. Due to the complexity of the matter,
several aspects deserve interpretation and the main controversial topics, with a focus on the
issues of high dilution pharmacology, are discussed and clarified.

Keywords: Animal models, Anxiety, Behavior, Gelsemium sempervirens, Gene expression,


Homeopathic medicine, Neurocytes

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29428604
The N-of-1 Clinical Trial: A Timely Research Opportunity in Homeopathy.
Homeopathy 2018; 107(01): 010-018

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Abstract
Background: The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is considered the ‘gold standard’ for
establishing treatment efficacy or effectiveness of an intervention, but its data do not infer
response in an individual patient. Individualised clinical care, a fundamental principle in
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including homeopathy, seems well disposed in
principle to being researched by single-patient (N-of-1) study design. Guidelines for reporting N-
of-1 trials have recently been developed.

Objective: To overview the current status in the literature of the N-of-1 method and its
application in medicine, including CAM. To consider whether the N-of-1 trial design offers an
opportunity for novel research in homeopathy.

N-of-1 Trial Design: The N-of-1 trial applies the principles of the conventional crossover,
blinded, RCT design. The treatment under study and the comparator are repeated in a
randomised order, and with suitable washout time, over a defined period. N-of-1 design is
constrained for use in chronic stable conditions, and for interventions that have quick onset and
cessation of effect, with modest or negligible carryover. Outcome data can be aggregated and
interpreted for the individual subject; they can also be pooled with data from several similar N-
of-1 trials, enabling more generalisable conclusions. The N-of-1 Trial in CAM The typical
individualisation of patient care can be accommodated in N-of-1 study design if the patient and
the specific therapeutic intervention are selected within the constraints of the method.
Application of the N-of-1 method in CAM has been advocated but has been mainly limited, in
practice, to a small number of studies in herbal and traditional Chinese medicine.

The N-of-1 Trial in Homeopathy: Individualised homeopathy can be accommodated for


investigation within the same methodological constraints; less in-depth homeopathic approaches
to prescribing are also amendable to investigation using the N-of-1 method. No such studies
have been published. We identify three main targets in its ready applicability to homeopathy: (1)
to optimise clinical care in an individual patient; (2) to investigate whether the outcomes of
treatment using homeopathy differ from those of placebo; (3) to aggregate data from a series of
N-of-1 trials to enable broader conclusions about a group of patients or intervention.

Conclusion: The N-of-1 trial design offers important new investigative possibilities in
homeopathy and should be explored as a means to optimise individualised health care or
investigate effectiveness of the homeopathic intervention compared with placebo in individual
subjects.
Keywords: complementary and alternative medicine, homeopathy, N-of-1 trial, single-patient
trial, research methods

Link: https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0037-
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Public Health
Homeopathy Use in the United States and Implications for Public Health: A
Review.
Homeopathy 2018; 107(01): 003-009
Abstract
Homeopathy is used by just over 2% of the U.S. population, predominantly for respiratory,
otorhinolaryngology, and musculoskeletal complaints. Individual users who see a homeopathic
provider for care are more likely to perceive the therapy as helpful than those who do not;
however, only 19% of users in the United States see a provider. The rest presumably rely upon
over-the-counter products. Recent clinical trials highlight several areas in which homeopathy may
play a role in improving public health, including infectious diseases, pain management, mental
health, and cancer care. This review examines recent studies in these fields, studies assessing costs
associated with homeopathic care, safety, and regulations in the United States. Data suggest the
potential for public health benefit from homeopathy, especially for conditions such as upper
respiratory infections and fibromyalgia.

Keywords: homeopathy, public health, review, respiratory tract infections, fibromyalgia

Link: https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0037-
1609016

Literary Research
Homeopathic Dilutions, Hahnemann Principles, and the Solvent Issue:
Must We Address Ethanol as a “Homeopathic” or a “Chemical” Issue?
Homeopathy 2018; 107(01): 040-044

Abstract
Introduction: Homeopathic remedies usually contain a significant amount of ethanol as a co-
solvent with water, a pharmaceutical formulation that may raise some concern when remedies are
tested in vitro or in laboratory animals, due to the assessed toxicity of ethanol on cell cultures and
organisms. The amount of alcohol in a homeopathic remedy is adjusted following the different
homeopathic pharmacopoeias but it is rarely below 30% v/v, which is a molar mass established
to meet both Hahnemann's traditional heritage and the hypothetical role of ethanol in
“imprinting” water, through the formation of nanobubbles, with the homeopathic activity of the
remedy.

Aims: This article aims at discussing the role of ethanol in homeopathic dilutions and how its
chemical nature should affect the experimental approach in homeopathy.

Issues Under Debate: While the content of ethanol in a homeopathic remedy should be as low
as 20% v/v, which is a molar fraction able to catalyze the formation of nanobubbles in a
dynamized alcohol–water dilution, this amount raises concern about ethanol toxicology in the
experimental research with laboratory animals or in vitro. Several authors diluted 1:100 ethanol
30% v/v from their tested homeopathic dilutions with distilled water to prevent the cytotoxic
effect of the alcohol, but in doing so, they probably reduced the ability of ethanol (now 0.3%
v/v) to induce the formation of nanobubbles, thus probably affecting the homeopathic property

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Research Updates – Homeopathy | ISSN 2278-4500

of the same dilution. This may generate concerns about how to manage an experimental setting,
to meet both the “chemical” nature of ethanol and its role in “homeopathy,” an issue that is
discussed in the article.

Conclusion: Any author working with homeopathic dilutions containing a molar fraction of
ethanol higher than 20% should take into account the fact that ethanol is cytotoxic and may be a
catalyst to the formation of nanobubbles, and so should adjust the experimental approach
accordingly.

Keywords: ethanol, homeopathy, nanobubbles, experimental approach

Link: https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0037-
1608898

Research Quotes by IPRH

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Interview of Dr. Saurav Arora by Dr. Isabelle Grote

https://www.spreaker.com/user/talk4media/dr-isabelles-rant-02-23-2018

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